* ********* ******** ** *
Original Honor Roll lllh AAA Group lllh AAA AW Bn 102 nd AAA Gun Bn
Col. F. H. Shepardson LI. CoJ. J. E. Wales Maj. E. R. Welte, N. Y.
88th AAA Airborne Bn
131h AAA Group l11h AAA Training Bn 1071h AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. R. B. Barry, Jr.
CoJ. W. C. Mahoney L•. CoJ. A. O. Chittenden Lt. CoJ. F. R. Mciver
228th AAA Group
261h AAA Group 121h AAA Gun Bn 120lh AAA Gun Bn
Col. T. H. Pope
CoJ. H. D. Lind Lt. CoJ. P. R. Cibotti, Jr. Lt. CoJ. H. C. Gray, N. Me".
I07th AAA AW Bn IMI
651h AAA Group 121h AAA Training Bn 123rd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. E. R. Mciver
CoJ. B. E. Cordell Maj. L. E. Morlowe Lt. CoJ. J. E. Dominguez, P. R.
30Sth AAA Group
681h AAA Group 141h AAA Gun Bn 1261h AAA AW Bn
Co!. John S. Moyer, N. Y.
CoJ. W. B. Howthorne Maj. H. C. Lorek Lt. CoJ. R. C. Correa
Separate Commands 142d AAA Group 15th AAA AW Bn (SPI 1271h AAA AW 8n (SPI
CoJ. R. Hardy, Alo. Lt. CoJ. B. H. Johnson Lt. CoJ. H. G. White, N. Y.
Army AAA Command
1971h AAA Group lBlh AAA AW Bn 133rd AAA AW Bn
Lieut. Gen. J. L. Lewis
CoJ. A. S. Baker, N. H. Lt. CoJ. L. H. Burnham Lt. CaJ. E. J. Modjeske, Illinois
Third Army Training Center
200lh AAA Group 20th AAA Gun Bn 1371h AAA AW Bn
Brig. Gen. R. W. Mayo
CoJ. C. M. Woodbury, N. Mex. Lt. CoJ. C. F. Ottenger Maj. F. R. Nairn
East AAA Command
:.I051h AAA Group 21 sl AAA AW Bn (SPI 140lh AAA AW Bn
Brig. Gen. F. L. Hoyden
Lt. CoJ. J. H. Pindell Lt. CoJ. D. B. Williams Lt. CoJ. L. H. Ripley
Cenlrol AAA Command 2071h AAA Group 32nd AAA AW Bn 1441h AAA AW 8n
CoJ. D. J. Bailey
Lt. CoJ. R. G. Irish, N. Y. Lt. CoJ. E. F. Moody Lt. CoJ. R. T. Dunn
West AAA Command 211.h AAA Group 341h AAA Gun Bn 1451h AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. E. J. McGaw CoJ. D. MacDuff, Mass. Lt. CoJ. H. B. Reubel Lt. Col. H. J. Cunningham
Hqs. For East AAA Spec. Sch. 2141h AAA Group 361h AAA Gun Bn 1 50lh AAA Gun Bn
Lt. CoJ. W. H. Nicolson CoJ. J. G. Johnson, Ga. Lt. CoJ. G. W. Bes. Lt. CoJ. L. O. Ellis, Jr., N. C,
Guided Missile Dept. 21Blh AAA Group 371h AAA Gun Bn 243rd AAA AW Bn
CoJ. V. P. Lupinacci, Po. Maj. R. G. Duncan Lt. Col. E. E. McMillan
AA 80 GM School
nOlh AAA Group 38th AAA Gun Bn 2591h AAA Gun Bn
CoJ. F. M. McGoldrick
CoJ. R. H. Hopkins Lt. CoJ. S. R. Kelley Lt. CaJ. M. E. Chotas
Officer Candidate School
2241h AAA Group 39th AAA AW Bn 1M) 27ls1 AAA AW Bn
CoJ. K. R. Kenerick
Col. E. W. Thompson Lt. CoJ. P. J. Locey, Jr. Lt. CoJ. L. C. Soylor
AAA Repl Training Center
2271h AAA Group 41 sl AAA Gun Bn 3361h AAA Gun 8n
CoJ. E. W. Heothcote
CoJ. P. L. WolI:Flo. Lt. CoJ. C. F. Chirico Lt. Col. P. A. Voyalzis
Electronics Dept. 233rd AAA Group 481h AAA Gun Bn 340lh AAA Gun Bn
Col. W. T. Stone, Colif. Lt. CoJ. D. W. Molone Lt. CoJ. R. T. Bord, D. C.
AAA & GM School
250lh AAA Group 491h AAA Gun Bn 3871h AAA Gun Bn
CoJ. P. W. Shunk
Lt. CoJ. G. E. Meyers Lt. Col. R. Wetheroll
260lh AAA Group 50lh AAA AW Bn 443rd AAA AW Bn (SPI
Non-Resident Ins. Depl.
CoJ. G. V. Selwyn, D. C. Lt. CoJ. J. O. Hodgson Lt. Cal. T. F. Gordon
AAA & GM School
302nd AAA Group 53rd AAA Gun 8n 450lh AAA AW Bn
CoJ. T. H. Watkins
CoJ. J. M. Welch Lt. CoJ. J. H. McCann, Jr. Lt. CaJ. B. N. Singleton
3131h AAA Group 561h AAA Gun 8n 4591h AAA AW Bn
Brigades Lt. CoJ. W. F. Shaver
CoJ. A. F. Hoehle Lt. CoJ. M. A. Selsor, Jr.
34th AAA Brigade 3261h AAA Group 4641h AAA AW Bn
60lh AAA AW Bn
Brig. Gen. R. W. Chrichlow CoJ. M. D. Meyers, Po. LI. CaJ. R. E. Glosgow
Lt. CoJ. Wm. D. Ward
351h AAA Brigade 3741h AAA Group 4951h AAA AW 8n
63rd AAA Gun Bn
CoJ. T. V. Stoyton CoJ. T. F. Mullaney, Jr., Illinois Lt. CoJ. G. E. Miller
Lt. CoJ. C. F. Coffey
45th AAA Brigade 5151h AAA Group 501 sl AAA Gun Bn
641h AAA Gun Bn.
Col. F. F. Miter CoJ. F. G. Rowell, N. Mex. Lt. CoJ. J. C. Parker
LI. Col. D. B. Nye
47th AAA Brigade 502nd AAA Gun Bn
651h AAA Gun Bn
CoJ. G. C. Gibbs Battalions Lt. CoJ. H. C. Brown
Lt. CoJ. P. J. Moline
561h AAA Brigade 5061h AAA AW Bn
1 sl AAA Training 8n 661h AAA Gun 8n
Brig. Gen. H. F. Myers Lt. CoJ. J. H. Valliere
Lt. CoJ. H. E. Groham Lt. CoJ. C. M. Brown
105th AAA Brigade 5071h AAA AW Bn
2nd AAA AW 8n 70lh AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. A. H. Doud, N. Y. Lt. CaJ. J. M. Corson
Maj. J. D. Benner Lt. CoJ. J. E. Barton
51 81h AAA Gun Bn
107th AAA Brigade 2nd AAA Training 8n 71 sl AAA Gun Bn Lt. CoJ. F. A. Werner
Brig. Gen. J. W. Squire, Va. Lt. CoJ. J. Mortinelli Lt. Col. B. R. Brown 51 91h AAA Gun Bn
l111h AAA Brigade 3rd AAA AW 8n 73rd AAA AW Bn Lt. CoJ. R. E. Holt
Brig. Gen. Chos. G. Sage, N. Mex. Lt. CoJ. O. A. Moomaw Lt. CoJ. P. W. Pedrotti 5261h AAA Gun Bn
1121h AAA Brigade 3rd AAA Tng. Bn. 741h AAA Gun Bn Lt. CoJ. R. W. Molley
Brig. Gen. J. W. Cook, Colif. Lt. CoJ. A. S. Noylor Moj. L. A. Waple 53ls1 AAA AW Bn
26ls1 AAA Brigade
41h AAA AW Bn 761h AAA Gun Bn CoJ. P. J. Gunloch
Brig. Gen. J. B. Moore, DeJ. Lt. CoJ. E. O. Connor, Jr. Lt. Col D. Y. Nanney 550lh AAA Gun Bn
41h AAA Training Bn 771h AAA Gun Bn Lt. CoJ. N. E. Cole
Maj. K. L. Boullon LI. CoJ. W. P. Wrighl, Jr. AAA Gun Bn
1., Composile Group 51h AAA Training 8n 791h AAA Gun Bn U. CoJ. J. Sirickiond
CoJ. T. H. Leory Maj. F. R. Whitehead, Sr. Lt. CoJ. W. A. Brinkerhoff 5541h AAA Gun Bn
Ll. CoJ. F. J. Lagasse
2nd AAA Group
CoJ. A. S. Buynoski
41h AAA Group
61h AAA Training
Lt. CoJ. G. L. Crawford,
71h AAA AW Bn
80lh AAA Airborne
Lt. CoJ. J. Evans
82nd AAA AW Bn
6781h AAA AW Bn
Maj. J. B. Crayton, S. C.
6971h AAA A W Bn
CoJ. L. A. Bonifay Lt. CoJ. H. E. Michelet Lt. CoJ. H. K. Clark
Maj. W. C. Thompson, N. Mex.
61h AAA Group 81h AAA Training Bn 951h AAA Gun 8n
6981h AAA Gun Bn
CoJ. A. A. Adams Moj. M. D. Kert Lt. CoJ. P. E. Pique
Lt. CoJ. F. Monico, Illinois
71h AAA Group 91h AAA Training 8n 961h AAA Gun Bn 701 sl AAA "Gun Bn
CoJ. M. J. Marlin Maj. W. E. Osburn Lt. CoJ. R. E. Hood Lt. CoJ. F. F. Quisl
81h AAA Group 10lh AAA Training Bn 971h AAA Gun Bn
CoJ. O. H. Kyster, Jr. Lt. CoJ. v. T. Terribile Lt. CoJ. W. F. Coreoran Continued on page 29
THE UNITED STATES
FOUNDED IN 1892
OFFICERS Published from 1892 until 1922 as
LT. GEN. LEROY LUTES THE JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY
HO:\'ORARY PRESIDENT Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
LT. GEN. JOHN T. LEWIS
COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL
VOL. LXXXXVI MARCH-APRIL, 1953 No.2
LT. GEN. LYi\lAN L. LE;\INITZER
COL. CHARLES S. HARRIS
COVER: Dedication ceremony of the Fort Bliss Replica, 1948.
ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE TI-IE ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL AND ITS PREDECESSORS
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL ... 1892-1953 2
BRIGADIER GENERAL ROBERT W. CRICHLOW, JR. THE SPIRIT OF THE CORPS-A GUIDE TO THE FUTURE.
BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES G. SAGE By Lt. Co/. John B. B. Trussell, Jr 11
BRIGADIER GENERAL H. RUSSELL DROWNE
DEFENDERS OF JAPAN. By. Lt. Carl M. Glielzo 14
COLONEL NORMAN E. HARTMAN
LIEUTENANT COLONEL FRANCIS X. BRADLEY
THE l\lISSIONS OF "QUAD LIGHTNING."
By Lt. Co/. Daniel B. Williams 17
LIEUTENANT COLONEL GEORGE W. BEST, JR.
MAJOR JAMES E. CALKINS OPERATION DEVIL DOG.
By Maj. Berkeley S. Gillespie and Maj. Frank Hawthorne, Jr. 19
UP FRONT WITH THE 3rd AAA. By Lt. Co/. O. A. Moomaw .... 20
The purpose of the Association shall be to THE VETERAN AND SOCIAL SECURITY.
promote the efficiency of the Antiaircraft By Co/. William H. Dunham, Jr. (Ret.) 21
Artillery by maintaining its standards and tra.
DISTINCTIVE UNIT INSIGNIA. By Capt. Russell P. iHaJlOn 23
ditions by disseminating professional knowl.
edge, by inspiring greater effort toward the KNOW YOUR AIRCRAFT AND THE ENEMY'S.
improl1ement of materiel and methods of By Capt. Marvin D. Yarborough and JvIaj. William J. Logan .. 26
training and b)' fostering mutual understand. METEOROLOGY FOR AAA 30
ing, respect and cooperation among all arms, ELECTRONICS TRAINING FOR ARTILLERY.
branches and compone1lts of the Regular By Lt. Co/. Henry P. Morse 31
Arm)', National Guard, Organized Reserves, VERSATILITY OF RADIO SET ANjGRC-9.
and Reserl1e Officers' Training Corps. By 1st Lt. Arthur B. Nash 32
WINTERIZATION OF THE AN(fPS-lD.
By Capt. Duncan S. Boughner 33
The JOURNAL prints articles on subjects of 31st AAA BRIGADE ACTIVITIES 34
professional and general interest to personnel of ARMY PRIMARY PROGRAMS. By Lt. Co/. William L. TJlOrkelson 35
the Antiaircraft Artillery in order to stimulate
thought and provoke d;8~u88ion. However, A FORMULA FOR SUCCESS. By Admiral William M. Fecllteler .. 40
opinions expressed and conclusions drawn in FORT BLISS NEWS: AA OCS-A Progress Report.
articles are in no sense official. They do not re- By Lt. Co/. George P. Bayerle, Jr 42
flect the opinions or condusions of any official
or branch of the Department of the Army. BOOK REVIEWS 45
The JOURNAL does not carry paid advertising. GENERAL OFFICER RETIREMENTS AND ASSIGNMENTS .. 46
The JOURNAL pays for original articles upon NEWS AND COMMENT 47
publication. ~Ianuscript should be addressed to
the Editor. The JOURNAL i. not re.pon.ibJe SKYSWEEPER UNVEILED AT FORT l\lYER 48
for manuscripts unaccompanied by return
COLONEL CHARLES S. HARRIS, Editor
LT COLONEL RICHARD W. OWEN, Associate Editor
PUBLICATIOS DATE: April I. 1953 ~[ Sgt Fred A. Baker, Business Manager
Sgt lcl James E. Moore, Jr., Editorial Assistant
Sgt Paull\I. Plumly, Cire. :\Igr.
Published bimonthly by the United States Antiaircraft Aasociation. Editorial and executive offices. 631 Pennsyh'ania Avenue. X.'\' ..
