Arabic Calligraphy

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                                                          Arabic Calligraphy
                                                             By Jerry Hall



   Arabic calligraphy changed over time into many beautiful styles. Many of these styles were
developed by artists in different parts of the Islamic Empire, and their work can be seen in architecture
and in copies of the Qur'an or even in everyday objects.

The development of Arabic calligraphy led to the creation of several decorative styles that were
designed to accommodate special needs or tastes and to please or impress others. The most
outstanding of these techniques or scripts are Gulzar, Maraya or Muthanna, Zoomorphic, Siyaqat, and
al-Khat al-Hurr.

Gulzar is defined by Safadi (1979) in Islamic Calligraphy as the technique of filling the area within the
outlines of relatively large letters with various ornamental devices, including floral designs, geometric
patterns, hunting scenes, portraits, small script, and other motifs. Gulzar is often used in composite
calligraphy where it is also surrounded by other decorative units and calligraphic panels. Maraya or
Muthanna is the technique of mirror writing in which the composition on the left reflects the composition
on the right. In zoomorphic calligraphy, the words are manipulated and structured into the shape of a
human figure, a bird, an animal, or an object. Al-Khat al-Hurr may be the most modern calligraphic
script and was developed in different parts of the Arab world in the 1980s.

This free-style script does not follow a pre-set pattern but typically is elegant and highly stylized. It is
excessively cursive, and the curves display marked contrast in line width. A curve might change
abruptly from the heaviest possible line a pen can create to the thinnest possible line from the same
pen.

Arabic calligraphy styles were adapted by Persian, Turkish, and Egyptian artists. The Persian styles of
cursive developed in the 11th century and the Thuluth style came in the 17th century. These styles
were also used to decorate books, mosques and even everyday objects, such as dishes.

While many religions have made use of figural images to convey their core convictions, Islam has
instead used the shapes and sizes of words or letters. Because Islamic leaders saw in figural arts a
possible implication of idolatry, Islam's early theocracy looked to the artistry of calligraphy for religious
expression.

In Islamic and Arabic cultures, calligraphy became highly respected as an art -- the art of writing.

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                                               Presented by Daniel Toriola


The idea here is not to learn how to write with a brush, or what the words are, but just to look at them
as an abstract art.. http://Calligraphy.smartreviewguide.com




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                                  Presented by Daniel Toriola


                                           Art Of Calligraphy
                                              By Jerry Hall



 According to contemporary studies, Arabic writing is a member of the Semitic alphabetical scripts in
which mainly the consonants are represented. Arabic script was developed in a comparatively brief
span of time. Arabic became a frequently used alphabet--and, today, it is second in use only to the
Roman alphabet.

Arabic calligraphy is a primary form of art for Islamic visual expression and creativity. Throughout the
vast geography of the Islamic world, Arabic calligraphy is a symbol representing unity, beauty, and
power. The aesthetic principles of Arabic calligraphy are a reflection of the cultural values of the
Muslim world. A thorough investigation into the aesthetic differences between Arabic and non-Arabic
calligraphy might provide an approach for understanding the essential spirit of each culture.

Arabic calligraphy is a primary form of art for Islamic visual expression and creativity. Throughout the
vast geography of the Islamic world, Arabic calligraphy is a symbol representing unity, beauty, and
power. The aesthetic principles of Arabic calligraphy are a reflection of the cultural values of the
Muslim world. A thorough investigation into the aesthetic differences between Arabic and non-Arabic
calligraphy might provide an approach for understanding the essential spirit of each culture.

Contemporary scholarship stipulates that Arabic belongs to the group of Semitic alphabetical scripts in
which mainly the consonants are represented. Arabic script is derived from the Aramaic Nabataean
alphabet. It is a script of 28 letters and uses long but not short vowels. The letters are derived from only
17 distinct forms, distinguished one from another by a dot or dots placed above or below the letter.

The great calligraphers could write perfectly even without the proper tools and materials. Although a
calligraphic master might be deprived of the use of his preferred hand either as a punishment or in the
battle field, he would learn to write equally well with his other hand. When the other hand failed him, he
would astound his admirers by using his mouth or feet to hold the pen. Calligraphy entered a phase of
glory under the influence of Abbasid vizier and calligrapher Ibn Muqlah. According to Welch (1979), Ibn
Muqlah is regarded as a figure of heroic stature who laid the basis for a great art upon firm principles
and who created the Six Styles of writing: Kufi, Thuluth, Naskh, Riq'a, Deewani, and Ta'liq.

Paper would play a major role in countless subsequent inventions and would reform Arabic calligraphy.
This new medium of written communication had a decisive impact on every aspect of Islamic
civilization.

The idea here is not to learn how to write with a brush, or what the words are, but just to look at them
as an abstract art.. http://Calligraphy.smartreviewguide.com




                                                                                                           Page 3
                                  Presented by Daniel Toriola




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