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Final Review States Test Review 1. Describe a solid in terms of shape and volume 2. Describe a liquid in terms of shape and volume 3. Describe a gas in terms of shape and volume 4. What is state? 5. As a solid heats up and changes into a liquid, describe what is happening at the molecular level. 6. Describe the differences between states of matter in terms of molecular movement and energy. 7. What is heat of fusion? 8. What is heat of vaporization? 9. You record the temperature as you heat a cup of water from 20° C to boiling. You let the water boil for several minutes. Draw a temperature vs. time graph of what your recorded temperatures would look like. 10. You record the temperature as you cool off a cup of kool-aid from 20° C to well below freezing. You notice the temperature goes down until it reaches 0° C, then it stays there for awhile, then it starts going down again. Explain what is going on in terms of the Kinetic Molecular Theory. 11. Which is greater, the heat of fusion or heat of vaporization? Why? 12. You measure the volume of a balloon in your classroom, and then take it outside, where it is -5° C. What happens to the volume? At the molecular level, what caused this change in volume? 13. You measure the mass of a balloon in your classroom, and then take it outside, where it is -5° C. What happens to the mass? 14. You measure the density of a balloon in your classroom, and then take it outside, where it is -5° C. What happens to the density? Explain the details… 15. Why does a hot air balloon rise? 16. What happens at absolute zero? What is its numerical value? 17. Does air take up space? How do you know? 18. I double the temperature of the gas in a balloon. What happens to the volume of the balloon? 19. Water freezes at 32° F. What is this temperature in °C and K? 20. Water boils at 212° F. What is this temperature in °C and K? 21. What is air pressure? 22. What causes air pressure? 23. How much air pressure is pushing on you? 24. I am trying to get a hard-boiled, shelled egg into a 1000ml flask without cutting or breaking anything. How can I do it? Why does this work? 25. What happens to air pressure when the wind is blowing? 26. Draw a cutaway view of a wing. Label where the airspeed is fast and slower. Label where the air pressure is more and less. Explain why a wing makes an airplane fly. 27. In terms of energy, what must happen to water in order for it to evaporate? Explain in terms of the kinetic molecular theory. 28. If I put an evaporating drop of alcohol on your wrist, what would it feel like? Why? 29. What is water pressure? 30. Name a variable that affects water pressure. 31. Which would have more water pressure…4 meters underwater in the Huron River, or 4 meters underwater in the Pacific Ocean? Explain. 32. What happens to the weight of something you put in water? 33. What is Archimedes’ Principle? 34. Why does a 2 g. penny sink, but a 750,000,000,000,000,000,000 g. ship float? 35. Which is denser, a hot air balloon, or a balloon filled with cold air? Explain why one floats in air, and one doesn’t, in terms of Archimedes’ Principle. Elements, Mixtures and Compounds Test Review 1. What is an element? (2) 2. How could you tell if a substance was an element? (2) 3. Write the symbol of the following elements: (10) a. lead b. strontium c. silver d. plutonium e. tungsten 4. Write the name of the following elements: (10) a. Md b. Mo c. Mg d. Mn e. Ho 5. What is a physical property? (2) 6. Name five categories of physical properties (like “taste”…you can’t use that one). (2) 7. What is a mixture? (2) 8. Name three physical means to separate a mixture. (2) 9. What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give an example of each. (6) 10. Identify the following as mixtures or compounds and explain your reasoning: (10) a. Raisin Bran b. brown sugar c. dirty laundry d. kool-aid e. iodized salt 11. Give an example of how you can change a mixture into a compound. (2) 12. How is a colloid different from a solution? (2) 13. How is a suspension different from a colloid? (2) 14. How is a solution different from a suspension? (2) 15. Classify the following mixtures as suspensions, colloids or solutions: (10) a. milk b. lightly salted water c. air d. chocolate milk with too much chocolate powder in it e. smoky air (the smoke doesn’t settle) 16. What is a compound? (2) 17. What is a chemical change? (2) 18. What is a physical change? (2) 19. What are some signs of a chemical change? (2) 20. What is the difference between a chemical and physical property? (2) 21. Give an example of a chemical property. (2) 22. Give an example of a physical property. (2) 23. List three physical changes. (2) 24. List three chemical changes. (2) 25. In an atom, describe where protons, neutrons and electrons are. (2) 26. In an atom, describe the electric charges of protons, neutrons and electrons. (2) 27. Describe the relative sizes of protons, neutrons and electrons. (2) 28. Draw the Bohr Models of hydrogen, beryllium, fluorine, aluminum and mercury. (25) 29. How are families arranged on the periodic table? How do they behave? (4) 30. What is an isotope? (2) 31. How are isotopes