Washington 4, D. C. Terms: $3.00 per year. Foreign subscriptions. $4.00 per year. Single copies. 75c. Entered as second.class matter
at Washington. D. C.; additional entr)' at Richmond, Va., under the Act of ~Iarch 3, 1879. Copyright, 1953, by the United States
THE ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL AND ITS
PREDECESSORS ••• 1892-1953
WITH the present complexity and TIle United States Naval Instille
multiplicity of Artillery weapons and Proceedings had begun publishing pc
missions and the rapid development in 1874, and the Cavalry J01lTnlll, preQ idu
mid Twentieth Century some of us may cessor of Armor, in 1888. So our)o jf
be inclined to conclude hastily that the NAL became the third of the famil" ~.5
bulk of artillery progress has been made service journals still publishing. O;h ffJ.
in our generation; that our artillerist were to come later: I/lfantry Journal l!li
predecessors kept the torch burning but 1904; Field Artillery JOIlT11l11in 191 rst
dimly through the long dull period be- Military Surgeon in 1901; Ordnm ~i
tween the Civil \Var and vVorld \Var I. and the Military Engineer in 192(<fa
However, if we take but a brief time to Quartermaster JouTllal in 1921. Jat:
re\'iew through the early pages of this l\lavbe our forebears were better <i ris
JOURNAL the progress in our Coast in so~e respects than they realized (0]
Artillery we find inspiration in the Army Regulations were all containfl';me
thought and vision with which our in one small book less than one ind nl
forebears solved the problem at hand thick, and all the official training ane 1f
and marked ahead the course which has administrative regulations could be car-pel
led to the progress we know, ried in a large brief case. I nfmltry DriL gel
When the JOURNALbegan publishing Regulatio/ls (lOR) and Troops in Cain ~I
in 1892 our nation was expanding, Brig. Gen. John \V'. Ruckman paigll, forerunner of Field Service Reg- h]
growing, and witnessing the early days Illations, ~'ere in pocket manual size fo
in the de\'elopment of machinery, Cavalry was established at Fort Leaven- Revolutionary progress was being madt fo
equipment, mills, factories, Railroads worth. Just after the birth of our in the manufacture of guns, carriages DI
and steamboat lines were reaching out JOURNAL, a School of Instmction of munitions and accessories, and artillery. m
to growing towns and cities. Drill and Practice for Cavalry and Light men the world over were keen I)' studl.'
The Army was beginning to arouse Artillery was opened in 1892 at Fort ing and writing on the developments; Ii
itself after a long post Civil \Var sleep. Riley, Kansas. however, there existed a serious dearth t.
Congress had reduced it to a strength The old muzzle-loading cannon of the of published matter available on artil.
of 25,000. The Artillery was one arm Civil \Var era were gradually being lery matters for the ambitious officers
of five regiments, each of 12 batteries, replaced with breech-loading rifled can- and men. As a result of the develop-
of which two in each regiment were non and 12-inch B. L. cast iron mortars. ment in the manufacturing field, the
horse or field; the rest, foot, seacoast or The recommendations of the Endicott artilleryman was confronted with im.
siege artillery. Batteries were scattered Board ( 1886) for the development of portant problems which demanded ex.
generally in small posts along the sea- our seacoast defenses were beginning to ploration and solution. The time was
board and in the interior, four artillery be carried out. The Crozier-Buffington ripe for the birth of the J01/nllll of the
regiments being in the Division of the disappearing carriage was being devel- United States Artillery.
Atlantic. No regimental commander oped for seacoast cannon from 6-inch
had his regiment together. up. Smokeless powder was being intro-
The Artillery School at Fort Monroe
had been originally established in 1824,
duced to completely alter the conditions
of seacoast artillery firing by facilitating
THE JOURNALwas founded in 1892,
and evolved from the demands of ne-
but it was not until 1881 that The the continuous pointing at moving ene-
cessity," wrote the late General John
School of Application for Infantry and my ships under fire. General Ruckman
\\'. Ruckman in the september-octD-1
summed up the general situation as
ber 1912 issue. He was the nrst editor.
To resume: "In the f<lll of 1891 active
We acknowledge the valuable assistance
of Colonels Arthur Symons, USAR, and Wil. "In those days no foreign people steps were taken by a fe\\' officers at (
liam Cooper Foote, USA, retired. Fort l\lonroe to produce a magazine
knew that the United States had
For our Golden Anniversary number in
January, 1942, Colonel Symons, then asso. such a thing as artillery, and, our which should satisfy the requirements
ciate editor, wrote the unsigned lead ar-
own people knowing but little of the service; and through their ef-
ticle, THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS, from which
we have copied extensively. more, it really would not have been forts, and favorable circumstances, the
From his memory and research, Colonel safe to insist on the point too JOURNALcame to life."
Foote contributed valuable help with infor-
mation and suggestions.-Ed. strongly. Artillery sentiment was The small group of officers at Fort
an absent quality." Monroe who interested themselves in
2 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
., project studied ways and means of ~letcalrs Ordnance and 1st Lt. Henry C. Da\'is, 3rd
uction. J'\linimum cost was essen- Gunnery. Artv.
\. This meant publishing the paper VIII-Service Periodicals. 1st Lt. John W. Ruckman, 1st
. rhe Artillery School. since the school Arty, Treas.
its own press. Some feared that From the announcement \\'e quote in 1st Lt. Cornelius DeW. \\Till-
ependence of action and speech part: cox, 2nd Arty., Secty.
Quid be restricted by the school au- 2nd Lt. Lucian G. Berry, 4th
"By this, the first issue of the JOHnlal Artv.
rities. rendering the publication use-
of the U Ilited States Artillery, is real-
". a fear that "proved to be wholly
ized, we \'enture to belie\-e, a hope long- In the second year of the publication's
cherished by the more progressive offi- existence, the form of management was
Personal letters were written to indi-
cers of the arm. ". ". ". In no branch of
ridual officers stating the terms of the changed. Lt. Ruckman was given en-
the military service is progress so rapid, tire charge of the editorial management
IOject and asking a contribution of
development so unexpected, as in the (editing by committee has rarely proved
2.50. This netted subscriptions from
Artillery. Almost all the arts and in- successful), and a committee of Direc-
(j) of the 288 officers then in the
dustries are drawn upon to furnish in tion and Publication was established.
JIlillery, thereby assuring $400 for the
greater or less degree, their share in This committee consisted of:
[$tyear. Evidently there was some op-
extending its sphere, in widening its
jKlSitionas well as indifference. Gen-
applications. \\Tar grows more and more Col. Henry W. Clossen, 4th
Iral Ruckman continued: "\Vith these
exacting in the requirements it makes Artillery
,lara.Lieutenant \Villcox and the writer
of those who make its practical study Capt. James 1'1. Ingalls, 1st Ar-
isited the Commandant of the School,
Colonel Royal T. Frank, at his house, their profession. True of all arms, this tillery
lIld outlined a plan of procedure. At remark applies with peculiar force to our Capt. Edmund Zalinski, 5th Ar-
first he wished to call the officers to- own, for it is in it especially that progress tillery
gether for a general discussion, but was opens up an increasingly widening field. Lt. Erasmus vVeaver, 2nd Artil-
persuaded to proceed to business. A For us, the development of our artillery lery
general discussion at a meeting of offi- is of especial interest. The proper or- Lt. George O. Squier, 3rd Ar-
~rs at that time would certainly have ganization and administration of this arm tillery
lilled the scheme and postponed action is perhaps the great purely military prob-
for sever~1 years. \Vhen he was in- lem that calls for solution in our land. This arrangement lasted at least until
formed that the manuscript for the first ". ". ". As artillery literature is increasing the May-June issue of 1902, at which
number was on hand, he said 'Turn it day by day in volume and interest, so it time the names of the members of the
in and we will start.''' will be the aim of the JOURNALin some committee disappeared from the mast-
The first issue was dated January, sort to serve as a guide to those engaged head. During this period, of course,
1892 and distributed in February. Its in research and investigation." the membership of the committee and
table of contents: The two technical articles on pro- the editor were changed with varying
jectiles by Ruckman and Gosset were frequency.
I-Announcement. scholarly pieces, each including dia-
II-The Effect of \Vind on the grams, tables and mathematical deduc-
J'\lotion of a Projectile, by tions. Lieutenant Simpson's paper on CONTINUING with the same high
Lieutenant John \V. Ruck- artillery organization came out flat-
standard, the JOURNAL published as a
man, 1st Artillery. footedly for a re-organization of the quarterly and included during the first
III-The Determination of the Artillery, saying: year articles by E. M. \Veaver, G. N.
Velocities of Projectiles by \Vhistler, and \V. \Valke, then lieuten-
"Now things are changing. Peo- ants and later to become eminent artil-
1'Ieans of Sound Phenom-
ple are beginning to realize that lerymen. Also included were "Field
ena, by Captain Fernand
our sea-ports need defending, and Artillery, Its Organization and Its Role,"
Gosset, French Marine
that adequate defense cannot be by Lt. C. D. Parkhurst and "Time Fuze
improvised at short notice. If we and Shrapnel Fire," by Lt. A. D.
IV-Our Artillery Organization,
get these defenses we want a proper Schenk. However, from the first issue
by Lieutenant \V. A.
personnel. vVe need a corps or- it was predominantly a Coast Artillery
Simpson, Adjutant, 2nd
ganization, with a chief, a central Journal.
head. He would be at army head- A "special number," .No. 5, rounded
V-Range Tables for the 12-Inch
quarters, with the seat of govern- out 1892, including French and Ger-
Cast-iron B.L. 1'10rtar, by
ment." man translations on the merits of "Krupp
Captain James J'\1. Ingalls,
1st Artillery. vs. Canet Guns." It was really an Ord-
Colonel Frank designated a commit-
VI-The Chilean Navy, by lieu- nance number. It also included an in-
tee of five officers to manage the JOUR-
tenant H. C. Davis, 3rd dex for the year, a financial statement,
Artillery. and a list of subscribers.
VII-Book Notices-Clark's For- 1st Lt. vVilIiam B. Homer, 5th On that list we find Governor Levi K.
tifications, Maurice's \Var, Arty. Fuller of Vermont, General Faries of
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 3
Louisiana, nine Ordnance officers, and sudden awakening from our Rip
Artillery Lieutenants Arthur Murray, Van Winkle nap) published his
Tasker Bliss, M. F. Harmon, J. D. Bar- Graphic Tables of Fire. It is true
rette, Adelbert Cronkhite, '''m. Snow, that Captain Ingalls had already
'''m. Lassiter, and P. C. March. blazed a way through the hithert~
In 1893 Editor Ruckman sent out a unbroken wilderness, but it re-
circular letter to Artillery officers out- quired too much work and wom
lining the scope and inviting discussion to apply his formulae to our daily to
on "Coast Artillery Fire Instruction," practice. Therefore it was a happy
dividing it into three periods: ballistic inspiration that prompted Lieuten-
firing, target firing, and tactical firing. ant '''histler to reduce the results
The response was a sensation. Fifteen of Captain Ingalls's labors and SO
officers submitted their organized com- present it that 'he who runs may
ments to make the April, 1894 issue an read.' "
instructive and fascinating issue to this
day. In Lt. 'Vea\'er's comprehensive c
ments he refers to a practice at a mOl-
Lt. Ceo. O. Squier orients us, ing target:
"In looking back over the past six
years of practice we find: Maj. Gen. Erasmus M. \Veaver "At Fort l\'lonroe in the summer
of 1887 Captain S. 1\1. Mills, 5th
a. Practice with the 4.5-inch
Artillery, then in charge of target c
muzzle-loading riRe is danger- which had been done with it up to
practice, had a target towed across
ous on account of the liabil- this time. ". ". ". Before beginning
the field of fire and it was fired at
ity of bursting the gun. battery target practice with any gun
from a 15-inch S. B. gun. The
b. The 8-inch converted riRe we should know all we can learn
practice was not good. The diffi-
will shoot accurately if intel- about its performance from the
culties connected with the practi-
ligently handled. most careful and intelligent ballis-
cal problem of causing the projec-
c. Practice with the 13-inch and tic firing by a competent board of
tile and target to meet at a guessed-
lO-inch sea coast mortars is artillery experts."
at point ahead, were, I think, a
useless and in many cases
revelation to most of those who
detrimental, unless they are Lt. Willoughby Walke stressed bal-
were called upon to fire the gun.
provided with suitably leveled listic firing:
The experiments had to be dis-
continued after a few trials be-
d. The 8-inch and lO-inch siege "For years it has been difficult to
cause of objections raised by the
mortars, quite contrary to impress upon those in immediate
captain and crew of the boat."
manual, should be pointed charge of target practice the impor-
and elevated before loading. tance of securing, previous to
marching to the guns, the necessary And then upon realism in target prac-
e. The utmost care should be tice:
taken to insure uniform 'den- ballistic data for an intelligent lay-
sity of loading' with the 8- ing of the piece. It has been quite
sufficient for all purposes if the "v"hatever is done should be, in
inch converted riRe.
ordnance officer or ordnance ser- so far as possible, an exemplifica-
geant has copied from the heads of tion of what we would have to do
h. The great practical value of the barrels the granulation and in action against hostile war ships.
'Vhistler's graphic tables of specific gravity of the powder, and It seems that we come wide of this
fire has been shown in the sent that information to the record- mark. ". ". ". 'Ve strain after cer-
practice with the 8-inch con- er in time to fill up the blank. In tain refinements which are possible
verted riRe." years gone by, and even now occa- on the proving ground and of serv-
sionally (when a lot of 1867 pow- ice in determining range tables,
Then he gives his idea on ballistic der is used for 1894 practice), the but which cannot be put in prac-
firing: valuable information, the initial ve- tice in the rush and excitement of
locit)" determined presumably when combat."
