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					      The PRoGRESS Project
Alistair Cox, Bristol City Council
   The PRoGRESS Project

• CUPID/PRoGRESS Overview
• PRoGRESS project deliverables
• PRoGRESS project demonstrators
• Overview of each site
• Key findings by site
• Emerging issues
• Contacts and further information
    The PRoGRESS Project


CUPID
(Co-ordinating Urban Pricing Integrated
Demonstrations)

•Thematic Network
• Funded by DG TREN of the European Commission
•Aims to promote state of the art knowledge on
urban transport pricing schemes.
•Provide guidance and assistance to PRoGRESS
project
•Developed “15 key questions”
      The PRoGRESS Project

 “To demonstrate and
 evaluate the
 effectiveness and
 acceptance of integrated
 urban transport pricing
 schemes to achieve
 transport goals and raise
 revenue”

www.progress-project.org
         Project Deliverables
Deliverable Delivery   Nature of Deliverable
 number     month      and brief description

  D3       May 2002 Scheme Design Specifications


 D4.2      Nov 2002    Legal, Organisational and Financial Frameworks

 D4.3      Mar 2004    Consultation, Marketing and Press Coverage

 D5        Aug 2003    Demonstration Implementation Report

 D7        Feb 2004    Practical Implementation Guide for Cities

 D9        May 2004 Final Report
       PRoGRESS Demonstrators
City         Demonstration Type
Helsinki     Modelling and evaluation study
Copenhagen
Gothenburg   GPS trial with volunteers
Bristol
Rome         Introduction of real city centre charging
             scheme in work hours and demo in
             evenings
Trondheim    New central RP cordon

Edinburgh    Using different technologies
Genoa        ANPR trial with volunteer trials
    Helsinki’s Activities
Modelling exercise to to define
realistic pricing scenarios for all
modes
Explore and promote acceptability
of pricing through:
•Interviews with various
stakeholder groups.
•User survey (some 500 telephone
interviews) on general acceptance
•Articles in main newspapers
   Gothenburg’s Activities
• Trial testing the
  GPS/GSM technique
• Two scenarios
  (congestion and
  environmental)
• Real money is used as
  an incentive
• Evaluating effects,
  attitudes, as well as
  technique           The OBU is placed in a visible position
                            on the dashboard, clearly showing
                                  relevant driving information
     Copenhagen’s Activities
GPS trials

Two main charging plans are
tested:
•Kilometre-charging
•Multiple zones




                          The OBU is placed in a visible position
                          on the dashboard, clearly showing
                          relevant driving information.
     Bristol’s Activities
The Bristol demonstration
assessed the potential for Mobile
Positioning Systems (MPS)

Other activities included Bristol
Area Transport Study (BATS) model
    Rome’s Activities
Limited Traffic Zone established in 1988. Through
PRoGRESS introduction of integrated fare system
with PT integration to:
• Reduce the no. of
vehicles accessing LTZ

•Promote public
transport and
intermodality along rail
lines
   Trondheim’s Activities
Further studies of the existing
pricing schemes focusing on:

•Long-term effects (transport
demand, social and
commercial aspects, land-use,
etc.)

•Investigation of a new city
centre cordon
     Edinburgh’s Activities
Aim:
“to demonstrate that
  congestion charging could be
  introduced in Edinburgh”

Examining:

• Technology
• Enforcement issues
• Operational systems that will
  be required for the scheme;
• Extensive consultation and
  public participation.
  Genoa’s Activities

• Central City Scheme
  2.5km2
• ANPR System (no in-car
  equipment)
• 6 months demo (Mar-
  Aug 2003) with 200
  volunteers
• Modelling of the full-
  scheme RP application
   Helsinki: Modelling
Main results:
2 main pricing
scenarios
•A passage based zone
system
•And distance based
charging

   Both scenarios have quite similar and
   acceptable effects
         Helsinki: User Acceptance
                                                    IMPLEMENTATION OF ROAD PRICING 1/4
                                                IMPLEMENTATION OF ROAD PRICING 1/4
                                                          The statement I support most
                                                     The statement I support most
                               0%   10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 %               60 %          70 %      80 % 90 %    100 %
                          0%    10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 %               70 %         80 %      90 % 100 %

                   All (n=516)8
              All (n=516)           8           32        32                   60        60

