Crustacea-report-2011 by lanyuehua


									          Crustacea Baseline Study
At Senyiur area for PT. Kutai Mitra Sejahtera
       Kutai Timur Regency, East Kalimantan

                   2 – 12 Agustus 2011

                Dr. Ir. Daisy Wowor, MSc
                    Crustacean expert

                 Division of Zoology
      Research Center for Biology (Puslit Biologi)
        Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)
        We express our sincere thanks to Kahang Aran and Mansur of Conservation
Department, PT REA Kaltim Plantations, and Pak Ocon a local helper from Senyiur
village for their help in the field work and nice hospitality. Ibu Suimah for arranging
transportation, Ingan for logistic and Ibu Sri for cooking nice meals are greatly
appreciated. Our special gratitude is also addressed to Robert B. Stuebing and Monica
Kusneti for inviting us to conduct the survey and their cooperation during this expedition
before and after.

1. This report summarizes the Senyiur area crustacean survey 2011 carried out as part of
   baseline study for PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera, an associate company of PT REA Kaltim
2. Fourteen research sites were sampled at the border and surround the PT Kutai Mitra
   Sejahtera work of area.
3. The major water bodies surveyed are 6 streams and the tributaries, a swamp and a ditch.
   All are clear freshwater bodies, expect for 2 streams which are of acidic blackwater.
4. 1710 specimens of crustacean were sampled from 14 sampling sites. The crustaceans
   are consisted of 1 Caridina species of the family Atyidae, 5 Macrobrachium species of
   the family Palaemonidae and 2 Parathelphusa species of the family Gecarcinucidae.
5. Macrobrachium cf clymene dominates almost all surveyed water bodies. Caridina cf
   thambipilai and the 2 species of Parathelphusa crab are endemic for Borneo.
1      Introduction

        Some parts of East Kalimantan have been proposed to be converted into oil palm
plantations, and one of them is Senyiur area at Kutai Timur Regency, East Kalimantan
Province. It is in the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera, an associate company of
PT REA Kaltim Plantations. The area consisted of secondary forest, some parts of primary
forest and swamps which has been intended to be cleared to make way for the oil palm
plantations. Besides the protected crocodile and orang utan, the area is also house many
other fauna. In order to find out the best solution has to be taken out in the future
regarding the plan of converting this area into an oil palm plantation, the effects of the
action toward the ecosystem including the life of many aquatic animals, and the livelihood
of the local people, the biodiversity conservation approach is the answer.

        In August 2011, the conservation department of PT REA Kaltim Plantations invited
the aquatic team (crustacean and fish experts) of the Zoological Division, the Research
Center for Biology, LIPI (= Indonesian Institute of Sciences) to conduct an aquatic fauna
survey at the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera in Senyiur area. During the two
weeks visit, fourteen sites were sampled. The baseline data obtained will be used for
taking policies regarding the erecting of a new oil palm plantation in the area.

1.1.   Background

       There are not many publications on the freshwater prawns and crabs of East
Kalimantan (de Man, 1898, 1908; Holthuis, 1950; Chace & Bruce, 1993; Chia & Ng,
1998; Wowor & Short, 2007). So far there are only six species of prawns and two species
of crabs that have been recorded. However, there is no publication on crustacean of
Senyiur area.

1.2.   Objectives

The aims of aquatic fauna baseline study are:
 Investigate all water bodies in and surrounding the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra
 Provide baseline data on freshwater crustacean including the ecological preferences of
   the various species
 Characterize the aquatic fauna of each of the sampling sites
 Identify the status of each sampled aquatic fauna species, and provide their special
   habitat as well as local distribution
2      Study Area and Methods

2.1.   Study Area

        The field work was conducted from 4 to 10 August 2011 at the border of the area of
work of PT C and its surrounding area (in the area of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera), at
Senyiur village and between Muara Ancalong and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera. During the
field work, the water level was dropped and Senyiur river (the main river and border
between PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera) became narrow and
quite shallow due to long dry season and therefore it was not possible to use small boat to
sample aquatic fauna of the inner part of the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera.
The sampling was completed at 14 (fourteen) sampling sites. A total of six rivers and
streams, three creeks, a swamp and a ditch were sampled. All streams, creeks and swamp
observed drain to Wahau River and eventually to Mahakam River.

2.2.   Field Work

       The crustacean samples were obtained by using electro fishing gear (10 volt), tray
net (40 x 60 cm) and long handle scoop net. Notes on habitat, surrounding environment,
and location of each sampling site were recorded in a field notebook. The location
coordinates were taken by using e Trex Vista C Garmin GPS.

2.3.   Preserving Specimens

        The crustacean samples were killed by immersion in 80% alcohol. The specimens
were labeled and were put in sealed plastic bags according to the sampling sites for at least
2 days. The excess alcohol used for preserving crustacean specimens was thrown away
prior final packing for shipping. All the specimens were stored in an air tight container
and then were shipped to the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense in Cibinong.

2.4.   Laboratory Work

       The crustacean specimens were transferred 80% alcohol for long-term storage.
After identification, the crustacean specimens were assigned catalog numbers based on
species and lot.

