Ana Nurkhasanah _0508163_

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					Liver Cancer VS Do not Sleep Too Night




               Ana nurkhasanah
                  0508163




PROGRAM STUDY ILMU KEPERAWATAN SEKOLAH
  TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN MUHAMMADIYAH
          PALEMBANG 04 juni 2010
        LIVER CANCER VS DO NOT SLEEP TOO NIGHT 1
                                      Ana nurkhasanah2
                                           O508163


1. BACKGROUND


     The latest findings about liver cancer, Do not Sleep Too Night! Doctors at
National Taiwan Hospital recently shocked the medical world since the discovery
of a case of a 37 year-old young doctor who had been very trusting the results of
liver function (SGOT, SGPT), but it turns out just before Lunar days positive
note during liver cancer 10 cm. Until now almost everyone is dependent on the
results of examination of liver function index (Liver Function Index). They think
if the examination results are normal index means all OK. Misconceptions of this
kind was also made by many doctors specialists, are really surprising, doctors
should provide the right knowledge in the general population, turned out to have
incorrect knowledge. Prevention of liver cancer should be done the right way.
There is no other way except to detect and treat it as early as possible. But
ironically, it turns out doctors who deal with liver cancer also have a biased view
of the false, even misleading the public, this is why the biggest cause of liver
cancer is difficult to cure.
     We have patients who complain that doctors Hsu over the last month is often
experience abdominal pain and weight down so much. After the new super sound
examination found the existence of a very large liver cancer, nearly 80% of heart
has been eaten up. The patient was taken aback, "How is it possible? Last year a
new medical check-ups and the results were all normal. How is it possible only
within a relatively short one year of liver cancer can grow so big? ". It turns out
check-ups are done only check liver function. The assessment also showed
"normal." Examination of liver function is one of the items most recognizable


1
  This paper is made as an assignment of the English courses are taken care of by Mrs.
Lismalayani, S. pd
2
  Student nursing course Muhammadiyah Palembang
heart examination by the public. But this item is also the most misunderstood by
our society (Taiwan). In general, people assume that if the index of liver function
examination showed normal numbers mean there is no problem with the heart.
But this view leads to the sad stories because of missed opportunities to detect
cancer since the early stages. Doctor Hsu said, SGOT and SGPT are the most
common enzymes in the liver cells.
        If there is inflammation of the liver or because one or other cause so that the
liver cells die, the SGOT and SGPT will run to the outside. This causes the
contents of SGOT and SGPT in the blood increases. But not an increase in SGOT
and SGPT numbers does not mean there is no hardening of the liver or absence
of liver cancer. For many sufferers of inflammation of the liver, although the
inflammatory condition of their heart has stopped, but within the liver (liver), they
have been formed by the fibers and the hardening of the liver. With the formation
of hardening of the heart, it will be easy to liver cancer arises. In addition, early
stage liver cancer, liver index will not increase. Because in times of cancer
growth, only the cells surrounding the attack so damaged and die. Because of this
damage is only a small scale then the number of SGOT and SGPT may still be
within normal limits, say up any high-rise will not occur. But because many
people do not understand this so that the result came to pass many sad stories.




2. DISCUSSION


2.1. Understanding
a. Primary malignant tumors of the liver originating from parenchyma cells or bile
duct epithelial tumors or metastases from other networks.
b. Synonyms of hepatoma is hepatoselluler carcinoma.
c. Is a malignant tumor number two worldwide, particularly in Asia Pacific
Taiwan, occupied the highest place of another tumors malignant. man : women 4-
6: 1.
d. Age depending on geographic location. Most of the age of 50 years. Di In
Indonesia, many are found in less than 40 years of age can even be about the
children.


2.2. Path physiology


a. Hepatoma 75% comes from the old liver cirrhosis / chronic. Especially that
caused by alcoholism and postnekrotik.
bDiagnostic guidelines of the most important thing is that damage can not explain
why. In patients with liver cirrhosis accompanied by a sudden enlargement of the
liver.
c. The most frequent liver tumor is a malignant tumor metastases from other
places. Metastases to the liver can be detected in more than 50% of deaths due to
cancer. This is true, particularly for malignancy of the digestive tract, but many
other tumors also showed a tendency to metastases to the liver, such as breast
cancer, lung, uterus, and pancreas.
d. Diagnosis difficult to determine, because the tumors are usually not known
until extensive spread of tumor, so that local resection is not possible anymore.