                 Gender:
      Public transport ticket?
                                                                                                                       Road pricing should be
                                                                                                                Road pricing should be
         Female (n=277)     10                       35                          55
         Period card (n=183)        9                          38                             52
                                                                                                                       implemented
                                                                                                                implemented in the in the Helsinki
           Male (n=229) 6                  28                              66
                                                                                                                       Metropolitan Area
                                                                                                                Helsinki MetropolitanArea as soon
                                                                                                                       as possible
                                                                                                                as soon as possible
                     (n=139)
          Value cardAge:            11                         37                             53
                                                                                                                        Road pricing should be
                                                                                                                Road pricing should be
           18-30 (n=141)   8                         39                           53
               None (n=194) 5                   23                                72                                    implemented
                                                                                                                implemented in the in the Helsinki
          30-49 (n=203)   7                     34                              59                                      Metropolitan Area
                                                                                                                Helsinki MetropolitanArea in future
    A possibility to use a car:                                                                                 in future
           50+ (n=172)         10              23                         67

             AlwaysCity:
                    (n=338)         7               25                              69
                                                                                                                       Road pricing should
                                                                                                                Road pricing should never never
                                                                                                                       be implemented
                                                                                                                be implemented in the in the
         Helsinki (n=304)    11                       37                            53                                 Helsinki Metropolitan
                                                                                                                Helsinki Metropolitan Area Area
        Occasionally (n=106)    7                               47                                 46
Espoo/Kauniainen (n=118) 5                25                              70
                    Rarely/
          Vantaa (n=94) 4                18
                                          27                         44   69                            38
                Never (n=72)
Helsinki: Revenue usage
Both key stakeholders and general public
support strongly the earmarking of revenue to
be used for local transport developments
                           HOW SHOULD THE REVENUE OF ROAD PRICING BE USED?


                      0%     10 %   20 %        30 %        40 %   50 %   60 %   70 %         80 %        90 %   100 %


        All (n=516)                               65                              10                      21


          Gender:

    Female (n=277)                                64                             11                   23
                                                                                                                         Only for improving the
                                                                                                                         regional transportation
      Male (n=229)                                 67                                 9                    18
                                                                                                                         National public
              Age:                                                                                                       expenditure

                                                                                                                         Don't know
     18-30 (n=141)                         51                              19                        28


    30-49 (n=203)                                       73                                6                18            Regional public
                                                                                                                         expenditure
      50+ (n=172)                                      68                          7                       19
     Gothenburg
• 2 GPS pricing schemes:                                                                                                                                                          Modal split




                                                                                                                           Number of trips per day
   • Mobility
                                                                                                                                                      40000
                                                                                                                                                      20000                                                    Car trips MM

    management                                                                                                                                       -20000
                                                                                                                                                           0                                                   PT MM
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Car trips Cong.


  • Environmental                                                                                                                                    -40000
                                                                                                                                                     -60000
                                                                                                                                                                                                               PT Cong



    benefit (congestion)                                                                                                                                           Inside GUA   Between inside
                                                                                                                                                                                 and outside
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Outside GUA




                                                                                                                                                                            • Car trips inside
    14%

    12%

    10%
                                                                                                                                                                                 the city reduced
                                                                                                                                                                                 with PT usage
    8%
                                                                                                                                                     NOLLKÖRNING
                                                                                                                                                     TRÄNGSEL
    6%

    4%                                                                                                                                                                           increased; and
    2%
                                                                                                                                                                                 morning peak
                                                                                                                                                                                 period spread
    0%
          01.30-

                   03.30-

                            05.30-




                                                   09.30-

                                                            11.30-

                                                                     13.30-

                                                                              15.30-

                                                                                       17.30-

                                                                                                19.30-

                                                                                                         21.30-

                                                                                                                  23.30-
                                     07.30-08.30
     Gothenburg:
     Conclusions Attitudes

50
45

40
35

30                                                                            Recruitment
25                                                                            Before
20                                                                            After

15
10

 5
 0
     Negative   Partly     Neutral   Partly     Positive   No        No
                negative             positive              opinion   answer
  Gothenburg:
  Conclusions GPS

• Equipment not distracting

• Drivers did not feel as they were
  under surveillance

• Integrity not a big issue

• Technical hindrances still of
  major importance

                        The installed OBU and the price navigator
                        available on internet
                              Copenhagen Demo Results
                       DKR
                              8000
Driving costs in tax period




                                                                                                         No change
                              7000                                                                       1. Round trendline
                                                                                                         2. Round trendline
                              6000                                                                       3. Round trendline