"The few shots which were so the powder was packed and stored,
carefully and intelligently utilized is also found suitably painted in Lundeen, Whistler, Davis, and John
in a study of the 8-inch converted white letters on a black barrel head! Hamilton were also among the dis-
riRe at Fort i\lonroe gave us more The practical application of this tinguished authors. Editor Ruckman
real, tangible, valuable results as data was given but little thought, later commented, "this number caused
far as the treatment and behavior of certainly never intelligently used such interest in artillery practice that
this particular gun is concerned until Lieutenant \Vhistler (to in the season of 1894 the hitting capac-
than all the irregular battery firing whom be given all credit for the it)' of the batteries increased almost
4 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
"Ond belief, and impro\'ement con- instructor in the School. In 1908 he
ued during the successive years." reappeared in Practical Coast Artillery
Gunnery, in which he stressed "hits per
gun per minute" as the accurate cri-
ROFESSIONAL NOTES" was in- terion for a firing battery. He continued
uced as a section in the JOUlli"AL as a frequent contributor.
the January, 1894 issue, de\'eloping At this same time Captain Alston
to a valuable and long-continued fea- Hamilton also became a frequent con-
reo Usually included were reprints tributor on ballistics, gunnery and armor
translations of foreign and other penetration. He was acquiring fame as
e1v material of professional interest a successor to Ingalls as the ballistician.
a;tillerymen. As ml example, Sep- The 1\ larch-April, 1907 issue carried
lber, 1912 issue reprinted a letter an editorial article, Attacks Upon For-
IIBenjamin Franklin "Relative To tified Harbors. Referring to an article,
he Use Of Oil For Stilling The same subject,.in the Proceedillgs of the
rares." U. S. Naval 11IStitute, reprinted in
Beginning with 1896 the JOUR... L A
.... Artillery Notes No. 28, and to joint op-
ame a bi-monthly publication, a erations in Cuba under Sampson and
basis generally maintained throughout Shafter, Editor Hero's sound lessons
tS existence, except for a twelve-year for joint operations, as well as for coast
Maj. Gen. Andrew Hero, Jr.
oeriod, 1\ lav 1919 to April 1931, when artillery, made the editorial a classic.
t was published as a monthly. \Var Forty years ahead of his time, he fin-
;aused a few issues to be consolidated, of Coast Artillery, an able and frequent ished his editorial on this prophetic
nrstin 1899, next and last in 1917 and contributor, served as editor for the note:
1918. March-April 1902 issue. Captain John
Lieut. John P. \Visser was assigned D. Barrette followed him and is shown "In selecting commanders for
/s editor, succeeding Lieu!. Ruckman on the masthead of the May-June, 1902 future joint operations, it would be
in 1896 as the result of a request issue as editor and manager. The Edi- wise to select generals conversant
through channels," which evidently torial Committee disappeared with the with Captain Mahan's writings,
;ettled the question of official recogni- same Issue. and admirals who have made a
cionof the JOURNALand of its impor- Captain Andrew Hero, Jr., later Chief close study of wars on land."
unce. Lieu!. Ruckman had served as of Coast Artillery, ably guided the
editor in addition to his official duties JOURNAL during the years 1902-1907.
aspolice and ordnance officer. I-Ience- His article in January-February 1903, THE JOURNALmade no mention of
forward, our periodical rated a full-time entitled A Step Forward, cites the bene- the separation of the Coast and Field
editor. fits of the act of February 2, 1901, an Artillery in 1907, at which time the
Captain \Visser continued the quality act which increased and reorganized the Chief of Artillery, General Arthur
of the magazine and broadened its Regular Army, discontinued the regi- Murray, became Chief of Coast Artil-
content, contributing himself by origi- mental organization in the artillery, lery. The only evidence was the "Coast
nal writings, by compilations and by and established the Artillery Corps with Artillery Corps" following the names
translations from the German. thirty Field Artillery batteries, 126 com- of the editors and authors. The crossed
His article, The Artillery in Battle, panies of Coast Artillery and a Chief of cannon insignia had picked up its super-
his translation of Von der Goltz's Prin- Artillery, with a total enlisted strength imposed projectile several years before.
ciples of \<\I'ar, and his compilation of a of 17,742. One outstanding virtue of the JOUR-
history of the Second Boer War are Captain Frank \V. Coe, also later to NAL during the first fifteen years of its
notable. become Chief of Coast Artillery, devel- existence was the quality of its illustra-
The quickening interest in seacoast oped the manning table idea for deter- tions. Although engraving processes,
artillery during the Nineties is evident mining harbor defense personnel needs printing paper, and photographic artis-
in the articles published in the JOURNAL. in his Coast Artillery Organization in try were all at a comparatively low level
~ew materiel, new fire control meth- same issue. And to add interest, a fine in those days, the JOURNALillustrations
ods, and a new outlook on the missions argument and plan for regimental or- were remarkable for clarity and detail.
I and capabilities of the arm brought
.about a wealth of searching articles by
ganization in the Coast Artillery were
presented by Captain Oliver L. Spauld-
Volume 32, for 1909, included a line
drawing of a woman in a nightgown
I scholarly authors. Rifling of cannon, ing in the 1\ lay-June 1904 issue. (an illustration for a bedding advertise-
Igun carriages, ballistics, notes on for- The July-August 1906 number was ment) and more color, this time an il-
leign seacoast installations, and subma- devoted largely to Armor and Ships, lustration of a steam-boiler recording
rine mine defenses were topics under written by Captain John \V. Gulick, chart.
discussion. also later to become Chief of Coast In 1910, Lieu!. Frank S. Clark (edi-
Advertising increased: one brand of Artillery. It was later reprinted as a tor later) won the prize essay competi-
whiskey was included. text for use at The Artillery School. tion with an essay titled, The Organi-
Captain E.1\[. \Vea\'er, later Chief At this time Captain Gulick was an zation and Training of Coast Artillery
MARCH-APRil, 1953 5
Troops, Including Resen'es and Sup- the 155mm guns and all heavier
pons, \ Vhich \ ViII Insure their i\ laxi- artillery. Field Artillery manned
mum Efficiency. in Time of Peace, After 155mm howitzers and lighter ani
their \ Vithdrawal from the Coast For- The Coast Artillery also furnished
tifications. The titles of thirtv vears sonnel for trench artillery, antiair
ago were documents in th,emseh-es; in artillery, ammunition trains, and rail
1911 Captain John S. Johnston won artillen'.
the competition with a piece titled,
\Vhat is the Best Organization of the
Coast Artillery Corps, United States
Army, for Tactical Control and Admin-
Xi\' i\lay, 1919, the JOUl\."<ALbecafll!
monthly, continuing so until l\la
istration, Including its Relation to Exist- 1931, when it returned to a hi-mom
ing Staff Departments-Both for Peace status. In July, 1931 the subscript'
and \Var? Captain Paul D. Bunker were upped 50 cents to $3.00 and h
won the competition for both 1912 and continued the same ever since.
1913, the first with an article on sea- urgency of war was past but milit
coast projectiles, and the second with a interest was still at white heat. The
piece on the mine defense of harbors. was off as far as secrecy was concern
To the beginning of the first \Vorld and the JOURNALwas packed with .
'vVar, in 1914, there was little change Maj. Gen. Henry D. Todd, Jr. formation about the war that could
in the magazine. An article on Gun be published before. Lieut. Co\. Fra
An original subscriber.
Erosion, by Lieut. Comdr. H. E. Yarnell, S. Clark relieved Colonel R. R. We
U.S. Navy, gave little hint of the diplo- prize in the 1915 contest on the "Effect himer as editor in October. The
matic capabilities this officer would ex- upon r.leasures for Coast Defense of torials of both were strong and pe
hibit in the preliminary jockeying for the Development of Submarine and nent, and are said to have had th
position in 'vVorld 'vVar II, or of the Aerial Attack." In 1916 he changed his effect in the organization of the
accuracy of his estimate of the inten- subject to railway artillery and won war army. Much of the material in t
tions of Japan. again. Again in 1918 Lt. Co!. Fred i\1. magazine had to do with mobile la
In the May-June issue of 1915, Green also won with a railway artillery artillery, a natural result of the Co
Lieutenant Samuel H. IVlcLeary had subject. duties in France, where a large part
published a long article, The Aeroplalle 'vVorld "Var I writers on antiaircraft the Coast Artillery units performed
in Coost Defense. As might be ex- included l\lajor T. Q. Ashburn, the late heavy land artillery.
pected, Lieut. McLeary made a number Co!. E. J. \Vallace, Major Glenn P. The Beaten Zone, one of the m
of poor guesses, but the surprising thing Anderson and Oliver L. Spiller, now popular features ever to appear in th
is that so many of his predictions were Brigadier General, retired. JOURNAL,began in r.larch, 1920. Th
proved correct. In 1917 Col. John A Lundcen, re- feature's purpose, as statcd in the firs
In the same year the second ;nticle by tircd, was recalled to active duty and issue in which it appeared, was "T
Lieut. Hobert Arthur was published appointed editor in addition to his duties supply a definite and progressivc mean
-Historical Sketch of the Coast Artil- as harbor defense commander. Natu- of self-instruction to reserve officers,
lery School. I-Iis first article, Armor rally, the JOURNALpublication suffered. young regular officers (verily pcrhaps
and its Application to Ships, had ap- Only three issues were published in even the older regular officers), enlisted
peared a year before. Licut. Arthur's 1918. The pace of work at the School specialists and ROTC college students,
historical research and writing have printing plant was the greatest obstacle who desire assistance in their effort to
made him nationally famous. His ar- to regular printing. The JOURNALhad keep abreast of Coast Artillery tactics.
ticles on early Colonial forts, Virginia low priority at the plant, and Sgt. techniques and administration."
to i\laine, appeared later in the JOURNAL Charles H. i\liller, who was holding the The applicatory method was used.
in the nineteen twenties before he be- fort while the editor devoted most of l\luch of the material was reminiscent
came the JOURNALeditor in 1925. his time to his numerous other duties, of present-day extension courses, al-
In 1915 Lt. Co!. Henry D. Todd, Jr. got the magazine out by haunting the though presented with more informal-
(now i\ lajor General, retired) relie\'ed printing plant and pouncing when a ity. l\'lajor J. C. Haw, assistant editor at
Major Williams as editor. About the linotype or press was momentarily not the time, did most of the spade work
same time we note a trend away from in use. This catch-as-catch-can method in the operation of the department.
emphasis on technical articles that are produced results to a marked degree. A Colonel Clark (now Brig. Gen. Retired).
now considered the proper sphere of the successful attempt was made to incor- the editor, took great personal interest
Ordnance Corps. porate live material in the magazine; the in the feature. Many Coast Artillery-
The war in Europe inlluenced more war was a source of inspiration for most men submitted problems for considera-
attention to heavy mobile and railway of the articles. tion.
artillery. The antiaircraft gun and the In France the Coast Artillery fur- The same issue of the JOURNALan-
submarine mine also drew increased at- nished for the American Expeditionary nounced the cessation of paid advertis-
tention. Forces of General Pershing the artillery ing, pursuant to act of Congress. Liai-
Lt. Col. Meade \Vildrick won first reserve and army artillery. It manned son, a newsy little magazine published
6 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
an adjunct of the JOURNAL for the strong. outspoken. and respectful. It
rpose of keeping contact between the mioht be said that they make the best
en-present members of the Corps and reading in the issues of the period.
wartime members, was discontinued By 1926 the influence of aircraft in
,\ . reason of the same law. warfare showed its effect on the con-
The December, 1921 issue was the tents page. Antiaircraft was stressed, as
rst to be printed elsewhere than the was the role of the airplane in attack
-hool printing plant. An act of Con- and defense of harbor defense installa-
required special authorization for oad£ets that aid and
tions. i\ lam' of the b ~
" blications to be printed in government puzzle Coast Artillerymen today made
:rinting plants, and the authorization their first appearance in the JOU&~AL
I for the JOU&~AL was withheld. The of this time.
\ magazine was printed in Hampton, Vir- . The statement, "The Coast Artillery
jnia, at the plant of the Houston Pub- JOHTllal pays for original articles upon
n Iishing Company. The hasty move re- publication" appeared for the first time
i ;ulted in a particularly small issue, with in July, 1928. while Colonel Robert
d theBeaten Zone among the missing. Arthur was editor.
~ The financial blow was serious. \Vith
x adrertising so suddenly cut off such a
1 ,hart time before, this second strike Brig. Gen. Frank S. Clark IN April 1929, the editorial offices of
the JOURNAL moved to the U. S. In-
; ~ight have staggered less self-reliant or
fantry Association Building in \\Tash-
I' less resourceful men, but the editors
value of the civilian troops in a rapid ington, D. C. The March number an-
,. of the JOURNALhad no thought of re-
mobilization for war was well recog- nounced:
r tiring .from the field. They tightened
nized after World \Var 1.
their belts and went after more sales in
August, 1923 marked the disappear. "After thirtv-seven years at Fort
the Book Department.
ance of The Beaten Zone. In October Monroe, the JOURNA~ leaves that
The issue of January, 1922 was of the same year there came to the station with reluctance, but busi-
back in the familiar red cover. The JOURNALa new editor, iVlajor Joseph A. ness reasons dictate the move.
Coast Artillery School imprint was back Green, later Chief of Coast Artillery. Closer relationship with the other
again-the special authorization had evi- Advertising, too, made its reappearance service publications, with the Office
dently come through. The Beaten Zone with this issue, but the JOURNAL had of the Chief of Coast Artillery, and
was back on deck. Almost the entire to move from the School printing plant, with the Corps seems to have be-
issuewas devoted to the National Guard. this time for good. \Vith the resump- come necessarv and to outweigh
The lead editorial was a plea to those tion of advertising, the quality of the the advantage; of location at Fort
in the regular establishment to learn paper stock took a decided lift; slick i\.lonroe."
more about the Guard, that the "in- paper made the illustrations stand out.
spiration, training, and leadership of a The lead editorial, Reason to Rejoice, After the move to \Vashington Major
great citizen war army" might not be and an article, A Regimental Orgmziza-
S. S. Giffin became editor and Staff Ser-
lacking. tion for the Coast Artillery Corps, by geant Charles R. i\liller was carried as
The February issue, continuing the Lieut. Col. H. C. Barnes in the April, business manager, a position he had in
theme, was devoted to the ROTC. 1924 JOU&~AL, announced the reor- fact filled untitled for many years. He
About this time the magazine began ganization of troops assigned to the fixed was a main wheel on the staff over a
to deviate from its preoccupation with harbor defenses into regiments, effec- period that began before \V\VI and
the stories of the war, and began to tive June 30, 1924 .. As the Editor said: which did not end until his well earned
concentrate on current training prob- "The organization of the Coast Defense retirement after \V\VII.
lems. In this year the Coast Artillery Commands into regiments is a cause for YOH Tell 'Em, or letters to the editor,
Board gave notice through the JOUR- rejoicing in the hearts of all Coast Artil- appeared in September of 1929, as did
~AL that the ideas of all Coast Artillery- lerymen. It is a change in policy that the Activities section. Also at this time,
men were desired for consideration by meets with universal approval within subscriptions hit a new low. It was too
the Board. Coast Artillery Board Notes the Corps." long after the first \Vorld \Var, and too
, beg,n " , dep,"ment ;n the m'ga,jne. In June, 1924, appeared the Centen- long before the 1939 wave of prepared-
nial Number, in commemoration of the ness. The late lamented depression of
l00th birthday of the Coast Artillery October, 1929 did the rest. By December
I KN July, 1922, the name was finally School. In November of the same year of that year, the circulation curve was
I changed to the Coast Artillery JOHrnal, there appeared the Summer Camps at the lowest point in the JOURNAL'S
a change that could have been made ap- Number. The importance of the citizen recent history.
propriately from the very beginning. army was recognized, and the Corps i\lajor St~wart S. Giffin, the editor
The JOURNALof this period was de- was making a real effort to make training during those dark days, fought manfully
voting much space to the National thorough and practical. to hold his circulation and to gain new
Guard and Organized Reserve. The The editorials of this period were subscribers. i\lanv of us remember his
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 7
personal letters-they were masterpieces
stressed as the only additional soultt
of ''The JOUJL.'OAL expects e\'ery man to income for the ]OUJL.'OAL; the a
do his duty" type-and they must have received from subscriptions did not
worked. The curve began its slow even the mechanical costs of the pu
upward climb. cation. 1ll
After the move to \Vashington and Lieut. Col. Eli E. Bennett took III
after i\Iajor General Gulick, Chief of as editor in 1933 when the Arm\'
Coast Artillery, heard some intimation occupied largely with CCC m~t
that the JOUJL.'OAL as a house organ Soon thereafter, howe\-er, the JOUR.~
for the Chief, he appointed an Ad\'isory reHected the increasing activity and
Council of three senior Coast Artillerv velopment in antiaircraft. Articles
officers in \Vashington, none of whom scribed the Lewis Charts designed
served under the Chief, to direct the our present Army Antiaircraft
JOURNAL activities. This Council con- mander for use in preparation of A
sisted of: nre. Captain Robert \V. Crichlow
plained his slide rule designed
Colonel Samuel e. Vestal widely used for a similar purpose.