2.3 Pathology


a. There are three types:
1. Massive type - a single tumor in the right lobe.
2. Nodule Type - multiple small tumors in which not the same size.
3. Diffuse type - is difficult to determine areas macroscopic tumor mass.


b. Distribution:
1. Intrahepatal.
2. Ekstrahepatal.
2.4. Etiology
a. B virus and Hepatitis C Virus
b. Hepatokarsinogenik materials:
Aflatoxin
Alcohol
The use of anabolic steroids
The use of excessive androgen
Materials oral contraceptives
Landfill iron overload in the liver (hemochromatosis)


2.5. Diagnostic Examination
1. Laboratory:
500 mg / dl, HBsAg in serum positf, Potassium, Calcium. Blood incomplete;
SGOT, SGPT, LDH, CPK, Alpha fetoprotein
2. Radiology:
 Ultrasonography (USG), CT-Scan, thoracic radiograph taken, Arteriography.
3. Liver biopsy.




2.6. Treatment
Treatment depends on when the diagnosis is established.
1. Early phase
Where surgical resection is the main option segment or lobe of the liver
2. Giving an infusion chemotherapy
3.. Radiation.


2.7. Prognosis
Malignant liver tumors have a poor prognosis may occur bleeding and ultimately
death. And this process lasts between 5-6 months or several years
2.8. Myths About Sleep and Its Relationship with Your Health

       Sleep is an activity which is inseparable from our lives, because sleep is an
opportunity for the body to reduce the volume of work, and specifically
concentrate to repair cells, organs, systems of work, and prepare it to work again
tomorrow morning. Man who live in modern times - with a variety of activities -
many have lost the chance to sleep with a nice and quite. Time should be used at
night to rest, it is also used to indulge after a day full of work. Activities that are
inconsistent - sometimes sleeping sometimes not - can lead to chaos can disrupt
the rhythm of the body and the physical and mental health.

       The following seven myths about sleep is still believed by many people,
and maybe one of them is you.

1. Is a good night's sleep for eight hours

       Nothing is certain with the amount PhD. Every person has a sleep needs
vary, and you'll know if you have enough sleep, when you do not feel sleepy in a
boring situation in the afternoon, said a psychologist from the University of New
York, Joyce Walsleben, PhD.

2. If possible, more healthy sleep

       Once the desires of some people. But you know some studies found that
people who sleep more than eight hours a night die younger than people who
sleep between six and eight hours. What is not yet known by scientists is whether
sleep longer cause bad health or a symptom of it, says Najib Ayas, MD., MPH, an
assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University, England. The sleepers are
at risk to suffer diseases such as sleep apnea (breathing stops temporarily at the
time of sleep), depression or uncontrolled diabetes due to spend much time in bed.
3. Some people feel really sleep perfectly within four hours

       The sleeper with a time short time - including Bill Clinton, Madonna, and
Margaret Thatcher - not need sleep for more than that. "Actually, they just do not
realize how sleep them," says Thomas Roth, PhD., Sleep researcher at Henry Ford
Hospital in Detroit. Too little sleep is not good for your health and the picture for
you, lack of sleep can make you be not effective (such as damage to appearance,
assessment, and ability to pay attention), illness (weakened immune system), and
overweight. Harvard. In fact, women who slept five hours or fewer than that in
one night, a third more likely to gain 15 pounds or more when aged over 16 years
compared with women who slept for seven hours, according to research of a
Harvard health nurse. Surprisingly, reduced sleep too much so that less than 6
hours sleep the same result with that for too long, ie high risk suffered heart
problems and death. And, of course, resist sleepiness while driving is dangerous.
"Feeling very weak during the trip as if you were legally drunk," said Walsleben.

4. Wake up all night will make you feel tired all day.

       That could be the natural cycle of our body. Many animals sleep like that,
and there are many indications that our ancestors did the same thing, perhaps to
talk all night, said Thomas Wehr, MD., A former scientist at the National Institute
of Mental Health. When 15 people in a research allowed to live in a closed room
without any artificial light for several weeks, and they slept three to five hours,
then woke up for one or two hours, then slept again, went back to sleep again for 4
hours or longer - and they said that they felt had not really relax.