                              5000


                              4000


                              3000


                              2000


                              1000


                                 0
                                     0     1000   2000   3000   4000   5000   6000   7000   8000   DKR

                                         Driving costs in control period
                         Copenhagen: Demo Results
                  • Map matching software developed to estimate
                     trips when signal is lost

                  • Most units pick up GPS signal within 10 metres
Number of trips




                  3000

                  2500


                  2000


                  1500

                  1000

                  500

                                                                         Meters
                    0
                         0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   160   180   200
Copenhagen:
Congestion Mapping
 Bristol: Modelling Results
• Electronic cordon charging scheme

• Peak charging period 0730-1000

• Initial charge £1 rising to £5 within 10 years

• Exemptions only for public buses,
  motorcycles, vehicles registered to disabled
  people and emergency service vehicles
                                                                     Bristol: Modelling Results
           cordon Inbound Charging Coprdon in



                                                                     35,000
       No of vehicles crossing the




                                                                     30,000
Vehciles crossing tehin AM peak




                                                                     25,000
                                                the AM Peak Period




                                                                     20,000
                                                                                                     -41%
                                                                     15,000
                                                                                                                                      -64%
                                                                     10,000


                                                                      5,000

                                                                        -
                                                                              2007 - No Charge   2007 £1 Charge   2017 No Charge   2017 £5 Charge


                                                                                                 Scheme impacts
  Bristol: Demo Results
• ANPR effective for enforcement

• GPS would offer system without infrastructure

• Trade off between cost for units and
  installation issues

• Some teething problems with the system
  during the trial

• Technical hindrances still of major importance
   Rome: ACS+RP Scheme

•Area: about 5 km2
•22 Entrance gates
• Scheme: ACS+RP
• Admitted: 190.000 plates
• RP fare: up to 340 €/year
•TIME ENFORCEMENT
  •Working day: 6.30-18.00
                  0
                      10000
                              20000
                                      30000
                                              40000
                                                                            50000
                                                                                                   60000
                                                                                                           70000
                                                                                                                   80000
                                                                                                                           90000
                                                                                                                                   100000
  01/10/2001 lu

02/10/2001 ma

03/10/2001 me

04/10/2001 gio

05/10/2001 ven

06/10/2001 sab

  08/10/2001 lu

09/10/2001 ma

10/10/2001 me

11/10/2001 gio

 12/10/2001 ve

13/10/2001 sab

  15/10/2001 lu

 16/10/2001ma

 17/10/2001me
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Rome: Impacts of

                                                                                                                                                                      with October 2001-2




18/10/2001 gio

19/10/2001 ven

 20/10/2001 sa

  22/10/2001 lu

23/10/2001 lma

24/10/2001 me

25/10/2001 gio

26/10/2001 ven
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Automatic Access Control
                                                                                                                                            Traffic flows in LTZ: comparison of October 2000 (no automatic ACS+RP)




 27/10/2001 sa

  29/10/2001 lu

 30/10/2001ma

31/10/2001 me
                                                      domanda ottobre2002
                                                      Demand October 2002
                                                                            Demand October 2000
                                                                            Demand October 2001
                                                                            domanda ottobre 2000
                                                                            domanda ottobre 2001
Rome: New Plans
• RPApproved by Ministry scheme -
  • panel for the evening
  direct link to PRoGR€SS;
     of Environment in
• Introduction of the full-scale evening RP
     12/03;
  to be integrated with advanced payment
  of the on-street parking;
  • Project start: in March
• Gate modifications for 2-wheels
     ‘04;
  detection to apply policies to them;
• Analysis of the time-use of LTZ on
  • Demo panel for
  specific categories (Tourism buses) with
  VPS integrations;
     evening RP: within June
• Surveys and dissemination Campaigns;
     ‘04.
• Cost-benefit analysis.
  Trondheim: Expansion

• The development of the tolling system:

  • 1991: The urban toll ring
  • 1998: The zonal toll system
  • 2003: New cordon enclosing
          the city centre (CBD)

• The electronic charging system was upgraded
  to the AutoPass standard in 2000 (5.8 GHz
  DSRC)
Trondheim: New CBD Scheme

                                 The 1998 Zonal Tolling

          The 1991   Toll Ring   System




                                       CBD

    CBD
                                             CBD-ring 2003
   Trondheim: Evaluation
• Long term effects of RUC
  (1991-2003)

• Impacts of the new CBD-ring
  (opened Nov 2003)