Lt. Col. William 1-1. Wilson Captain William F. l\Iarquat in
Lt. Col. Frederick 1-1. Smith Tactical Employment of Searclllig
in 1935 suggested the then radical i
Maj. Gen. Joseph A. Green
(Major General \Vilson, now retired, of battlefield illumination for night
is our senior subscriber-began in 1901.) erations, which was to be used so
From this grew a committee of six Ca1'alry Jour/1lI1. fectively in World \Var II. J I
officers, one the editor, which drafted In the lean depression years, this Major \V. \V. Irvine, President of 0IlI' ~
in August, 1930 a constitution for the affiliation was designed to save all three Association a year ago, wrote a series ,
United States Coast Artillery Associa- of the journals from unnecessary ex- articles on organization and tactics f 5l
tion. This was promulgated with bal. pense by pooling hired civilian person- AAA in the late thirties. ~
lots and an explanatory letter, mailed to nel, office space, machinery, and to some
In 1934 Lieutenant Paul B. Kelh U]
officers of all components of the e.Ae. extent, printing costs. Articles of inter-
now a retired Brigadier General, wr~1 1
At a meeting in \Vashington, D. C., est to all three branches could be printed
an entertaining and thought'provokin. /
January 10, 1931, the proposed consti. with only one charge for typesetting and
piece, "I Will Gladly Pay Tuesday flJ P
tution (approved by 2,338 eligible mem- illustration.
a Hamburger Today," attacking the ,J
bers) was adopted and officers elected On February 23, 1931, the President Army "jawbone" system then in vogue n
by mail ballots. General Gulick served . signed the military appropriation act for
as the nrst Association President. Major Thomas R. Phillips (now l\IiI- I
the next fiscal year, which once more
Hencefonvard our magazine was prohibited the JOURNALfrom accepting itary Analyst, St. LOllis Post Dispatch: '
published under the supervision of the paid advertising. followed up his prize-winning article in
The Association or-
United States Coast Artillery Associa- dered that the magazine be published 1923 with a strong series of articles in '
tion. the thirties on air power, antiaircraft,
bi-monthly. The book business was
The main purpose of the Association leadership, and one debunking the prin-
has been to publish the JOURNAL;how- ciples of war.
ever, it has done much for the branch Major Aaron Bradshaw, Jr., who re-
by providing trophies and awards and cently retired in Europe as a Major
by its function as a rallying point for General, became the editor in Novem-
the branch leaders among the National ber 1936. His tenure saw the resurgence
Guard, Organized Resen'e, and active in military preparedness that foreshad.
duty members. owed \VvVII and an increasing interest
Since the war the only medal now in world events, all of which the JOUR'I
awarded is the one presented annually NAL presented in its articles and photo-
to the outstanding ROTC cadet in each graphs. He placed the Association on a
Senior ROTC AAA unit. sound business basis with a prosperous
sale of instruction books, and built up
during his tenure a substantial resen'e
T HE JOURNAL blossomed forth in
its present 81h x 11 format with the
l'vlajor Generals C. E. Kilbourne,
January, 1931 issue. The larger format Johnson Hagood, W. K. Wilson and
and the higher grade paper made pos- A H. Sunderland, and Brig. Gen. RoD-
sible better presentation of illustrations, ert S. Abernethy continued as contribu-
better page makeup, and also permitted tors during the period.
the magazine to exchange articles in As the expansion activity accelerated,
type with the Infantry Journal and the Maj. Gen. John W. Gulick more attention was given to field train-
8 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
o. Lieut. General LeRoy Lutes pub- devastation from enemy land artillery
~ed his SOP for G4 in 1941 based led to the surrender.
his experience with the Third Army
Texas and Louisiana maneuvers.
Co\. Charles G. Sage wrote from As
the Axis air and na\'al forces' de-
teriorated in 1944 and 1945, a great
ort Bliss Dry Land Coast Artillery in
q.;1 a few months before he led the number of AAA and seacoast units were
_ h CA (AA) to the Philippines and deactivated to provide personnel for
(aan. infantry and other units. By 1946
;\t the same time Lt. Col. A. C. ~ 1. practically all of the Coast Artillery
\10\' was contributing his articles on units were either inactivated or assigned
.~Histor)' of the Coast Artillery Corps. to other tasks.
Captain Robert J. \Vood (now Briga- \ Vhen Colonel William 1. Brady took
dier General) was writing You're III over as Editor in January 1946 the JOUR-
The Arm)' Ncnv, Call To Arms, and NAL circulation was dropping rapidly.
Decision had already been reached to
Colonels Robert Arthur and R. E. do away with the harbor defenses. \Vith
Turley were writing about barrage bal- only two active AAA battalions left in
kJonsin AAA. the United States the morale in the
branch was low.
Lieut. Gen. LeRoy Lutes That was a time when the value of
COL. CHARLES THOl\IAS-STAHLEbe- the Association came to a true light.
camethe editor in 1940, but served only Fortunately, General Lutes and Colo-
General Case says "\Vithout too many
I few months. Col. W. S. Phillips fol- nel Brady had the reserve funds which
blank spots it was possible to disentangle
lowedhim, and in turn was relieved by General Green and the editors from
the complex causes of the damage to the
0>\. Frederic A. Price in l\'larch 1942. Bradshaw to Price had so wisely tucked
only large harbor defense ever reduced
Subject to security restrictions the away. These they used judiciously to
in battle. It is interesting to note that
JOURNALwas aggressively reporting maintain the high standards of the
not one shot was ever nred by the
upon the experience and lessons from JOURNAL.
enemy navy in the process." However,
the \Var. The circulation continued to Foreseeing a certain expansion even-
the Japs purchased it at a terrific cost.
expand under Colonel Price to reach a tually in the antiaircraft and guided
Protecting the rear and Hanks of Ba-
peak in late '43 of almost 10,000. The missile fields, General Lutes assembled
taan, as it did, Corregidor warded off
Association prospered and under wise the Antiaircraft leaders from the Guard,
Jap Naval interference in that epic de-
management a substantial reserve fund the Reserve and the Regulars and led
fense and enabled \Vainwright's gallant
was tucked away for the rough days the movement to bolster the morale
force to hold out long enough to upset
ahead. and esprit.
completely Japan's war schedule in the
Early in 1942 when the combat arms Likewise Colonel Brady called on
Far East. Then the troops on Corregi-
chiefs' offices were eliminated under Antiaircraft authors to spark the JOUR-
dor continued the resistance until the
the Army reorganization, Maj. Gen. NAL. Among the articles published was
lack of water at Corregidor and the
Joseph A. Green, our last chief, took a series of interesting articles covering
o\'er the Army AA Command with the war history of the major AAA units
headquarters in Richmond and directed in all theaters. Looking to the future
the rapid eJo,:pansionand training of AAA the editor also published a series of
units in the states. General Green, CHIEFS OF ARTILLERY valuable articles by our leading officers
always zealously active in the interests Brig. Gen. Wallace F. Randolph 1903-1904 and civilian scientists in the guided
Brig. Gen. John P. Story 1904-1905 missile and atomic fields. Soon he had
of the JOURNAL,continued as the Asso-
Brig. Gen. Samuel M. Mills 1905-1906
ciation President until he was relieved the JOURNAL circulation again on a
Brig. Gen. Arthur Murray 1906-190B
by Lt. Gen. LeRoy Lutes in early 1945. steady climb. In 1948 the name was
i\leanwhile, Col. E. B. Walker re- CHIEFS OF COAST ARTILLERY changed to THE ANTIAIRCRAFTJOUR-
lieved Colonel Price as editor in Janu- Brig. Gen. Arthur Murray ..... 1908-1911 NAL.
iary 1944 and continued to report the Maj.
Erasmus M. Weaver .1911-191B
Frank W. Cae 1918-1926
The present editor took over in June,
War activities of the Coast Artillerv 1950. The July-August issue summa-
Maj. Gen. Andrew Hen, Jr 1926-1930
Corps, through 1945. ' Maj. Gen. John W. Gulick 1930-1934
rized the Army Reorganization Act of
The Specia~ Corregidor Issue, March- Maj. Gen. William F. Hase ., .. 1934-1935 1950, reuniting the Artillery. It also
April, 1945, in which Colonel Stephen Maj. Gen. Harry L. Steele 1935-1936 reparted the establishment of the Army
~1. rvlellnik gave his eyewitness ac- Maj. Gen. A. H. Sunderland 1936-1940 Antiaircraft Command, with Major
Maj. Gen. J. A. Green 1940-1944*
Gen. \Villard \\1. II\'ine as its nrst com-
COuntof Hcnv The Japs Took Corregi-
dor, was an outstanding \Var issue. 'General Green actually served as the Command- manding general. Before that issue ap-
ing General of the Antiaircraft Command during the
Supplementing this is \Var Damage to last two years.
peared, however, the communists had
Corregidor by Brigadier General Homer invaded South Korea.
Case, in the i\1ay-June 1947 issue. The conHict which followed has
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 9
probably aroused and amazed our people cussion, study. From the telescope
as have few war campaigns in history. the range finder, to radar; from the
To start with, it rudely wiped out some ting room to the director the JOUR.\
prevalent and false ideas about push- was closely integrated into the life
button warfare. It also restored in some esprit of the Coast Artillery. And SO
degree to its proper perspecti\'e the im- continued until 1950 when the
portance on the battlefield of the ground Artillery Corps ceased to exist. Bef(
soldier. In those campaigns the AM that, however, the Coast Artillery Jll'
troops ha\'e been in the hottest of it, pIe had become the Antiaircraft Art;,
side by side with the Infantf\', Armor, lery. So the A;\'TlAIRCRAFf JOUR.\
Artillerv and have establish~d firml" marched on without any perceptih
their pl~ce on the Armv combat team. ' change in purpose or loss of spirit.
\"lith splendid help and a series of From its inception the JOUR."
top flight articles from i\ la jor General achieved distinction for its scientific eJ
\Vm. F. Marquat, United Nations AAA plorations and development in
Officer, the JOURNAL gave full cover- fields of artillery interest; first in baf hit
age on the AAA troops in Korea. The listics, gunnery, ordnance materiel, a betl
JOURNAL brought to the AAA Troops position finding; later in power, elec;iln
in training the world over the stories of tronics, and communications. It helped e
AAA in Korea from the colonels, the Lieut. Gen. John T. Lewis to establish in the Coast Artillery .Ie
captains, and the corporals in command. President, Antiaircraft Association high standard in precision. And alwa)1 1
We should mention a few like Colonels when we have been keen enough to ~
Hain and O'Mallev; Lieut. Colonels maintain a balance in that precision \\~ n
Ackert, Cheal, Killil~e, Henf\' and Tate; have been on solid ground indeed. l
Lieutenants Robert Morriso~, William EDITORS OF THE JOURNAL At times the JOURNAL may have erred mC
Keeling, and Paul VanTure. Lieutenant John W. Ruckman .. 1893-1895 but it has usually been progressive and the
. This brings us up to current history; Captain John P. Wisser 1896-1902 constantly striving to find and publicize thi
however, we'll mention from last year Captain Erasmus M. Weaver .. 1902 a better way to do the job next time au
Captain John D. Barrette 1902
the series of artic1es from Lieutenant vVhenever we learned to shoot the gun' :hi
Captain Andrew Hero, Jr. 1902-1907
General leRoy Lutes' diary on some of Major Thomas W. Winston 1907-1912 straighter, or to maintain the equipmem .1
his own practical problems and experi- Major James M. Williams 1912-1915 better, or to defend the installation more Ie
ences in directing the supply of all our Colonel Henry D. Todd, Jr 1915-1917 effectively, or to support the Navy, the ,h
fighting forces during World War II. Colonel John A. Lundeen 1917-1918 Air Force, or other Army elements better. b)
Colonel Robert R. Welsh mer 1919
The Journal of tIle U Hited States
Lt. Co/. Frank S. Clark 1919-1923
we have gone to the JOURNAL to publish ;,
Artillery was founded nine vears before Major Joseph A. Green 1923-1925 it. \Vhen our troops distinguished them- dl
the Artillery Corps was o~ganized in Major Robert Arthur 1925-1929 selves in battle, as they have done so dl
190 I, and fifteen years before the sepa- Major Stewart A. Giffin 1929-1933 well in Korea, the JOURNAL took the 31
ration into the Coast Artillery Corps and Lt. Co/. Eli E. Bennett 1933-1936 lead in extolling their achievements. t
Major Aaron Bradshaw, Jr 1936-1940
the Field Artillery in 1907; however, Thus the JOURNAL has contributed to (
Colonel Chas. Thomas-Stahle .. 1940-1941
from the beginnino I:> it was essentiallv , the Colonel Wilmer S. Phillips 1941-1942 the esprit and fighting elTectiveness of
Coast Artillery Journal, a name it did Colonel Frederick A. Price 1942-1943 the Antiaircraft Artillery.
not adopt until 1922. If the Coast Artil- Colonel Eugene B. Walker 1944-1945 Now as we undertake to initiate a new
lery interest were in Civil \Var Rodman Colonel William /. Brady 1946-1950 chapter in the life of this JOURNAL, we
Colonel Charles S. Harris 1950-
or Dahlgren guns, or rifled guns and do so in growing strength and in full
disappearing carriages, that interest was readiness to carryon. Our guiding pur-
reHected in the JOURNAL. pose will be to continue the fine spirit
When that interest shifted in 'vVorld antiaircraft artilleries, the JOURNAL was and traditions of this JOURNAL since
"Var I to railway, mobile, trench, and in the forefront with description, dis- 1892.
The HISTORY OF THE FRENCH FIRST ARMY
\Vith a preface by Gen. fisenhower and an appreciation by Liddell I-Iart, l\larshal de Lattre covers the war
from December 1943 through to its conclusion. In his treatment of international controversies de Lattre adds
stature to his book and himself with his restraint and dignity. He was an artist in warfare, but one with iron
will and fierce drh-ing power. He had deeply engrained faults, as he knew himself, but high military virtues.
The story told by the commander of the French First Army is a notable one little known as yet in this country.
by Marshal £Ie LaUre £Ie Tassigny $6.75
10 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
THE ~5PIRITOF THE CORPS-A GUIDE
FOR THE FUTURE
By LT. eOL. JOHN B. B. TRUSSELL, JR.
J T HE Coast Artillery Corps was es-
tablished in 1907 by legislative action
only by preserving the organizational
patterns of the past, regardless of the
terials-sand re\'eaed with palmetto logs.
Behind these rude walls stood a motley
~ which recognized the functional division conditions of the present, is to confuse collection of cannon, gleaned from ships
between field and coast artillery mis- form with substance. It is to mistake and militia arsenals. But the gunners
t ~ions. Forty-three years later, in 1950, the meaning of the lessons taught by who stood by the pieces, ready to leap
the Artillery was reestablished as a sin- the heroic achievements of the men into action at the order of their com-
I glearm . whose names make up the long roster mander, Colonel \Villiam 1\ loultrie,
. Those are the bare facts. But they of the Corps. made up in determination what they
( do not tell the story or hint at the gal- The deeds which gave birth to our may have lacked in experience.
