Why stres make the blood pressure be high

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              TASK ENGLISH VI






 A.      Stress

   1. Definisi of stress

         Stress is a term in psychology and biology, first coined in the biological
context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become a common place
of popular parlance. It refers to the consequence of the failure of an organism
human or animal to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats,
whether actual or imagined.

   2. Factors of stress

Stress comes can come from two possible sources: externally or internally. Which
means to tackle stress you need to recognize that there is a relationship between
what you do during the day, and what happens after you think you've switched

External factors, contributing to stress include:
- Major life changes
- Work
- Relationship difficulties
- Financial problems
- Being too busy
- Children and family

Internal factors, contributing to stress include:
- Inability to accept uncertainty
- Pessimism- Negative self-talk
- Unrealistic expectations
- Perfectionism
- Lack of assertiveness
  3. Stress symptoms

       Stress symptoms commonly include a state of alarm and adrenaline
production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion, as well
as irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of
physiological reactions such as headache and elevated heart rate.

  4. Neurochemistry and physiology

       The neurochemistry of the stress response is now believed to be well
understood, although much remains to be discovered about how the components
of this system interact with one another, In the brain and throughout in the body.
In response to a stressor, neurons with cell bodies in the paraventricular nuclei
(PVN) of the hypothalamus secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and
arginine-vasopressin (AVP) into the hypophyseal portal system.

       The locus ceruleus and other noradrenergic cell groups of the adrenal
medulla and pons, collectively known as the LC/NE system, also become active
and use brain epinephrine to execute autonomic and neuroendocrine responses,
serving as a global alarm system.

       The autonomic nervous system provides the rapid response to stress
commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, engaging the sympathetic
nervous system and with drawing the parasympathetic nervous system, there by
enacting cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine
changes. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), a major part of the
neuroendocrine system involving the interactions of the hypothalamus, the
pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands, is also activated by release of CRH and

  5. Impact on disease

       Chronic stress can significantly affect many of the body's immune
systems, as can an individual's perceptions of, and reactions to, stress. The term
psychoneuroimmunology is used to describe the interactions between the mental
state, nervous and immune systems, as well as research on the interconnections of
these systems. Immune system changes can create more vulnerability to infection,
and have been observed to increase the potential for an outbreak of psoriasis for
people with that skin disorder.

       Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in
children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of growth hormone, as in
children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord,
alcoholism, or child abuse.

       Studies of female monkeys at Wake Forest University (2009) discovered
that individuals suffering from higher stress have higher levels of visceral fat in
their bodies. This suggests a possible cause-and-effect link between the two,
wherein stress promotes the accumulation of visceral fat, which in turn causes
hormonal and metabolic changes that contribute to heart disease and other health

       This results in release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the
pituitary into the general bloodstream, which results in secretion of cortisol and
other glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. The related compound, cortisone, is
frequently used as a key anti-inflammatory component in drugs that treat skin
rashes and in nasal sprays that treat asthma and sinusitis. Recently, scientists
realized the brain also uses cortisol to suppress the immune system and reduce
inflammation within the body. These corticoids involve the whole body in the
organism's response to stress and ultimately contribute to the termination of the
response via inhibitory feedback.
    B. High blood pressure

    1. Definisi of high blood pressure

    High blood pressure (HBP) is a serious condition that can lead to coronary heart
disease, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, and other health problems.

    "Blood pressure" is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as
the heart pumps out blood. If this pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage
the body in many ways.

    About 1 in 3 adults in the United States has HBP. HBP itself usually has no
symptoms. You can have it for years without knowing it. During this time, though, it can
damage the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and other parts of your body.

    This is why knowing your blood pressure numbers is important, even when you're
feeling fine. If your blood pressure is normal, you can work with your health care team to
keep it that way. If your blood pressure is too high, you need treatment to prevent damage
to your body's organs.

    Blood pressure numbers include systolic (sis-TOL-ik) and diastolic (di-a-STOL-ik)
pressures. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure when the heart beats while pumping
blood. Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats.

    You will most often see blood pressure numbers written with the systolic number
above or before the diastolic, such as 120/80 mmHg. (The mmHg is millimeters of
mercury—the units used to measure blood pressure.)

    The table below shows normal numbers for adults. It also shows which numbers put
you at greater risk for health problems. Blood pressure tends to go up and down, even in
people who have normal blood pressure. If your numbers stay above normal most of the
time, you're at risk.
Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (in mmHg, or millimeters of mercury)

                             Systolic                                     Diastolic
                             (top number)                                 (bottom number)

Normal                       Less than 120            And                 Less than 80

Prehypertension              120–139                  Or                  80–89

High blood pressure

   Stage 1                   140–159                  Or                  90–99

   Stage 2                   160 or higher            Or                  100 or higher

The ranges in the table apply to most adults (aged 18 and older) who don't have short-term serious

         All levels above 120/80 mmHg raise your risk, and the risk grows as blood
pressure levels rise. "Prehypertension" means you're likely to end up with HBP, unless
you take steps to prevent it.

