Crustacea Baseline Study At Senyiur area for PT. Kutai Mitra Sejahtera Kutai Timur Regency, East Kalimantan 2 – 12 Agustus 2011 Dr. Ir. Daisy Wowor, MSc Crustacean expert Division of Zoology Research Center for Biology (Puslit Biologi) Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Cibinong Acknowledgements We express our sincere thanks to Kahang Aran and Mansur of Conservation Department, PT REA Kaltim Plantations, and Pak Ocon a local helper from Senyiur village for their help in the field work and nice hospitality. Ibu Suimah for arranging transportation, Ingan for logistic and Ibu Sri for cooking nice meals are greatly appreciated. Our special gratitude is also addressed to Robert B. Stuebing and Monica Kusneti for inviting us to conduct the survey and their cooperation during this expedition before and after. Summary 1. This report summarizes the Senyiur area crustacean survey 2011 carried out as part of baseline study for PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera, an associate company of PT REA Kaltim Plantations. 2. Fourteen research sites were sampled at the border and surround the PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera work of area. 3. The major water bodies surveyed are 6 streams and the tributaries, a swamp and a ditch. All are clear freshwater bodies, expect for 2 streams which are of acidic blackwater. 4. 1710 specimens of crustacean were sampled from 14 sampling sites. The crustaceans are consisted of 1 Caridina species of the family Atyidae, 5 Macrobrachium species of the family Palaemonidae and 2 Parathelphusa species of the family Gecarcinucidae. 5. Macrobrachium cf clymene dominates almost all surveyed water bodies. Caridina cf thambipilai and the 2 species of Parathelphusa crab are endemic for Borneo. 1 Introduction Some parts of East Kalimantan have been proposed to be converted into oil palm plantations, and one of them is Senyiur area at Kutai Timur Regency, East Kalimantan Province. It is in the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera, an associate company of PT REA Kaltim Plantations. The area consisted of secondary forest, some parts of primary forest and swamps which has been intended to be cleared to make way for the oil palm plantations. Besides the protected crocodile and orang utan, the area is also house many other fauna. In order to find out the best solution has to be taken out in the future regarding the plan of converting this area into an oil palm plantation, the effects of the action toward the ecosystem including the life of many aquatic animals, and the livelihood of the local people, the biodiversity conservation approach is the answer. In August 2011, the conservation department of PT REA Kaltim Plantations invited the aquatic team (crustacean and fish experts) of the Zoological Division, the Research Center for Biology, LIPI (= Indonesian Institute of Sciences) to conduct an aquatic fauna survey at the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera in Senyiur area. During the two weeks visit, fourteen sites were sampled. The baseline data obtained will be used for taking policies regarding the erecting of a new oil palm plantation in the area. 1.1. Background There are not many publications on the freshwater prawns and crabs of East Kalimantan (de Man, 1898, 1908; Holthuis, 1950; Chace & Bruce, 1993; Chia & Ng, 1998; Wowor & Short, 2007). So far there are only six species of prawns and two species of crabs that have been recorded. However, there is no publication on crustacean of Senyiur area. 1.2. Objectives The aims of aquatic fauna baseline study are: Investigate all water bodies in and surrounding the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera Provide baseline data on freshwater crustacean including the ecological preferences of the various species Characterize the aquatic fauna of each of the sampling sites Identify the status of each sampled aquatic fauna species, and provide their special habitat as well as local distribution 2 Study Area and Methods 2.1. Study Area The field work was conducted from 4 to 10 August 2011 at the border of the area of work of PT C and its surrounding area (in the area of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera), at Senyiur village and between Muara Ancalong and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera. During the field work, the water level was dropped and Senyiur river (the main river and border between PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera) became narrow and quite shallow due to long dry season and therefore it was not possible to use small boat to sample aquatic fauna of the inner part of the area of work of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera. The sampling was completed at 14 (fourteen) sampling sites. A total of six rivers and streams, three creeks, a swamp and a ditch were sampled. All streams, creeks and swamp observed drain to Wahau River and eventually to Mahakam River. 2.2. Field Work The crustacean samples were obtained by using electro fishing gear (10 volt), tray net (40 x 60 cm) and long handle scoop net. Notes on habitat, surrounding environment, and location of each sampling site were recorded in a field notebook. The location coordinates were taken by using e Trex Vista C Garmin GPS. 2.3. Preserving Specimens The crustacean samples were killed by immersion in 80% alcohol. The specimens were labeled and were put in sealed plastic bags according to the sampling sites for at least 2 days. The excess alcohol used for preserving crustacean specimens was thrown away prior final packing for shipping. All the specimens were stored in an air tight container and then were shipped to the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense in Cibinong. 