• lant tradition of the Corps. tradition give us just cause for pride, For hours the British ships stood off,
There are those who look upon the but in the ston' of those deeds there is pounding away .at the fort with their
increasing integration of the artilleries as also a lesson and an obligation for us cannon and hurling enormous explosive
the death-knell of the fine traditions of today. To see that story as a whole, we projectiles from the mortars on their
the Coast Artillery. But the essence of must look back well before 1907 and bomb ketches. Throughout the day, the
the Coast Artillery was its spirit, and look forward beyond 1950, for the story Americans fired slowly, for their powder
the spirit of the heavy artillerymen was begins with the earliest major military supply was low and running lower. But
alll'ays one of service. Although the operations of the infant nation, fight- slow as it was, the AmeriClm fire was
rer\' nature of the mission meant that ing for its independence, and extends steady-and deadly. It rak~d the decks
this service was characterized more often through all American wars to date. of the British men-o'-war. The Ad-
by steadfastness than by dash, by the >(0 >(0 >(0
miral was wounded; his Rag-captain was
same token it demanded a high order of killed; every officer on the Ragship's
derotion. It demanded, further, a high Probablv the first clear-cut coastal de- quarterdeck became a casualtv. Finallv,
degree of adaptability, a readiness to fense operation by Americans was the goaded beyond endurance, (he Briti;h
adjust to changing conditions and to defense of Charleston, S. C. against the commander ordered two of his vessels
take such action as the new situations assault of a British Heet in the summer to run past the fort's front so as to catch
called for. of 1776. On the northern shore of the it on the Hank and turn its.interior into
To feel that the tradition of our gal- entrance to the harbor stood a make- a shambles with a deadlv crossfire.
lant predecessors can be maintained shift fort improvised of available ma- Fortune favored the ;\mericans that
World \X1ar I: Coast Artillery Fires Railway Gun in France. \XTorld \X1ar II: Self-propel1ed AA \X1eapon in the ETO.
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 11
da\'. The two vessels ne\'er completed his vessels forward. As they mm'ed up last that the men of the heavy
th~ir manem'er, for they ran aground the river into range they were met by would lav aside their rammer sta
in shoal water directly under the fort's a storm of iron. Hastily, the Admiral take up riRes. And when the Ame .
guns, which immediately seized the ordered a withdrawal. Once more, from launched the final blow against
opportunity thus offered. One of the a safe distance, the ships resumed their i\le),.;can capital, the blow which Was
vessels b)"oke loose, limping back to safe- bombardment. The American gunners bring the campaign to a close, they
ty, but the other lay helpless, being endured as best they could. vanced under the co\'er of fire f
pounded to pieces. Finally her captain Meanwhile, a force of British soldiers siege cannon which had been painf
ordered his crew to abandon ship, leav- was marching toward the city by land. and laboriously hauled from the
ing a slow match in the magazine. The Iney moved slowly, delayed by a de- It was an arduous task, but it eased
British Reet, thwarted by the American termined rear guard of American in- way for the infantry which stormed
defense, gave up the assault and sailed fantrvmen. As the enemy commander heights of Chapultepec.
away. cam; into \'iew of Balti~ore he saw
before him a strongly fortified height
across which he must fight his way to The Civil \Var was characterized
IT was almost forty years later, but
the enemy was again the British Navy
reach the city. There was only one way,
he decided: the Navy must reduce Fort
extensive maneuver on land and by F
eral superiority at sea. Both of th
i\IcHenry, then pound the fortified characteristics tended to minimize
and the determination of the gunners
height from the Rank while the British part which could be played by hea
was unchanged when the artillery de-
infantry smashed through. artillery. However, it is a frequent
tachments under Major George Armi-
The ships made one more gallant try, overlooked fact that the opening en
stead stood ready in the autumn of
and once again they could not pass the gagement of the war, the fight for F
1814 to defend ~he city of Baltimore
wall of fire laid down by McHenry's Sumter, was peculiarly a coast artill
against assault. Only weeks before, the
guns. The Admiral reluctantly sent action. It is true that the cannoneet1
\'ilIage which served the United States
word that he had failed. Reversing it- who manned the guns behind Fort Sum
as a capital city had fallen to the in-
self, the land force retraced its line of ter's brick walls were finally forced bt
vaders. Now the blackened ruins of its
march. Baltimore was saved, and the the tremendous, pounding punishmen
public buildings bore silent witness to
threat of foreign attack was laid to rest. of the fire of an overwhelmingly sUpt
the depths to which the country's for-
rior number of cannon to lower then
tunes had fallen.
Rag in surrender. But it is also true tha'
The men who found a precarious
the steadfastness of their defense "'ot
shelter behind the masonry-faced dirt MORE than thirty years went by one of the significant turning points 01
walls of Fort i\'icHenry looked down before the United States was faced the war.
the river toward the forest of approach- again with war. This time the enemy The garrison's commander, l\'lajor
ing enemy masts with grim foreboding, was Mexico, but Mexico had no navy Robert Anderson, was an artilleryman
but with no slackening in their firm in- and there was no requirement for coast who already had a distinguished career
tention to stand and fight and, if neces- defense of the United States. That doe~ behind him. His orders were ambiguous.
sary, to die in defense of the city. not mean that the heavy artillery stood leaving to him the option between re-
While the gun commanders were call- idle during the campaigns south of the sistance, which would almost certainly j
ing off the .ranges to their crews, the border. Siege artillery played a signifi- lead to war, and surrender without aI
line of British vessels was seen to halt, cant part in the reduction of the de- fight. It should not be forgotten that I
still out of range of the American guns, fenses of Monterey and in holding the the newly inaugurated administration
There was a Rash of £lame, a mushroom center of the line at Buena Vista. of Abraham Lincoln was not backed by
of smoke and then, booming dully across It was the fire of massive cannon a majority of public opinion.
the water, came the report of the first which forced the surrender of Vera There was a substantial body of senti-
British shot. Quickly other enemy ves- Cruz. True, when General \Vinfield ment throughout the country for ac-
sels took up the fire. The Americans Scott led his forces inland from Vera ceptance of Southern secession. But
replied, only to curse as their rounds Cruz toward Mexico City, some of the Anderson courageously chose the hard
sent up splashes well short of the targets. heavier artillery pieces had to be left and dangerous course, with results
Desperately the gun commanders behind because of lack of horses to which electrified the nation. By forcing
blocked up the muzzles of their pieces, drag the cannon through the mountains. the Confederates to strike the first bloll',
trying to extend the range by increas- But the officers and cannoneers did not he united the country overnight in a
lng the elevation. But the thrust of stay in the rear. Some of them manned passionate support of the President's
the recoil downward instead of back- captured Mexican field batteries. Nota- policy. The battle of Fort Sumter was
ward was more than the mounts could ble among these men was a young lieu- a tactical defeat; but without any ques-
'absorb and the first gun so fired was tenant, carried on the records as Thomas tion it was a moral and strategic victory.
hurled off the carriage, knocking over J. Jackson but known to history by the
some of its crew as it fell. sobriquet of "Stonewall."
The British Admiral, watching Still other heavy artillerymen became
through his telescope, sure that the time temporary infantrymen. This was nei- ON the Confederate side, heavy ar-
had come to move in for the kill, ordered ther the first time nor by any means the tillery did its part in many a hard-
fought battle. When, in 1862, a Union conduct of the Spanish-American War. tell again the details of the gallantry of
armY was in the verv outskirts of Rich- But the blunders brought out by the the men on "The Rock" who for weeks
Il1o~dand a naval flotilla was sent up war led directly to extensive reforms, repulsed the enemy's heaviest assaults
the James River with orders to "shell among which was the formalization of from the sea and from the air. The
the city to surrender," it was the heavy the separation of Coast and Field Ar- steadfastness and heroism of the can-
artillery at Drewry's Bluff which drove tillery. Technological developments had noneers of Corregidor was in the most
the Federal ships, reeling, back the way taken the techniques of the two artil- brilliant tradition of the Corps.
they had come. The cannon had served leries far apart and had required exten- As the war progressed, the seacoast
elo<}uentwarning that the river route sive specialization. It was in tactics mission was increasingly overshadowed
to Richmond was barred. rather than technique, however, that the by the evolving antiaircraft. In this
Confederate cannon forced the Fed- two types of artillery differed most newer function, the Corps showed its
eral army attacking Vicksburg in 1863 sharply. The Field Artillery accom- mettle at Anzio, at Omaha and Utah
to resort to a wide maneuver which con- panied and supported the field army beaches, at Buna and Hollandia and
sumed months and involved heavy cas- and was directly involved in the infantry Biak, in the Ardennes-in fact, at every
ualties. Passage of the Mississippi River effort. The Coast Artillery, however, scene of major ground action through-
was denied to the Union by the cannon was in a sense a closer adjunct of the out the war. In time, the growth of
which frowned down from the bluffs. Navy than of the Army, due to its mis- American air power gave the United
Only by bloody frontal assaults from sion of protecting the country against States substantial control of the air, with
the landward side of the town was Grant attack from the sea. a corresponding decline of targets for
finally able to take his objective. The beginnings of a change in this antiaircraft artillerymen. Once more
Again, a Federal joint amphibious situation came when the First World batteries were formed as riHe companies.
task force moving toward invasion of War provided new missions for the But many kept their cannon and, lack-
Texas through Beaumont was turned Coast Artillery. As before, it was charged ing targets in the air, trained their
aside by the fire of the gallant Com- with coastal defense. As before, also, sights with deadly effectiveness upon
pany F, First Texas Heavy Artillery- it provided heavy siege guns to accom- targets on the ground. From being the
the "Davis Guards." The task force was pany the field army. But beginning in heaviest artillery the Corps suddenly
driven back, but before the ships could 1917 it took over the service of trench found itself the lightest; but the gal-
extricate themselves from the trap into mortars and, more significantly with re- lantry, the spirit and the determined
which they had fallen, two of the four spect to the history of the Corps, of sense of duty remained unchanged.
escorting gunboats had lowered their antiaircraft artillery.
ensigns in surrender, and Texas was Antiaircraft was a crude art in those
freed for many months from the threat days, notwithstanding the relatively It is only natural that a change such as
of serious attack. • slow and fragile targets provided by air- the end of the Coast Artillery's existence
craft of the time. It is interesting and as an organizational entity should have
a cause for considerable pride that, de- been accompanied by nostlllgia. But
It was during the three decades after spite its lack of experience in this new nostalgia should not become regret. The
1865 that the Army reached the. lowest field, the American antiaircraft in the theme running throughout all the heavy
point in its history. In the interests of A.E.F. chalked up a record which com- artillery's existence, before and during
economy it was repeatedly reduced in pared favorably with the records of our and since its existence as a separate
strength and pay and rank. The Army more experienced allies. The Ameri- Corps, is service, unHinching devotion
found little opportunity in its lengthy cans' score in 1918 was one German to duty.
series of skirmishes with the Indians plane destroyed for each 1,050 rounds Today, the characteristics of the con-
for professional and technical develop- :£ired. The rapidity with which the duct of war have changed in many vital
ment. Although the artillery could not Americans developed a professional com- respects. Coasts are no longer defended
escape all the effects of this period, sub- petence in antiaircraft fire is testimony with cannon, but with aircraft operating
stantial and significant progress was to the Coast Artillery's technical ability far beyond the range of the heaviest
made nevertheless in heavy artillery and its willingness to master new tasks. gun. The most threatening attacks are
armament. not to be anticipated from the sea but
By 1890, the development of coastal from the air.
cannon had approximated its highest The Coast Artillery lost trench mor- What remained of the Coast Artillery
point. The establishment of up-to-date tars after 1918 but kept antiaircraft. Corps in 1950 was almost all antiair-
defenses came none too soon, for al- The twenty-odd years between the two craft. While antiaircraft has an im-
though the fear that Admiral Cervera's World Wars were marked with tremen- portant role in the defense of the home-
Spanish Heet would strike the Atlantic dous development in the gunnery and land, it has an equally important role
coast in 1898 proved to be unfounded, technique of antiaircraft fire. How well to play with the field army. It is a part
the threat was real enough at the time. the new lessons were learned and ap- of the ground combat team, with a dis-
plied was spectacularly demonstrated in tinctive contribution of its own to make
one of the first great battles of World to the support of the infantry on the
The Army's professional stultification War II, the defense of Corregidor. This line of contact. This contribution has
between 1865 and 1898 was the direct epic struggle was peculiarly the Coast been made with conspicuous effective-
cause of the ineptness so typical of the Artillery's own. There is no need to ness in Korea.
Abandoning a purely defensive status, metal into the thick of the fight. In a The future holds no curtailment
the antiaircraft artillervman has taken sense, this is a new mission, but the the contribution we can make; ind
his place beside the doughboy, filling successful discharge of new missions is through the amalgamation of the an
a special niche between the infantry's nothing novel for our arm. leries and in the introduction of re\'
hea\)' weapons and the field artillery's \ Ve can take pride in the sen'ice of tional")' new weapons it promises
light howitzers. Thus, while organiza- our predecessors, and for guidance today opportunity for marked extension
tional separation of the artilleries made we can look to the precedents they set, expansion of the sen'ice we can ren
tactical sense at the turn of the century, not only when they fought their primary \Vhen we adapt ourselves to the COn
it does not make sense today. weapons but when they fought as in- tions which exist today, and to the fa\'
In essence, we who were Coast Ar- fantry and as field artillery, when they able developments of tomorrow, we Q
tillerymen have acquired since early in
\Vorld \Var II a distinctly new mission,
manned mine planters and searchlights
as well as cannon, when they made
not betray the gallant tradition of 1h.1
Coast Artillery. We merely live up
a mission which is something like that their versatilitv their trademark. The that tradition. It is in this sense l/u:
of the "Hying" horse artillery of a cen- advent of new conditions and new weap' the spirit of the Corps is truly a guide~~
tury ago, enabled by light and mobile ons obligates us to carryon that versatili. for the future. \\
equipment to throw the weight of our tv.
DEFENDERS OF JAPAN [1
By LIEUTENANT CARL M. GUELZO
A hair-splitting argument as to wheth- moved from public life, who promised that the NSF is neither an army nor erel
er tile National Safety Force is ml army Japan the world and gave it the gall of destined for use outside Japan.
or a police organization featured the defeat instead, have made the military The unassuming name National Safe-
Diet session yesterday-Nippon Times, suspect in the eyes of the people, and ty Forces, has only served to increase the
Friday, 5 December 1952. to a nation as prideful as Japan, the loss suspicion of those who recall the om-
of prestige aftendant upon military de- niscient power of the old Imperial Army.
N 0 extended period of residence in
Japan is required to mark the numerous
feat is just as undesirable as the loss of
the democratic privileges so brieHy en-
The NSF began as the National Police
Reserve; but under the pressure of ad-
verse public opinion, the name was soon
and varied contrasts in Japanese life, The newspapers report frequent argu- changed to the present title of National
the spotless cleanliness and cordial cour- ments in the Diet for, but especially Safety Force. In the same fashion, the 1
tesy in the Japanese home compared against, appropriations for the NSF lest Mari~ime Safety Board supplants the
with the shabbiness of public buildings, a revived army grow from the nucleus old Imperial Navy. The use of many
and in particular, the efforts of the Japa- represented. by the police organization. trained officers of the Imperial Army,
nese Government to maintain a means Again and again, Dietmen are asked the although none who were held guilty of
of internal defense without giving of- same question: "What is the National political or military crimes, has served
fense to a highly critical public or violat- Safety Force: Army or police?" But the to restore the shadow but not the sub-
ing the national constitution tend to question is not without relevance. stance of the former military grandeur
confuse the casual observer. Famous Article 9 of the Japanese Con- of Japan.