         If you're being treated for HBP and have repeat readings in the normal range,
your blood pressure is under control. However, you still have the condition. You should
see your doctor and stay on treatment to keep you blood pressure under control.

         Your systolic and diastolic numbers may not be in the same blood pressure
category. In this case, the more severe category is the one you're in. For example, if your
systolic number is 160 and your diastolic number is 80, you have stage 2 HBP. If your
systolic number is 120 and your diastolic number is 95, you have stage 1 HBP.

         If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, HBP is defined as 130/80 mmHg
or higher. HBP numbers also differ for children and teens.
    2. Factors of high blood pressure

    There are many things which contribute to an individual's risk of developing high
blood pressure. These things are collectively called "risk factors." Many diseases have
important risk factors, and high blood pressure is no exception.

1. Age

Being older than age 55 is an important risk factor. Simply stated, the odds of developing
high blood pressure increase as we get older.

2. Ethnicity

         Being black is associated with a higher risk of developing high blood pressure.
New studies are inconclusive on whether the risk is equivalent between African
Americans and people of African heritage who have never left the African continent.1

3. Gender

         At younger ages, women are less likely to develop high blood pressure than men.
This risk equalizes later in life, but statistically, women are still less likely to develop
high blood pressure, overall.

4. Family History

         Having a family history of high blood pressure places you in a higher risk
category than someone with no family history of high blood pressure. However, what this
actually means is still a topic of research. It is clear that family history plays an important
role in determining risk, but there are probably more important factors, and they are under
your control.2

5. Smoking

         Smoking is the number 1 risk factor over which you have control. Smoking is
such a powerful risk factor for so many different human diseases that doctors are
encouraged to ask every patient who smokes if they would like to quit - every time they
visit the office! Quitting smoking is the best thing you can do for your health.
6. Activity Level / Exercise

           A low exercise lifestyle leads to a weak heart, poor exercise tolerance, and
obesity. All of which have been implicated in the development of high blood pressure.

7. Diet

           While there is evidence that specific items, such as salt, can worsen high blood
pressure in certain individuals, the main impact that diet plays in high blood pressure risk
is that it is a big factor in how much you weigh.

8. Medications and Street Drugs

           Certain medications can cause or worsen high blood pressure, as can a wide
variety of street, or "recreational" drugs, like cocaine, crack, and amphetamines ("speed").

9. Kidney Problems

           The kidneys are very important regulators of long term blood pressure, and
damage to the kidneys - such as can occur from diabetes - almost invariably leads to high
blood pressure.

10. Other Medical Problems

           Hormone imbalances, certain anatomic abnormalities, tumors, and other medical
problems can cause a type of high blood pressure known as secondary hypertension.

  Fejerman, et al. The effect of Genetic Variation in Angiotensinogen on Serum Levels and Blood Pressure: A Comparison
of Nigerians and US Blacks, Journal of Human Hyptertension, Sept 14, 2006.)
  Winnicki, et al., 2006, Lifestyle, Family History, and Progression of Hypertension, Journal of Hypertension, 24(8)1479-87
    C. The relasion between stress make blood pressure be higher

    Even though many researchers have studied the link between high blood pressure and
stress, there's no proof stress by itself causes long-term high blood pressure. It may be
that other behaviors linked to stress — such as overeating, drinking alcohol and poor
sleep habits — cause high blood pressure.

    Researchers have also studied the link between heart disease and mental health
conditions related to stress, such as anxiety, depression, and isolation from friends and
family. While it's thought that these conditions may be linked to coronary artery disease,
there's no evidence they're linked to high blood pressure. Instead, it may be that the
hormones produced when you're emotionally stressed may damage your arteries, leading
to heart disease. It may also be that being depressed or hopeless may cause self-
destructive behavior, such as neglecting to take your medications to control high blood
pressure or other heart conditions. With the other word, we can say that stress produce
adrenalin hormon whom make the heart pump blood fastly, it cause the blood pressure be

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hbp/HBP_WhatIs.html, diunduh 3 Juli
2010, 20:00 wib

http://highbloodpressure.about.com/od/understandyourrisk/tp/risk_tp.html, diunduh 3 Juli
2010, 20:30 wib

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-and-high-blood-pressure/HI00092, diunduh 3
Juli 2010, 21:00 wib

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