5. You need medication if disturbed sleep every night.

       Sleeping pills are designed for short-term sleep problems, caused by stress
due to certain events, such as losing a job or to follow a very long flight, for
example. People with sleep problems is longer or more permanent good conduct
and habits of behavior therapy - highly recommended - such as improving your
perception of sleep and learning better sleep habits, such as go to bed at the same
time every night, avoid watching TV and use the computer before bed, do not
drink coffee and food, beverages containing caffeine at least six hours before
bedtime, and other lifestyle changes, such as not looking for entertainment at
night. In fact, in the year 2005, the National Institutes of Health concluded that
this type of therapy such as prescription drugs given by doctors, is only effective
for short-term treatment for patients with chronic insomnia. In many cases,
sleeping pills can’t even solve your sleeping problem. "About half of those
people who find it difficult to sleep the possibility of having a strong interest or
depression," says Daniel Kripke, MD., A sleep expert from the University of
California at San Diego.

6. You can chase a lost opportunity to sleep on the weekend

       No sleep for nights on weekdays will disrupt the rhythm of our bodies and
will demand that can sleep refreshing the body. Sleep until noon on weekends in
general equal to prepare your body to get a "blow" a barrage on the night.
Therefore, instead of correcting deficiencies to sleep on the previous week, you
better prepare a cycle time without sleep - was gradually reduced - for the
upcoming week. "The body likes consistency," said Donna Arand, PhD.,
Spokesperson for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. It is best to sleep at
around the same time every day, even on weekends.

7. Tylenol PM (a kind of anti-allergic drugs such as CTM) is better than
sleeping pills other to attack a rare imsomnia

       No, if the attack longer than a few nights, says Helene Emsellem, MD, of
the Center for Sleep & Wake Disorders at MD. Tylenol PM is not better than
sleeping pills, and can be less effective than some other sleeping pills, he said.
The active ingredient in Tylenol PM is anti-allergy drugs, and as a side effect is
that you'll get sleepy. Some people report a feeling of "dependency" after taking
anti-allergy drugs compared with other sleeping pills. If you decide to use anti-
allergy drug, do not eat in the middle of the night, because the drug remains active
in your body's system for eight hours or more, so that your job could be disrupted
tomorrow morning. Another difference is made sleeping pills to make you get
through all the stages of sleep in the circulation. It is not known whether anti-
allergy drug may effect the same.

       When you have good sleep quality, then all the body's activity and the
activity of everyday life will run smoothly. Conversely, if poor sleep quality, a
variety of negative effects appear. This is the worst that can impact your
experience if you sleep less than 7-9 hours / day, and if you do not sleep soundly.

2.9. Here are eight Due From Sleep Deprivation:

1. Fatty snack foods increasing desire

       Lack of sleep can eliminate the hormone that regulates appetite. As a
result, the desire to eat fatty foods and high carbohydrate will increase. So that
makes you want a high calorie intake. If during the two nights sleep you do not
best can trigger excessive hunger. This condition occurs because the hormone
ghrelin stimulates appetite enhancer, and minimalist hormone leptin as appetite
suppressant. Over time, this can lead to weight gain. In research done on identical
twins by the University of Washington found that they slept 7-9 hours every night,
the average body mass index of 24.8, nearly two points lower than the average
Body Mass Index (BMI) of their lack of sleep.

2. Antibodies to be weak

       Based on the JAMA study, those who slept less than seven hours per night
could be three times more susceptible to cold. Another study found that in men
who sleep less would fail to maintain the immune response or immune to normal
after receiving a flu shot. Those who sleep less, antibodies that work after the
vaccination only lasts the longest 10 days. Conditions are extremely dangerous.
therefore, improve sleep quality, to boost your immune system. If too little time to
sleep your immune system could be disrupted.
3. Vulnerable to diabetes

       Sugar is fuel every cell in your body. If disrupted processing process can
cause adverse effects. In a study by the University of Chicago, U.S., who
examined a number of people over the past six days, to get this condition can
develop resistance to insulin, the hormone that helps transport glucose from the
bloodstream into cells.

       Those who slept less than six hours per night in this research found six
days, a process of improper sugar metabolism. As a result can cause diabetes.

4. Stress increases

       Studies by the University of Chicago also found a 'blind eye' is less than
seven hours can increase the production of cortisol or stress hormones. Even in
the afternoons and evenings can increase heart rate, blood pressure and blood
glucose so it can trigger the occurrence of hypertension, heart disease and type 2
diabetes.