An ancient culture forced to taste the stitution, reputedly written by General The reason for the existence of the
bitter fruits of defeat looks with some- MacArthur himself, forbids war or pos- NSF is obvious as long as Japan is to
thing more than mere apprehension on session of the means of waging war. be without a means of protecting herself
the re-activation of any group that may Legally, an armed force for the purpose from the attacks, both outside and with-
revive the former nation-wide power of of aggression outside the geographical in her borders, of the advocates of world
a military clique. limits of "japan is not possible; but a communism. Japan, not unlike her in-
Historically, the military have always police force for the purpose of internal ternational neighbors, also must protect
been strong in Japan and the experience defense is not prohibited. The amount herself but, in so doing, prefers the pas-
of Japan in the ways of democracy has of money and the general nature of the sive means of the NSF.
been too brief to provide much of a NSF activities and appropriations lead The organizational structure of the
bulwark against the forces of a deter- many Japanese to fear a revival of the NSF is a strangely conglomerate mix-
mined resurgence of military power. old Imperial Army and compel the Gov- ture. It is a joining, but neither a union
The former military leaders, now re- ernment to issue repeated reassurances nor a blending, of elements of the U. S.
14 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
\rn1v and the old Imperial Japanese is senior superintendent, corresponding A good example of the attractiveness
:\rn1;' and retains readily distinguishable with the U. S. grade of major general. of life in the NSF lies in the recent
characteristics of both. The pay scale is between 39 and 60 recruiting campaign for nurses, as re-
The severe discipline and the almost thousand yen per month (U. S.-equiva- ported in the 6 December edition of the
religious awe in which authority was lent: $108.30 to $166.80). There are Nippon Times. A quota of 62 nurses
held in the Imperial Army are absent sewn commissioned grades below the was authorized in the grades of cadet
md replaced by a type of discipline top. A senior inspector ranking with a (about equal to Senior Patrolman in
based on understanding and respect for U. S. captain at $37.50 to $47.40 month- pay) through major, but 800 applica-
the indi-ddual and authority more close- ly, while the senior patrolman, corre- tions were received: about thirteen ap-
Ir allied to the American model. sponding to our master sergeant, draws plicants to each opening. Contrast this
$24.90 to $31.80; the lowest grade, pa- with the fact that a nurse in the old
trolman, receives between $14.10 and Imperial Army could never rise higher
THE uniforms are distinctly Ameri- $16.20. A two-year longevity increase than the NCO grades.
can in style and are a far cry from the is provided for.
The Government spent 30,000 yen
choke collar and wrap puttees of World
Allowances are limited at best. The for uniforms in addition to those nor-
\Var II. Close scrutiny of the uniform
equivalent enlisted grades, of course] re- mally provided for each of the women
reveals an OD wool "Ike" jacket but of
ceive rations and uniforms in kind] and finally selected and also was compelled
a much looser fit than the original
a daily allowance of 70 yen is provided to exercise additional caution in keeping
;\merican model, and somewhat baggy
for the enlisted mess for each man. Of- the rank and file away from the new
wool OD trousers, with the entire outfit
ficers are given an initial issue of uni- enlistees. The interest in the new nurses
topped off by the common, garden varie-
forms in kind, but receive no other evidenced by their compatriots may be
ty of billed service cap. The cotton kha-
uniform allowance. The charge in the due to the fact that their ages range
kis of the summer uniform are similar
officers' mess is 80 yen a day, but this from 23 to 42 and, in the words of one
to but lack much of the trimness of
must be paid by the individual officers patrolman, "They're much younger than
American summer uniforms. Generally,
since no ration allowance is provided. we expected, and good-looking too." All
the items of uniform are neither castoffs
of the nurses were unmarried and, at the
nor surplus of the American Forces, but Pay, although not particularly gener-
time of enlistment, were strictly forbid-
are manufactured specifically for the ous] is a vast improvement over that
den to hang their washing in the open,
0JSF. of the Imperial Army which allowed
to avoid provoking "incidents."
little more than pocket money. The na-
The pay, although a strong incentive,
T HE pay is a definite step upward
on the financial scale for the majority
tional average individual monthly in-
come of ten thousand yen is more than
amply met by pay and other benefits to
is not the only attraction. In the days
of the Imperial Army] the average farm
boy accepted for enlistment took a step
of Japanese who join the NSF. The be derived from service in the NSF.
upward on the social scale. Living con-
policy of utilizing trained officers inso- Those who are careful of their pay find
ditions, even as scanty and primitive as
far as possible frequently results in of- their savings at the end of a two-year
they were in the army, were a vast im-
ficerswho, although schooled in the best enlistment enough to establish them-
provement over civilian life; and food
pre-war Japanese Army military colleges, selves in a small business, marry, or oth-
in the army encampment was both more
never climbed higher than first lieu- erwise get started in some civilian oc-
plentiful and of better quality than that
tenant, find themselves catapulted into cupation.
to which the average recruit was accus-
captaincies and majorities in their new
tomed. The college or university grad-
duties. The use of these men reduces
the training burden considerably. The
Chinese Communists have long memo-
T HE regular pay added to the bonus
paid upon discharge has provided a
uate was virtually forced to attend
advanced military schools to become an
officer and thereby raise himself even
ries and there is reason to susp,ect that powerful economic incentive to enlist-
higher.on the social scale.
qualified Japanese, trapped in Red ments. The first group of two-year en-
China, are being employed in their mili- listees received a mustering out bonus In spite of their apparent harshness,
tary specialties. of fifty thousand yen that was] how- the officers of the Imperial Army took
Titles of rank follow those of the usual ever] considerably reduced in subsequent a rather paternalistic attitude towards
Japanese police organization, but insig- years. The high discharge bonus and their men, especially since the quality
nia of rank are patterned after those of the adequate salary are both a help and of their performance determined the
the Imperial Army. A rectangular badge a hindrance in recruiting. Enlistment amount of prestige each officer had
approximately 1}i" x 2" of black felt quotas are usually heavily oversub- with his superiors and, indirectly, their
pinned to the right breast indicates the scribed, with a ratio of applicants to chances for promotion.
rank with a system of horizontal gold openings of thirty to one not uncommon; Despite the hardships of military life,
stripes and chrysanthemum-shaped sil- but the high MOP also discourages re- many preferred the security and prestige
ver pips. Almost every other type of civil enlistment since the average oriental is offered by the sen'ice to the uncertainty
department, from policemen and firemen a firm believer in the old bird-in-hand in ordinary civil life .. The fairness of
to customs officials] has adopted a similar adage. Because of these economic fac- treatment, "the much improved rations,
system of indicating rank. tors, the ;\JSF experiences a relatively and the economic improvement offered
Highest ranking official of the NSF low re-enlistment rate. by the l\'SF serve to magnify the ad-
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 15
vantages inherent In modern military be enjoined by PIO's to respect the winters and, unfortunately, a han
life. status and the profession of the soldier; place to sleep. The sergeant of the gUa
they ha,'e been doing just that since the awakened the sentry, who explain
beginnings of their national existence. In that he had crawled into the truck .
OTHER than the economic and per- the same fashion, the individual member see the time. i\lutely, the sergean:
sonal ad,'antages, a third factor enters of the NSF need not be reminded of pointed to the fresh, unmarked snot
into the attracti,'eness of military life: his duties and responsibilities as a public around the truck. Instead of being SUm-
servant; he, himself, his parents, grand-
social prestige. Traditionally, the military
man has ranked high in the Japanese s0-
cial order. The traditional classes of socie-
parents, and ancestors since time im-
memorial have always been deeply con-
marily shot, the sentry was restricted I(
Married officers and patrolmen an
ty in Japan-royalty, samurai (soldier), scious of the honored status of the public permitted to li,'e off post, but little ad :be
farmer, and merchant (even today movie official and envious of those able to se- vantage derh'es therefrom since the gell-J,e
stars, despite their income, rank fairly cure positions in the government service. eral policy is to keep encampments ;.Jlil
low on the social scale )-graded more inconspicuous and away from metropo~ rs
according to importance to the nation tan areas. :PO'
than according to wealth or affiuence, DUTY in the NSF is much easier Training is semi-military in nature. Bl
placed the military relatively high. The than was life in the Imperial Army. The American advisers, once fairly numet. \\1
professional officer, more closely allied patrolman's day begins at 0600. Rev- ous, have been steadily reduced in paS!,rc
to the feudal Smll1lrai than the ordinary eille is held at 0700 and work begins at months until their numbers are now :Ill
soldier, who was more often than not 0800. After an hour for lunch, work highly limited and restricted to the high. ;01
drawn from the peasantry, was highly or training continues until retreat at er echelons. Squads, platoons, campa. :a
revered and respected for both his mili- 1700. The patrolman may do whatever nies, battalions, regiments, and divisions a 1
tary prowess and his status as a servant he wishes with his time between 1700 are patterned generally after the organ. gJ
of the government. The soldiers of peas- and 2100; but by 2100 he is required to izational structure of the American In
ant birth never lost their social status be in bed. And today the NSF patrol- Army. The NSF division has its qual' :h
as farmers, but as military men were far man sleeps on a cot or bed instead of termaster, transportation, and other sen', In
more highly regarded than the brothers the bare Hoor, ground, or straw mat pro- ice elements; the special service to opel' tb
who remained on the farm. Even to this vided by the Imperial Army. ate the Post Exchange; but engineers tl
day, the descendants of the old sam1lrai Absence from any of the required and artillery, instead of being integral
families, although no longer engaged in formations formerly carried the death parts of the organization, are attached
military affairs, carry the social rank and penalty or at least severe corporal pun- to divisions as special troops. Armament
status of their forebears. is limited and includes no armor 01
ishment; the disciplinary code of the
Much of this traditional respect, deep- NSF is not nearly so strict. A first of- heavy artillery.
ly ingrained by centuries of high social fense, if properly and logically explaina- The lack of weapons and equipment
rank and special privilege accorded the ble, is dismissed with a reprimand; a for modern warfare emphasizes the as. t
military, has been carried over into mod- second offense costs the guilty patrol- surances of the Japanese Government '
ern life. True, the modern counterpart man his pass; a third offense brings a that the National Safety Force is pri- 1
of the feudal sam1lrai no longer has the court-martial and, if convicted, a fine; marily a police organization for the in. 1
authority to put to death the unwary while repeated offenses carry dismissal ternal defense of the nation. The NSF
commoner who gives offense by laugh- as the highest penalty. has never been used except in the sup-
ing or crying at inopportune moments, The story is told of one NSF sentry pression of local riots and other civil
but habits and attitudes with centuries on guard in a motor pool on a bitterly disturbances. The NSF is not yet an
of tradition behind them do not die cold, snowy night. The rear of a nearby army, nor is it yet able to accomplish
easily. truck provided a convenient shelter from its mission to defend Japan against for-
The Japanese people do not have to the chill dampness typical of Japanese eign aggressors.
TECHNIQUE FOR ADJUTANTS
BY MAJOR A. M. CHESTER
Here is a book you must have if you're an adjutant-a book you can use whether
you're an adjutant's assistant or just a guy who has to fill out a form occasionally.
T eclmique for Adjutants, by a man with 25 years' experience in the Corps, outlines the
responsibilities of the job at any level-gives techniques, hints on management, ideas
for organizing work. You'll never be mystified by paper work if you own a copy of
Teclmique for Adjutants-and use it. CLOTH $2.50 PAPER, $1.00
631 Pennsylvania Ave., N.\V. WASHINGTON 4, D. C.
16 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
The Missions of HQuad Lightning"
By LT. COL. DANIEL B. WILLIAMS
If! HE Quad Lightning designation for direct fire for that unit is used for AM rear of the 1\ ILR are used for deli\'en'
lei- .,e 21st AAA A\V Bn (SP) is indica- protection of the medium field artillery of indirect fire. This indirect fire is
n- re of the equipment within the bat- battalion, thus adhering to the basic used during hours of darkness for sup-
Its Jlion, its organization for combat and principle of not having any element of porting patrols and for harassing and
t- :s current assignment. The battalion the artillery in reserve when it can be interdiction fires. In recent months
:!lOvedoverseas in late 1950 from Fort logically employed. techniques ha\'e been de\'e1oped for the
e. Bliss,Texas equipped with M16's and AAA protection for the three light use of the indirect fire to effect mortar
r. 'Il5Al's as principal fire units. vVhile field artillery and one medium field ar- suppression.
Sl,rocessing in Japan in preparation for tillery battalions is provided on orders
If ~mmitment in Korea, M16's were sub- from Division Artillery Hq. to the
1- ;rituted for the l\H 5A I's, giving the bat- "Quad Lightning" Battalion, which pro- INDIRECT fires are deli\'ered from
I_ :alion for its major fire power capability \'ides for the AAA defense of these bat- a defiladed position with registrations
s 110131 of sixty-four 1\,116's and the des- talions at all times. The AAA battery being fired by normal field artillery
1 mival in Korea on January
J911ation a "Quad Fiftv" unit. After
given this mission assumes responsibility
for the defense and its coordination with
means. The adjustments are made by
forward observers of the field artillery
the battalion was assigned to the 25th the field artillery battalion commander. battalions or in some cases the AAA
Infantry Division. This assignment to The fire support for infantry regi- platoon commander will fire the registra-
the famous "Lightning" Division paved ments by antiaircraft artillery fire units tions and make fire adjustments. This
the way for the designation as the is provided for in orders given from the type fire has been made more effective
"Quad Lightning" Battalion. Division Headquarters through the Di- by stripping the tracer element from
The battalion has remained with the vision Artillery command channel and APIT ammunition and using the flash
2;th Infantry Division as its organic usually provides that one platoon of of the exploding incendiary round to
AAA AVVunit throughout the six major AAA A\V is attached for operations to adjust by. The lethal effects of this
campaigns in Korea since 10 January each committed infantry regiment. The type fire are attributed to the fact that
1951. In addition three light field ar- battery commander who has the AAA the enemy cannot hear the approaching
tillery battalions and one medium field protection responsibility for the direct round and even at long ranges, the fifty
artillery battalion make up the major fire support field artillery battalion of an caliber projectile remains effective for
units of 25th Division Artillery. As a infantry regiment is given the further plunging fire. These fires are delivered
result of the campaigns in Korea and responsibility of providing that regi- dependent upon wind and temperature
the lessons learned, the battalion has as- ment's direct fire support platoon. for maximum ranges up to seven thou-
sumed an organization for combat which The technique of providing fire sup- sand yards, giving effective fires from
prescribes that each of three batteries port for infantry regiments, developed two thousand to five thousand yards in
provide one platoon in the antiaircraft from combat experience, has provided front of the MLR.
artillery role for protection of a light an SOP that two or three of the "Quad As a matter of interest in the organi-
lieJd artillery battalion and one platoon Fifties" be placed in direct fire support zation for combat, it is to be noted that
for support of an infantry regiment for each committed infantry battalion. in early 1952 on the recommendation of
committed in combat. The fourth bat- The remaining fire units are emplaced combat commanders in Korea, the thea-
lery is used to provide AAA protection in positions one thousand to fifteen ter authorized augmentation of each in-
for critical installations, defiles and hundred meters behind the MLR and fantry division with twelve M16's to in-
bridges within the division sector and are available for indirect fire support. crease fire power. These M16s have been
for special missions. vVhen an infantry For offensive operations this organiza- handled in varying ways. Some divisions
regiment is in reserve, the "Quad Fifty" tion for combat gives each forward mov- have allocated them direct to the in-
platoon normally allocated to provide ing battalion augmented "Quad Fifty" fantry units who have in turn passed
fires and leaves the infantry regimental them to tank companies or heavy weap-
commander with additional fire support ons companies. The 25th Division gave
Lt. Col. Daniel B. Williams, commanding which he may allocate to either of the this authorization for augmentation in
the 21st AAA AW Bn (SPI, has had active forward battalions or which he may com- equipment to the 2]st AAA A W (SP)
experience with AAA units during WW II.