2.4. Laboratory Work The crustacean specimens were transferred 80% alcohol for long-term storage. After identification, the crustacean specimens were assigned catalog numbers based on species and lot. The crustacean specimens were identified using publications of Chia & Ng (1998), Wowor & Choy (2001), Wowor (2004), Wowor et al (2004) and Wowor & Short (2007). 3 Results and Discussion In total, 1710 specimens of crustaceans were collected from 14 sampling sites during the 7 field work days. It is important to note that some of the identifications are provisional and may be subject to change with further study. Especially for several species of crustaceans are left as morpho-species since to identify them reliably to the specific level would take years of taxonomic work which is not in the scope of this study. The lists provided here are also by no means complete. 3.1. Crustacea A total of 1710 specimens of crustacea belonging to one species of freshwater shrimp of the genus Caridina (Family Atyidae), five species of freshwater prawn of the genus Macrobrachium (Family Palaemonidae) and two species of freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa (Family Gecarcinucidae) were collected. Macrobrachium kelianense and M. urayang are only found in East Kalimantan especially in Mahakam basin. While M. lanchesteri is an introduced species and M. cf sundaicum have been recorded from several other streams at Damai and Berkat estates of PT REA Kalitim, Senyiur village and southern edge of the working area of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera of Mahakam River basin. Caridina cf thambipilai is a Bornean species which is only found in creeks. The species composition is presented in Figure 1 and a list of the number of crustacean specimens and species gained based on each sampling site is presented in Table 1. 100% 90% 80% Parathelphusa n. sp2 70% Parathelphusa n. sp1 60% Macrobrachium urayang 50% Macrobrachium cf sundaicum 40% Macrobrachium lanchesteri 30% Macrobrachium kelianense 20% Macrobrachium cf clymene 10% Caridina cf thambipilai 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Station Figure 1. Composition of the crustacean species in the study areas of August 2011 aquatic survey (see Note of Table 1 for the locality of the sampling sites). Tabel 1. List of freshwater crustacean found at PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera and surrounding areas during August 2011 aquatic survey Station NO Species Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 Caridina cf thambipilai 3 306 18 1 1 329 2 Macrobrachium cf clymene 49 6 192 184 29 150 7 177 794 3 Macrobrachium kelianense 1 3 1 92 36 4 137 4 Macrobrachium lanchesteri 1 2 2 6 1 12 5 Macrobrachium cf sundaicum 173 167 340 6 Macrobrachium urayang 30 14 39 83 7 Parathelphusa n. sp1 2 4 6 8 Parathelphusa n. sp2 1 6 1 1 9 Total 0 53 6 501 216 34 124 50 195 6 180 345 0 0 1710 Note: 1-9 at the border of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera, 10-11 in PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera, 12 at Senyiur village, 13-14 between Muara Ancalong and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera; 1. Upper stretch of S. Salai, 2. 1st branch of S. Salai, 3. 2nd branch of S. Salai, 4. Lower stretch of S. Salai, 5. Lower stretch of S. Loa Beras, 6. Upper stretch of S. Loa Beras, 7. Lower stretch of S. Senyiur, 8. Middle stretch of S. Senyiur, 9. Upper stretch of S. Senyiur, 10. Unnamed swamp, 11. S. Loa Ranam Hitam, 12. S. Loa Katong, 13. S. Loa Mentalang, 14. Ditch along the road. The abbreviation S is used for Indonesian word “Sungai” which means river, stream or tributary. From 14 surveyed stations, crustaceans were observed only in 11 stations. The 3 stations which had not crustacean were upper stretch of S. Salai, S. Loa Mentalang and a ditch along the road between Muara Ancalong and PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera. According to our local helper both S. Salai and S. Loa Mentalang were heavily fished mainly using poisons. During the survey, we encountered many floating death fishes in S. Loa Mentalang while there were very view fish gained from upper stretch of S. Salai. The ditches on the side road between Muara Ancalong and the southern gate of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera were man-made contain blackwater with white sand substrate, a typical heath forest habitat. So far, there is good number of crustacean species found at the border of the working area of PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera (Figure 2), i.e. 7 species. Parathelphusa n. sp2 7 6 Parathelphusa n. sp1 5 Macrobrachium urayang 4 Macrobrachium cf 3 sundaicum Macrobrachium lanchesteri 2 1 Macrobrachium kelianense 0 Macrobrachium cf clymene Caridina cf thambipilai Figure 2. Number of crustacean species found in the study areas of August 2011 aquatic survey. The abbreviation PT KMS is for PT Kutai Mitra Sejahtera and PT SSS is for PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera (see Note of Table 1 for the localities). While there are only 3 species were found in PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera and Senyiur village. This is might also due to heavily fished by the oil palm plantation people of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera and Senyiur villager. Important to note that there might be more crustacean species found in the working area of PT Sawit Sukses Sejahtera but to reveal the fact more aquatic surveys needed in the interior of this estate. Most of the crustaceans obtained from the border were endemic species to East Kalimantan, except for Caridina cf thambipilai and Macrobrachium lanchesteri. While Macrobrachium cf clymene and Macrobrachium cf sundaicum might be new to science but a thorough studies are needed to prove the fact.
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