of the same element different? How are they similar? (4) 32. Draw the electron dot diagram for the following elements: (10) a. hydrogen f. bismuth b. manganese g. gold c. uranium h. potassium d. argon i. iodine e. lithium j. oxygen 33. What is a noble gas? What is a chemical property of noble gases? What causes this? (6) 34. In terms of electron arrangement, name two ways the periodic table is organized. (4) 35. What causes elements to form compounds? (2) 36. Explain an ionic bond. (2) 37. Explain a covalent bond. (2) 38. What is a polar molecule? Name an example. (4) 39. Which are stronger, ionic or covalent bonds? Explain how you know. (4) 40. Name the following compounds: (16) a. MgS e. MgSO4 b. Li3N f. LiNO3 c. NH4OH g. CO2 d. SiCl4 h. Fe2O3 41. Write the formulae for the following: (10) a. manganese bromide b. iron III acetate c. potassium phosphide d. carbon monoxide e. calcium chloride 42. Write the formula of barium oxide tetrahydrate. (2) Metals and Reactions Test Review 1. You put a sample of CuCl2 in a flame, and the fire turns green. Which element causes this? How do you know? (4) 2. State the four properties of metals, and what they mean. (16) 3. Where are metals on the periodic table? (2) 4. Would using a magnet be a good test to see if a material was a metal? Explain. (4) 5. Give the symbols of five metals. (5) 6. Give the symbols of five nonmetals. (5) 7. Are all metals solid? Explain. (4) 8. How are families of elements arranged on the periodic table? Give two reasons they are arranged this way. (6) 9. Draw the Bohr model of an alkaline earth metal. (4) 10. Draw the Bohr model of a halogen. (4) 11. Pick an alkali metal and an element in the oxygen group. If those two elements combined, what would be the chemical formula and name of the compound? (8) 12. Describe how to do the splint test for oxygen. What would be the indication that oxygen is present? (4) 13. Describe how to do the splint test for hydrogen. What would be the indication that hydrogen is present? (4) 14. Name two uses for hydrogen. (4) 15. You separate water into H2 and O2 gas, by running electricity through it. How would the amount of O2 compare to the amount of H2 made? Explain why. (4) 16. What gasses are the major components of our air? About what percent of air is each? (8) 17. What happens chemically during rusting? (2) 18. How do plants and animals use CO2? (4) 19. How does the weight of CO2 compare to regular air? How do you know? (4) 20. You put Iron (II) into HCl and see bubbles coming off. Write the word equation of the reaction. (8) 21. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction in question 20. (8) 22. Why do you need to “balance” a chemical equation? (2) 23. What is a product and reactant? (4) 24. What happens during a single replacement reaction? (2) 25. What happens during a double displacement reaction? (2) 26. What happens during a synthesis reaction? (2) 27. What happens during a decomposition reaction? (2) 28. What is an exothermic reaction? What is the opposite kind of reaction called? (4) 29. What does a catalyst do? (2) 30. Write the balanced chemical equation for the following (16): a) NaOH + LiCl b) Mg + O2 c) H2O d) Zn + H2SO4 Acids and Bases Test Review 1. Which ion causes acid characteristics? 2. Which ion causes basic characteristics? 3. Identify the acid. 4. Identify the base. 5. Hydrogen chloride reacts with magnesium. Identify the reactants. 6. Hydrogen chloride reacts with magnesium. Identify the products. 7. Hydrogen chloride reacts with magnesium. What type of reaction is this? 8. Hydrogen chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide. Identify the reactants. 9. Hydrogen chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide. Identify the products. 10. Hydrogen chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide. What type of reaction is this? 11. What are the characteristics of acids? 12. What are the characteristics of bases? 13. Name four acids. 14. Name four bases. 15. Name four neutral substances. 16. Cabbage juice turns what color in the presence of an acid? 17. Cabbage juice turns what color in the presence of a base? 18. A pH of 5 would indicate what kind of solution? 19. A pH of 8 would indicate what kind of solution? 20. A pH of 7 would indicate what kind of solution? 21. Which pH would be the strongest base? 22. What does phenolphthalein do in an acid? 23. What does phenolphthalein do in a base? 24. What causes acid rain? 25. What problems have been associated with acid rain? 26. What can be done to minimize acid rain? 27. Where do acid rain problems happen? 28. What is neutralization? 29. What are the products of neutralization? 30. H2SO4 reacts with NaOH, what is the balanced chemical equation? 31. What does an antacid do? 32. What is organic chemistry? 33. What is a hydrocarbon? 34. What kind of bonds do hydrocarbons form? 35. How many bonds can carbon form? 36. What is an isomer? 37. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons? 38. What is half-life? 39. Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years. Would it make sense to date a 3 million year old rock with carbon-14? Explain.
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