Since, he served as an instructor at the AA mit with his reserve to carry through Bn and continued to provide "Quad
& GM Branch, TAS, in the Department of the impetus of an attack to the final Fifties" for support of infantry regiments
Gunnery. He is a graduate of the Advance
Course, The Armored School and the Regu- objective. In defensive operations the by attaching fire units of the 21st to
lar Caurse of the Command and General same distribution of fire power is made; the regiments for operations .. The aug-
however the fire units emplaced to the mentation pro\,ides a base of equip-
MARCH-APRil, 1953 17
Brig. Gen. Louis E. Heath, Commanding General, 25th Lt. Cot. D. B. \X'illiams, congratulates Captains Elmer T.
Division Artillery, inspects Quad 50, C Battery. Cpt. Phil- \X'ilkins (right) and Edward C. Maxwell (center), during
lip F. Hoenkica, and PFC Robert S. Blair. presentation of the Bronze Star.
ment to support tactical needs and carry fantry operations. The program includes vided. At the completion of a four \reei \.
out required maintenance. At\A range practice for all fire units of cycle by platoons - in the 1\1\1\ role,. :ic
Since the latter part of 1952 the bat- the battalion on a rotation basis using relief of the i\ILH platoons is effected :tJ
talion has been assigned the responsibili- four fire units at a time, which arc re- and those platoons complete the foUl?I
ty for 90mm direct fire sector weapons, lieved from their primary missions and week cycle. Thus within a period 01.n
which were assigned to the division. sent to an AAA firing range. To enable four months all fire units have com- JI
These weapons have been manned by all fire units of the battalion to com- pleted the eight weeks training program I
personnel from the battery which did plete this training program, blocks of The battalion has proven itself to be (
not have an infantry direct support mis- four weeks of training have been pro- an effective part of the ground combat I
sion and which in general were used team in Korea. By proper coordination
to protect division installations, critical and control this battalion provides AAA
defiles and bridges. These guns have protection for the critical target areas
Summary Of Decorations
been fired principally from the i\ILR within the division sector and at the
21st AAA AW BN ISPI
against bunkers and cave type artillery same time a heavy augmentation in the
positions. In some cases they have been fire power of infantry units committed
used for augmentation of the long range in combat. During periods of static de-
Silver Star 20
harassing and interdiction fires of the fense, it is desirable, both from a train.
Soldiers Medal 2
field artillery battalions during hours of Bronze Star for Valor 54 ing and morale standpoint, to rotate the
darkness. Bronze Star for Merit 61 At\A platoons between their AAA mis-
\Vith the increase of the communis: Commendation Ribbon 4 sion and their direct fire support of
air capability, more and more emphasis Purple Heart 159 infantry. The organization for combat
has been placed on the "Quad Light- Distinguished Unit Citations wherebv the battalion remains essential.
ning" AAA role. Preparations to more ef- 1st Platoon Battery "B" ly und~r the commanding general pf
fectively carry out this hole have includ- 2nd Platoon Battery "B" the division Artillery for effective cen-
ed comprehensive training under static Campaign Stars tralized operational control is considered
combat conditions. This training has CCF Intervention desirable. The basic principles of tech. I
been effected by the conduct of officer First UN Counteroffensive. nique and tactical doctrine currently
CCF Spring Offensive
refresher courses, NCO refresher courses published in Department of the Army
UN Summer-Fall Offensive
and the institution of a realistic train- Second Korean Winter publications and taught by the service
ing program for all units not committed Korean Summer-Fall schools have been proven fundamentally
directly on the MLR in support of in- sound.
No one in coday's Army has time to dig through stacks of regulations, FMs and TMs to find out what he should
be doing. No one needs co! Bat/ery Duties, by Lt. Cot. Robert F. Cocklin and Major Boatner, tell you what your
job is in the battery, show you all the necessary details of it in language so clear there is no room for misunder-
standing. Whether you're the battery commander or the newest recruit, there is something in this book that will
help you do your job more efficiently. Cloth $2.50; Paper, $1.50
18 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
OPERATION DEVIL DOG
AAA In The Surface Role In Support Of The 1st Marine Division
By MAJOR BERKELEY S. GILLESPIE
68th AAA GUll Battalion
and MAJOR FRANK HAWTHORNE, JR.
53 10th AM Group
:'-Jon-divisional AAA units of the 10th the rear areas, the final selection of posi-
\:\A Group in Korea, consisting of the tions had been made and personnel and
'l8thAAA Gun Battalion (90mm), 78th equipment from the battalions which
.\:\r\ Gun Battalion (90mm), 50th were to participate in the operation were
.\:\A A\V Battalion (SP), and 865th moved to the forward areas to begin the
\:\A r\\V Battalion (SP), recently par- pick and shovel work on the gun posi-
:icipated in Operation Devil Dog. This tions. This phase of the operation turned
:ulminated an extensive FA training out to be a very difficult one since it
program conducted at AAA defended was decided to construct one primary
installations, with the firing of indirect gun position with A\V sites which would
md direct FA missions in support of the be complete with gun revetments, bunk-
1stMarine Division. During the action ers and communications prior to the
described by this article, the 10th AAA One round on the way! movement of the weapons to position.
Group was commanded by Col. George This entailed the setting up of a field
R. Carey, who has since been reassigned Leonard B. ~ lain. This AA party was mess, an aid station, and all other facili-
to G3 section, Eighth Army. Co!. assisted by personnel from the 1st Ma- ties necessary for field living. The men
Charles G. Dunn now commands the rine Division, and both primary and al- of the 68th AAA Gun Bn. and the other
.group. ternate gun positions were selected for battalions, too, just pitched in to get
I In August and September of 1952 the ~1r\A and LAA weapons. The i'vla- the job done. The Marines also fur-
I plans were formulated whereby elements rine personnel gave invaluable assistance nished personnel from their shore party
of the non-divisional AAA units would and their interest and cooperation was battalions to assist in the construction
move to forward positions to be em- outstanding throughout the entire oper- of the bunkers at this position. The per-
ployed in their secondary mission-the ation. Colonel Richard H. Crockett, Lt. sonnel bunkers were constructed to ac-
surface role. Both light and medium Col. William S. l'IcLaughlin, Lt. Co!. commodate twelve men and were built
AA weapons were to be used, the me- Henry G. Lawrence, Major Tom S. from 12" x 12" timbers for uprights, 6"
dium for long range, indirect fire and Parker, and Major James L. Jones were x 8" timbers for stringers, and 4" x 12"
the light for direct fire against bunkers, always willing to devote time and ef- timbers for roofs; then covered with
communications trenches, caves, and fort on our behalf. from four to six feet of earth. The same
other close in targets. In anticipation of the operation each type of construction was employed in
Additional 90mm weapons were of the AAA battalions involved stressed the ammunition bunkers and the FOC
drawn from Ordnance for this purpose. Field Artillery Techniques in the train- bunkers. All bunkers were provided
The plan was to have one of the medium ing schedules. Principles as outlined in with Yukon type stoves and even in se-
battalions man the medium battery in Fi\l 6-40, FM 6-140 and ST 44-4-3 were vere cold proved to be very comfortable.
the forward position and to have two followed in this training. Battalion All communications were installed prior
secti<;>ns automatic weapons attached
of CPX's were conducted in order to co- to the movement of any units to the
to that battalion to provide AA protec- ordinate the training of the gun crews, forward position. Some sixty miles of
tion to the provisional gun battery the FO's and the FDC personnel. FDC wire was laid, all of which was tied in
while in position and to move to the personnel were drawn from the opera- with the Marine nets. All wire lines
MSR to previously prepared positions tions sections of the battalions; and since were laid in duplicate with one line
for direct fire missions. Upon approval two missions were being conducted being laid on an alternate route. Parallel
by EUSAK, a ground reconnaissance simultaneously, the personnel worked radio nets were established again netted
was made in the area selected for this long hard hours. FO Teams were also with existing Marine nets. In addition
firing. The ground reconnaissance party placed on TOY with front line Marine to the permanent or primary battery posi-
was composed of the following persons: units for periods up to seven days to tion, two alternate positions were se-
~lajor Frank Hawthorne, Major John receive practical training as forward ob- lected to which one or more guns could
W. Milke, Major Dale Watson, Major servers. be moved. Construction of these posi-
Berkeley S. Gillespie, Jr. and Capt. \Vhile this training was going on in tions was completed with bulldozers
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 19
since no revetments or bunkers were where the guns were firing into flatter tions and 295 H&I missions.
built there. These positions were uti- terrain bold corrections were used and
The results obtained were:
lized with two ideas in mind; first, to results were excellent.
Buildings destroyed and dam-
enable us to hit targets which could not A point of discussion prior to the shoot
be reached from the primary position; was whether or not Section II of IT
Automatic weapons positions
and second, to provide fires from dif- 90 AA-B-3 actually reflected the weap-
ferent locations for tactical reasons. on's capabilities when employed in the
Bunker and caves destroyed
The positions were completed, the .ground role. On 24 November this
Secondary Fires and Explo-
necessary operations orders published question again arose when the ~larine
and the first provisional gun battery with aerial obsen'er requested a precision mis-
two A\V sections attached, moved to the sion. Inspection of the firing chart es-
forward positions on the night of 19 tablished the range at 20, ISO yards. The automatic weapons during
November 1952, ready to fire on the Even though the range was beyond fir- same period fired both direct and indi
morning of 20 NO\'ember 1952. ing table capabilities it was decided to fire. Firing across the river down d
The first fire mission, a precision reg- fire the mission anyway and fire was into villages, caves and bunkers result e
istration, was conducted at 1000 hours commenced. At an elevation of 811 mils in a total of: 29 buildings destroyed a
on 20 November 1952. During this reg- the obsen'er called for fire for effect. damaged with additional claim of f
istration several factors came to light Three rounds were fired resulting in one A \V positions neutralized, nine ca\
which pro\.ed beneficial to future firing. over, one short and one lost. At this and bunkers destroyed or damaged, thr~ 1
Firing at chart ranges in mountainous time the mission was cancelled by higher secondary fires and explosions.
Korean terrain it was at times very dif- headquarters, the reason being that, at These results were obtained firing
ficult to observe the burst. The registra- this range, the fire was approaching a total of 3378 rds of 90mm consisting 01
tion point, a Korean hut, was located Corps no fire line. The S I on this fire HE, WP and VT 97. The automatl(
in a draw with numerous ridges and hills mission was a plus nine mils. weapons fired during the same period
surrounding it. A round slightly over The maximum range the 90mm gun a total of 2608 rounds of 40mm anc
would be lost as would be one which is supposed to shoot is 19,560 yards at 64,650 rounds of 50 caliber.
had a small deflection error. Added to 812.6 mils elevation. The current opin- The results obtained were highh
this was the dispersion factor which in- ion here is that, with new guns, effec- gratifying and the mission proved yen
creased the difficulty. It was finally tive nre can be delivered up to 20,000 beneficial to all concerned in proving
solved by a creeping adjustment which yards, again the versatility of the 90mm gun
violated the Artillery School doctrine, During the fifteen day firing period and the AA automatic weapons. From
"Be Bold" but which we found necessary the results obtained from the 90mm a morale viewpoint it proved most satis,
in order to obtain the desired results. shoot and the automatic weapons fully factory, installing in the AA artilleryman
This held true only where the terrain justified the mission. A summary of oper- the knowledge that when the need arises
dictated such tactics, in subseguent fir- ations reports for the period shows that he can perform in either of his missions.
ings; using an air observer at ranges the 90mm nred seventy-three con centra- ground or air.
UP FRONT WITH THE 3rd AAA
By LT. COL. O. A. MOOMAW
F E\V are the men in the 3d Infantry
Division who do not know the mean-
or Nt 19 passing on the road, occupy-
ing a firing position on or near the
squads Btry 0 are supporting the 15th
Infantry Regiment and the Greek Bat.
ing of the 3AA on the front of each rv116 MLR, defending the Division Artillery, talion in their sectors. Prepared posi-
air strip or other important installations. tions are utilized for the weapons; dug
The firing of the quad fifties and twin in three to four feet and sandbagged
To the Editor:
40mm cannon have been such sweet around three sides. Some positions have
The operations here in Korea are very
similar to the operations in World War I music to the doughboy's ear that it has overhead cover to provide protection
in France where miles of trenches and bunk- been difficult to keep from putting the against light mortar fire and artillery
ers were built. Here most positions ore on
high ground. mountain tops and ridges. The entire battalion on the l\ILR; so great shell fragments. Personnel live in bunk-
engageme~ts are more like Indion warfare has been the requests originating with ers constructed of logs, railroad rails,
than anything else I have read about.
My present assignment with the 3d Infan- the infantry regiments on the line. ties and sandbags. Gun positions are
try Division is the best , have ever had. located on the MLR and 300 to 500
At this date, 25 February 1953, there
There is real team work here.