5. Trigger anxiety

       Feeling restless every night would continue to haunt those who have poor
sleep quality. Can decrease the body's reaction. More chronic back, the feeling
will not be happy to live up to their lack of sleep "Sleep and mood is governed by
the same brain chemical," said Joyce Walsleben, PhD. This can increase the risk
of developing depression, but perhaps only for those already vulnerable to disease.

6. Looks older

       Those who are sleep-deprived usually have pale skin and tired face "Even
worse, increased levels of cortisol can slow the production of collagen that
triggers the occurrence of wrinkles more quickly," said Jyotsna Sahni, MD, a
sleep problem at Canyon Ranch, Tucson.
7. Various pain can arise

       Not surprisingly, chronic pain such as back problems or arthritis can occur
when you perform activities of poor sleep. In a study from Johns Hopkins
Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, director Michael Smith, PhD, to awaken a
healthy young adults for 20 minutes every hour for eight hours over three
consecutive days. The result, they have a lower pain tolerance, and easy to
experience pain.

8. Higher cancer risk

       Exercise helps prevent cancer, but too little shut eye can damage the
protector effect. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health study
examined nearly 6,000 women for about a decade and found that sports fans who
sleep seven hours or less per night have a greater chance of 50% have cancer than
those who routinely perform gymnastics and have a good quality sleep. The
reason, poor quality sleep can cause hormonal and metabolic disturbances
associated with cancer risk, and can 'delete' the benefits of exercise. Once you
know the 8 resulting from lack of sleep over whether to change your sleep
patterns? If you want healthy try to avoid sleep deprivation.




3.CONCLUTIONS


The main causes of liver damage are:

   1. Sleeping too late and waking up too late are the most common cause.
   2. No exhaust in the morning.
   3. A diet that is too excessive
   4. Do not eat breakfast.
   5. Consume too many drugs.
   6. Consume too many preservatives, additives, dyes, artificial sweeteners.
    7. Unhealthy cooking oil. As much as possible reduce cooking oil use when
        frying foods, it also applies even using the best cooking oils like olive oil.
    8. Consuming raw or cooked dishes cooked 3-5 parts. Fried dishes should be
        eaten right away, do not be stored.

    We have to do prevention without additional expense. Self-set lifestyle and
eating habits one day - today. Treatment of eating habits and time condition is
needed, so our bodies can do the absorption and disposal of substances which are
not useful in accordance with the "schedule":
    evenings 9:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.: disposal of these substances is not useful /
toxic (detoxification) section antibody system (lymph nodes). During this time
duration should be passed with a quiet atmosphere or listening to music. If at
that time a housewife is still in a condition that is not relaxed such as washing
dishes or watching children learn, this can impact negatively on health.


night 23:00 - 01:00 AM: when the process of liver detoxification section, must
take place in a state of sleep.


Early morning 1:00 to 3:00: detoxification process division of bile, also took
place in a state of sleep.


Early morning 3:00 a.m. to 05:00: de-toxin lung section, because that will place
severe cough for cough sufferers dive duration this time. Because the cleaning
process (de-toxin) have reached the respiratory tract, it is not necessary to drink
cough medicine so as not to hinder the process of sewage.


morning 5:00 to 07:00: de-toxin in the colon, had to defecate.


morning 7:00 to 09:00: when the absorption of food nutrients for the small
intestine, must eat breakfast. For people who are sick should be eating more
morning, before 6:30 pk. Breakfast before 7:30 extremely good for those who
want to maintain their health. For those who do not eat in the morning hoping to
change this habit, even still, better late breakfast until 90-10 than not eating at all.


Sleeping too late and waking up too late will disrupt the process of disposal of
substances that are not useful. In addition, from midnight until 4 o'clock in the
morning is the time for the bone marrow produces blood. Because of this, Beauty
Sleep and Do not stay up.




4. REFERENCES


   1. sam4evi.multiply.com/.../148/Akibat_Tidur_Terlalu_Malam_Alias_Begad
       ang - 34k. update 20 June 2010
   2. 10 Maret 2009tawarafamily.blogspot.com/2009/03/akibat-tidur-terlalu-
       malam.html - 80k –. Update 20 June 2010
   3. Petti Lubis, Lutfi Dwi Puji Astuti : antock.wordpress.com. update 20 June
       2010

				
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