     The crustacean specimens were identified using publications of Chia & Ng (1998),
Wowor & Choy (2001), Wowor (2004), Wowor et al (2004) and Wowor & Short (2007).
3           Results and Discussion

        In total, 1710 specimens of crustaceans were collected from 14 sampling sites during the 7
field work days. It is important to note that some of the identifications are provisional and may be
subject to change with further study. Especially for several species of crustaceans are left as
morpho-species since to identify them reliably to the specific level would take years of taxonomic
work which is not in the scope of this study. The lists provided here are also by no means

3.1.        Crustacea

       A total of 1710 specimens of crustacea belonging to one species of freshwater shrimp of
the genus Caridina (Family Atyidae), five species of freshwater prawn of the genus
Macrobrachium (Family Palaemonidae) and two species of freshwater crab of the genus
Parathelphusa (Family Gecarcinucidae) were collected. Macrobrachium kelianense and M.
urayang are only found in East Kalimantan especially in Mahakam basin. While M.
lanchesteri is an introduced species and M. cf sundaicum have been recorded from several other
streams at Damai and Berkat estates of PT REA Kalitim, Senyiur village and southern edge of the
working area of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera of Mahakam River basin. Caridina cf thambipilai is a
Bornean species which is only found in creeks. The species composition is presented in Figure 1
and a list of the number of crustacean specimens and species gained based on each sampling site is
presented in Table 1.

    80%                                                         Parathelphusa n. sp2
    70%                                                         Parathelphusa n. sp1
    60%                                                         Macrobrachium urayang
                                                                Macrobrachium cf sundaicum
                                                                Macrobrachium lanchesteri
                                                                Macrobrachium kelianense
                                                                Macrobrachium cf clymene
                                                                Caridina cf thambipilai
              1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Figure 1. Composition of the crustacean species in the study areas of August 2011 aquatic survey
          (see Note of Table 1 for the locality of the sampling sites).
Tabel 1. List of freshwater crustacean found at PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera and surrounding areas during August 2011 aquatic survey

 NO                     Species                                                                                                                         Total
                                                   1      2      3   4   5            6      7    8        9      10     11     12     13      14
   1     Caridina cf thambipilai                           3        306 18             1                 1                                                  329
   2     Macrobrachium cf clymene                         49      6 192 184           29               150                 7   177                          794
   3     Macrobrachium kelianense                          1               3           1     92     36   4                                                  137
   4     Macrobrachium lanchesteri                                         1           2      2                     6            1                           12
   5     Macrobrachium cf sundaicum                                                                                     173    167                          340
   6     Macrobrachium urayang                                                               30     14     39                                                83
   7     Parathelphusa n. sp1                                         2   4                                                                                   6
   8     Parathelphusa n. sp2                                         1   6            1                 1                                                    9
                  Total                            0      53      6 501 216           34 124        50 195          6   180    345        0      0         1710
Note: 1-9 at the border of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera, 10-11 in PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera, 12 at Senyiur village, 13-14 between Muara Ancalong and PT
      Sawit Sukses Sejahtera; 1. Upper stretch of S. Salai, 2. 1st branch of S. Salai, 3. 2nd branch of S. Salai, 4. Lower stretch of S. Salai, 5. Lower stretch of
      S. Loa Beras, 6. Upper stretch of S. Loa Beras, 7. Lower stretch of S. Senyiur, 8. Middle stretch of S. Senyiur, 9. Upper stretch of S. Senyiur, 10.
      Unnamed swamp, 11. S. Loa Ranam Hitam, 12. S. Loa Katong, 13. S. Loa Mentalang, 14. Ditch along the road. The abbreviation S is used for
      Indonesian word “Sungai” which means river, stream or tributary.
        From 14 surveyed stations, crustaceans were observed only in 11 stations. The 3
stations which had not crustacean were upper stretch of S. Salai, S. Loa Mentalang and a
ditch along the road between Muara Ancalong and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera.
According to our local helper both S. Salai and S. Loa Mentalang were heavily fished
mainly using poisons. During the survey, we encountered many floating death fishes in
S. Loa Mentalang while there were very view fish gained from upper stretch of S. Salai.
The ditches on the side road between Muara Ancalong and the southern gate of PT Sawit
Sukses Sejahtera were man-made contain blackwater with white sand substrate, a typical
heath forest habitat.

      So far, there is good number of crustacean species found at the border of the
working area of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera (Figure 2), i.e. 7 species.

                                                              Parathelphusa n. sp2

     6                                                        Parathelphusa n. sp1

                                                              Macrobrachium urayang
                                                              Macrobrachium cf
     3                                                        sundaicum
                                                              Macrobrachium lanchesteri

     1                                                        Macrobrachium kelianense

                                                              Macrobrachium cf clymene

                                                              Caridina cf thambipilai

  Figure 2. Number of crustacean species found in the study areas of August 2011 aquatic
           survey. The abbreviation PT KMS is for PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera and PT SSS is
           for PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera (see Note of Table 1 for the localities).

While there are only 3 species were found in PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera and Senyiur
village. This is might also due to heavily fished by the oil palm plantation people of PT
Sawit Sukses Sejahtera and Senyiur villager.

       Important to note that there might be more crustacean species found in the
working area of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera but to reveal the fact more aquatic surveys
needed in the interior of this estate. Most of the crustaceans obtained from the border
were endemic species to East Kalimantan, except for Caridina cf thambipilai and
Macrobrachium lanchesteri. While Macrobrachium cf clymene and Macrobrachium cf
sundaicum might be new to science but a thorough studies are needed to prove the fact.

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