• Study of a through-traffic
  charging system
  Edinburgh: Key Outcomes

• ANPR based enforcement
  system satisfactory Licence
  purchasing system
  performed extremely well
• Volunteers’ acceptance of
  congestion charging
  increased
• The majority of volunteers
  had no problem with privacy
  issues
   Edinburgh:
   preparation for full scheme
• Modelling results show reduction
  of car traffic and increase in
                                                                                                                                                        TRIPS - MVA




  public transport use




                                    MVGR AF V 7. 4 . 0
• Large net increase of people




                                    D:\C S TM3 .97 \AN AL YS IS\D AT A\BK\VOLU ME2 .N ET
  entering charged area                                                                    -579   -200   -199   -50   -49   50   51   582   V5 <VL05>        BANDWIDTHS L1




• Opposition of general public and
  stakeholders increased over time

• Level of public knowledge about
  scheme still very low
 Edinburgh:
 preparation for full scheme
• Therefore need for substantial effort and
  resource into working with stakeholders and
  interest groups and for public information
• Strong political will is key factor for success

                                                   2003               2004               2005                2006
                                             Q1   Q2 Q3   Q4    Q1   Q2 Q3   Q4    Q1   Q2 Q3    Q4   Q1    Q2 Q3   Q4

       Development & Approvals                    Approval in
          SE approval in principal                Principle
          Prepare Charging Order and TRO's
          Detailed consultation
          Promote orders, Public Inquiry                                          Detailed approval
          Council approval
          SE detailed approval

       Procurement
          Develop strategy & organisation                                                  Contract close
          Preparation & design
          Procurement

       Implementation
          Up front' transport investment
          Investment funded from charges
          Installation of charging system
          Charges start

                                                                                         Charging starts
 Genoa: demo results
Volunteers’ behaviour
                                                 57%
during 6 months of demo




   17%
                                14%

                  5%                                             7%


  Transits     Unchanged   Reduction = 2% ÷   Reduction =   Zero passages
  increase                        30%         30% ÷ 100 %
  Genoa:
  Modelling Full Scheme
                     0,8                                         Entrance reduction with RP fee
                    0,75


                     0,7


                    0,65


                     0,6


                    0,55


                     0,5
passage reduction




                    0,45


                     0,4       38%

                    0,35


                     0,3


                    0,25


                     0,2


                    0,15


                     0,1


                    0,05
                                                                    0.67 €
                           0

                                     0   0,20   0,50              0,70        1,00        2,00
                                                       fee (€)
     Genoa: demo results
                                       1.3%
    Effective, to apply immediately

Applicable after other interventions              41.7%



         Only a theoretical solution              41.0%



            Non applicable, useless       14.7%



                         No answer     1.3%
    Technology Issues – DSRC

• Already established technology

• Effective operation in Rome and
  Trondhiem
                                      Trondheim

• Cost of in car units low                Rome




• In vehicle Installation quick
  and simple

• Obstacles can occur with gantries
    Technology Issues – ANPR
• Trials in Bristol, Edinburgh,
  Genoa and Rome

• Demonstrates can be used for
  scheme operation/enforcement
                                    Bristol

                                    Genoa
• Requires no in vehicle units

• Set up costs lower but can have
  higher running costs than
  GPS/DSRC
    Technology Issues – GPS (1)
• Trials in Bristol, Copenhagen and
  Gothenburg show positive results
  from trials

• Findings suggest further
  developmental work is required             Bristol




• Issues of privacy varies
                                        Gothenburg



                                           SEK
                                           0.40/km




• Other technological solutions could             SEK




  complement GPS
                                                  0.20/km


                                        SEK
                                        1.00/km
    Technology Issues – GPS (2)


• Cost of units will affect
  implementation costs

• Retrofitting entire fleets will   Gothenburg

  be significant task

• Galileo could improve GPS
  reception
   User Acceptance (1)
• Preference for Electronic
  payment systems

• Clear purpose and
  objectives required

• Different scenarios
  difficult to understand

• Press act as both opinion   Edinburgh
  makers and reporters
   User Acceptance (2)

• Keep it simple!

• Field trials demonstrate how complex
  things can be for public/stakeholders

• Lengthy and complex process to gain
  support

• Media plays pivotal role
     Further Information
In Person – come and talk to us!
•Internet
   • PRoGR€SS website www.progress-project.org


   • CUPID website www.transport-pricing.net/cupid.html


•Project Office
   • transport_initiatives@bristol-city.gov.uk
   • +44 (0)117 903 6452

				
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