Koreo is one full platoon with each regiment yards behind the l\ILR depending upon
25 Feb. 1953 lhe availability of a suitable field of
on the MLR. First Platoon, Battery B
O. A. Moomaw,
Lt. Col., Arty. is supporting the 65th Infantry Regi- nre. Resupply of ammunition, food, and
ment. Four sg'uads Btry A and four water is effected just after first darkness
20 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
!Il most cases. Some positions can be they may be to the enemy. Control of the antiaircraft role has not been for-
reached without coming under enemy weapons is by wire communications as gotten by the 3d AAA. Approximatelv
observation-these are resupplied during primary means, radio secondary. Both 70 per cent of the battalion's weapon's
daylight hours. Emergency repair to methods work well; wire being the eas- are in positions to provide antiaircraft
\'ehicIes and guns is performed at the iest to operate and affords better security protection for the divisional zone against
position. Scheduled maintenance is per- but more difficult to maintain on or near low Hying enemy aircraft.
formed at the battery, battalion and ord- the MLR. The battalion operates the AAAIS
nance motor shops as the echelon of At the present time the 3d AAA AW OPs and a battalion OR. Within seven
maintenance requires. Bn (SP) has 32 M19s and 32 M16s, days the battalion will have completed
Personnel in general prefer direct sup- 14 armored utility vehicles M39 and it's 3d annual service firing practice at
port missions to other type missions. The five M3Al half track vehicles. the 8th Army M Range near Inchon,
bonus of four constructive months serv- Approximately 75 per cent of the bat- Korea. Each squad has been taught air
ice for one calendar month and the talion and battery commanders' effort craft recognition and has on hand the
$45.00combat pay are big factors. How- is required to maintain the tracked, half latest charts showing the features and
ever the chief factor is the fact that the track and wheeled vehicles. This is due characteristics of the newest aircraft
gun crews get an opportunity to fire chieHy to: (1) inexperienced replace- be they friendly F94s or enemv MIG
their weapons at hostile targets and per- ments, officers and enlisted men; (2) 15s or IL 28s..
form a visible useful duty. The casual- shortage of parts, chieHy due to long We have been supporting the 1st
ties sustained on this duty have been supply line (90 to 120 days required to ROK Inf. Div., 2nd ROK Inf. Div., 9th
relatively light considering their prox- :fill some requisitions, six months not ROK Inf. Div. and 3d U. S. Infantry
iminity to the enemy and the fact that being uncommon). Old vehicles in Div. since June '52 at various points
most of the ammunition contains a trac- which the metal has crystallized due on the West and Central Korean Front.
er which marks the position of the to fatigue stresses and rough roads ac- The Battalion supported operations dur-
weapon. count for a large per cent of broken the O. P. Kelly, Little Nori, Big Nori,
Tactics utilized are relatively simple springs, shock absorber assemblies, sup- T~iangle Hill, Finger Ridge and Sniper
but at the present time it is believed port rollers, fenders and bodies. RIdge engagements with the C.C.F.
best not to publish due to the benefit In closing I would like to state that (Chinese Communist Forces).
THE VETERAN AND SOCIAL SECURITY
By COL WILLIAM H. DUNHAM, JR. (RefJ
Yo U may not realize it but every
person on active duty in the Armed
tion in Korea ends this year the latter $160.00 per month. Suppose he has a
date may be further extended by Con- dependent wife and a child under eight-
Forces today is receiving wage credits gress which at this time is making a een years of age. The widow will re-
of $160.00 per month under existing study of Social Security Laws. ceive $96.00 a month from Social Se-
Social Security laws. Lack of knowl- What does this mean to the veteran? curity each month until the child be-
edge of this fact could be expensive, The two groups of veterans most vitally comes eighteen years old. If the child
particularly to the dependents of young concerned with this question are the should die or marry before reaching
personnel who die after they have be- young married personnel with mildren the age of eighteen years the payments
come fully covered. The purpose of this and the older group who retire before would stop until the widow reaches age
article is to make the reader aware of reaching the age of sixty-five years. For sixty-five when, if she has not remarried,
an asset given service personnel which this reason the benefits to these groups she will start receiving forty-eight dol-
if they become casualties, could greatly will be discussed in more detail and ex- lars a month. A lump sum of approxi-
affect the future of their dependents- amples of benefits will be cited. mately $192.00 will be paid to the
and if they live may affect their own First consider the young father with widow in the example cited. Applica-
future as well. dependents. All veterans who have ap- tions for Social Security monthly pay-
Social Security has been set up to proximately eighteen months service, ments should be filed promptly as no
ease the shock life gives to some individ- i.e., six quarters of coverage, became ful- more than six months back payments
uals because of conditions over which ly insured under Social Security and re- may be made and applications for lump
they may have no control. Though not main covered until they no longer have sum payments must be made within two
designed originally to provide credit for one-half as many quarters of coverage years of the death of the serviceman or
service in the armed forces, subsequent (both civilian and militarv) as there the benefit is lost.
legislation grants wage credits in the are quarters elapsing after 1950. A per- If the serviceman's widow and child
amount of $160.00 per month for serv- son in the service now who dies after are eligible for veterans' pensions they
ice after September 15, 1940, and be- continuous service since Januarv 1, may receive up to $121.00 per month
fore January 1, 1954. Unless the situa- 1951, has an average wage credit of until the child is eighteen years old or
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 21
if it is still being educated this pension same period of military service are deter- Bv the end of 1957 he will be 65.
will be continued until the child is mined to be payable by the Army. l'avy, that time seven years, or 28 quart~
twenty-one years of age. This pension Air Force, Civil Sen' ice, or other Federal will ha\'e elapsed since January 1, 195
is based on a widow's portion of $75.00 retirement systems. \Vage credits are Therefore. to be eligible to collect Socn.
a month and the child"s portion of not affected by compensation or pen- Security benefits. he must ha\'e estal,
$46.00 per month. If the widow dies sions payable by the Veterans' Adminis- lished wage credits for at least 14 qUal
or is remarried the rate of pension to tration. This means that most of the ters. If he works steadily for the 6,
the child will change, and the monthly personnel who retire will be unable to years with an earned income of $36« i(
payments under Social Security will count their military wage credits. They or more per year, his total income ~ 1
also change. The pension plus Social can, howe\'er, establish non-military computed to be $18,000 (count no mOlt tJ
Security payments may provide to this wage credits if they accept cm'ered em- than $3600 for any year). His averagt
widow a total of two hllndred mId seven-
teen dollars per 11I0nth exclusive of any
ployment after retirement.
Suppose a service person retires now
monthlv income is determined by divid- \I
ing $18,000 by 84 (number of mOnths .
benefits received from Government Life at age sixty. He has five years to go since January 1951). This gives $214.18
Insurance and any income received from before he will be sixty-five years old. per month. His Social Security monthl~ ~
commercial insurance. This is a far Two and a fraction years have already payment is computed by taking 55 pel ,
cry from the amount the widow with passed since Jan uary 1. 1951. There is cent of the first $100 plus 15 per cem
one child would have received fifteen still ample time for him to build up of the balance. In this case $55.00 plus
years ago. If you need a further indi- new wage credits for more than half S 17.15 rounds to $72.20. His wife upon
cation of the magnitude of these benefits the quarters between Januarv 1, 1951, reaching 65 would get one half that
consider the fact that while the child and the time he will reach ao~ sixt\'-five. amount, $36.10 and in case of Colonel
is under eighteen years old the total of He can also earn wage credits after he
Blow's death she would get $54.20 per
pension and Social Security payments is 65. He can do this either as an em- month after she reaches 65.
could amount to $44,268.00 at current ployee or as a self employed person. A Now here is one for the bachelors
rates. Pension payments to the widow self employed person can earn wage and unmarried female members of the
after the child is eighteen and the So- credit for four quarters in any calendar service. If a fully insured individual
cial Security payments she may receive year in which he earns a net profit of dies and does not leave a widow, wido\\'.
after age sixty-five would greatly in- at least $400. If he lives he will be er, or child eligible for benefits, each
crease the total amount the Government eligible for Social Security benefits at natural or adoptive parent or step-parent
has paid because of service in the Armed age sixty-five if he has met the "num- of such individual who was dependent
Forces. ber of quarters" requirement. \Vhen upon the insured for at least one-half
Remember this-the widow will lose his wife reaches age sixty-five an addi- of his or her support is entitled to month.
her portion of the pension and Social tional benefit will be paid for her. If Iy survivor benefits upon reaching age
Security if she remarries. She wiTI also he dies whilc fully covered his wife will sixty-five if not remarried since the in-
lose her Social Security benefits for any recei\'c Social Security benefits when sured individual's death. If the a\'erage
period in which she earns more than she is sixty-five even thouoh he mav
. o. monthly earnings is the $160.00 used
seventy-five dollars a month in covered have died before he reached sixty-five. for computing where there has been
employment. If they have a child under eighteen continuous service in the Armed Forces,
The preceding discussion has dealt years old she would receive the benefits and no other credits, the monthly pay-
with the situation of the young widow immediately. ment to a dependent parent could be
left with a one year old child to support. \Vhile the person used as an example $48.00 per month.
Now let us consider personnel with above would not have to work in cm'ered Remember this-the only restriction
many years of service who retire be- employment right up to the time he placed on any person entitled to receive
cause of age, length of service, or physi- will be sixty-five, it must be remembered Social Security benefits is that such per-
cal disability. The first blow to these that not more than $3600 mav be son may not earn by working in covered
individuals is an immediate reduction in counted as wages in any one cal~ndar employment more than $75.00 per
pay. Then in case of death their de- year. The greater the number of years month unless he or she is over age seven-
pendents lose the benefit of the six he works the higher will be his "aver- t\'-five at which time the limit on earned
months gratuity pay given when a serv- age" monthly earnings since December income is removed. Earned income does
ice person dies while on active duty. 31, 1950. This will affect the benefits not include annuity payments, dividends
If the retired person dies of a cause not paid to him and to his wife. This per- on stocks, interest on any kind of bonds,
resulting from a service connected dis- son would not receive the maximum savings accounts, etc. Now let me re-
ability, the pension to his widow will monthly payments as he has alreadv mind you again that all the months after
be less than the $75.00 per month maxi- lost some of the quarters of coverag~ December 31, 1950, must be counted
mum widow's pension. \Vhat can So- since December 31, 1950. Therefore the in computing your average wage, and
cial Security do for this retired person? payments to him would be less than that vou must be covered for half the
Before I answer this question I want $85.00 a month and those to his wife quarters from that date to the time of
to call attention to the fact that military would be one-half as much as his. your claim. Remember also that if you
wage credits may not be counted toward Colonel Joe Blow retired in December, may ha\'e a claim, the first thing to do
Social Securitv benefits if monthly bene- 1952, at the .age of 60, and took a job is see your local Social Security repre-
fits based in .whole or in p~rt ~n the cm'ered by Social Security. sentative.
22 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
DISTINCTIVE UNIT INSIGNIA
By CAPT. RUSSELL P. MAHON
:F OR many years various units of the
United States Army ha,'e been wearing
CREST pire, we find Caesar's leoions marchinot>
under the sign of the eagle, indicating
I \I'hat official parlance refers to as "dis- majestic might and ferocity in battle.
tinctive unit insignia:' In all likelihood, As history mm'ed into the period of
111 but a few of the readers of this article
/ TORSE chivalry, when "knighthood was in
hare at one time or another in their army
,areers been in a unit that was author-
IZedto wear these bits of metal.
/ Rower," the wearing of such svmbols
continued and grew so widespre~d that
mam' of the symbols were com'ention-
To the initiated. the unit insignia is a :.. SHIELD alized. Natur;lIy,, the spreadinot> use of
!!Oldmine of information, but to the such symbols resulted in numerous
person who is uninformed. they mean claims to the same symbol bv different
nothing, other than as an ornament. In families, and the ri~al clai~ants to orew
recent years, fewer persons understand heated over the merits of their respec-
the full meaning of the unit insignia, ti,'e claims.
the information pictured thereon, the
SCROLL To settle these claims, malw Euro-
manner of designing, and the steps nec- a MOTTO pean countries formed boards, .or Col-
essary before an insignia is apprm'ed for leges of Heralds, whose duties were to
use bv the unit. investigate the claims of the various dis-
In . this article, some of the more Figure 1. Parts of a coat of arms. putants and decide which was to be
salient facts about insignia, a little of awarded the symbol in question. These
their derivation and ancient history, the history of identifying symbols and decisions were made on the basis of pre-
and a smattering of heraldry will be insignia. In early historic days, ancient vious usage and the history of the claim-
covered in an effort to help military man identified himself with the desir- ants concerned. In the course of their
personnel understand the insignia of able qualities of different members of deliberations, the boards developed the
their unit. the animal kingdom and used charac- system of heraldry into an exact science
As a beginning, let's take a glance at terizations of the animal he particularly governed by a set of rules and laws as
admired, on his home, his body, and, rigid as the criminal code.
as he started indulging in the civilized These laws are applied at any time
Copt. Russell p, Mohon is presently as- pastime of military operations. his shield. that a coat of arms is to be developed for
signed to the Deportment of Nonresident This practice of using identifying an individual even today, and are fol-
Instruction at the AA & GM Branch, The
Artillery School. symbols continued on through the ages, lowed as closely as possible in the design
and, in the heyday of the Roman em- of military coats of arms ..
In medieval davs, it was customarv
for knights to we~r sweaters or jerseys
with their personal symbols embroidered
or woven on them. These sweaters
eventually became known as coats of
I 2 3
at!!. 34th. INF 4
INF 2022. C A
7 8 9
"J\,r,,' I - DEXTER CHIEF POINT 5- FESS POINT
,2 - MIDDLE CHIEF POINT
r3- SINISTER CHIEF POINT
4- HONOUR POINT
6 - NOM8RIL POINT
7 - DEXTER BASE POINT
8 - MIDDLE BASE POINT
20th.INF 9- SINISTER BASE POINT
Figure 2. Combinations of parts of the coat of arms. Figure 3. Named locations on the shield.
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 23
arms. and in time the term was corrupted took official cognizance of the morale the locations on the shield that }
to mean the symbols themselves. value of such identifying badges and most commonly used in military COlt c
Badges and coats of arms were adopt- established the Heraldic Branch of the of arms. I.
ed by many units at almost the very Office of the Quartermaster General, In addition to this, heraldic use sper;:
inception of our Army: however, these Department of the Army, with duties fies that the shield should be parr
were made up as a result of unit initia- roughly parallel to those of the Col- tioned in certain arbitrary divisiOn;.
ti\'e and had little or no official sanction. leges of Heralds in foreign countries. These partitions and their names ~
The first instance in which these badges \Vith a brief background of the his- given in figure 4.
were authorized was during the Civil tory of military coats of arms, let us In the science of heraldry, the col~
\Var. Some of the units started wear- find out just what they consist of and with which we are familiar have diffe!
ing badges to designate the corps to how deri\'ed and designed. ent names. The following list shows
which they belonged, and, as command- Heraldry is the science of portraying comparison of our common colors wil
ers realized the morale value of these in pictures the history of an individual the heraldic names for these colors.
badges, the practice was sanctioned and or unit. There are in most cases, four
Common name Heraldic lIame
encouraged. separate parts of a military coat of arms
The common practice at that time with a fifth sometimes added. The fi\'e
was to de\'elop a badge for a corps and parts are; (1) the crest, (2) the wreath
have it made in different colors to iden- or "torse," (3) the shield, (4) the scroll,
tify the divisions within the corps. and (5) the supporters. The illustration
1\ lany references to these badges may of the insignia of the 11th Field Anil-
be found in books covering this period, lier)' (fig. 1) shows the parts of the
and individuals usually mention the coat of arms. As stated before, the sup- Two other colors commonly seen on
pride with which they wore these badges. porters are not usually a part of military coats of arms are considered by herald.
Notable among the badges used were coats of arms but frequently are found ists to be metals. These are gold, which
the 3-leafed clover of 2.d Corps, the in personal coat of arms. The)' are fig- is called "or," and silver or white, which
plan view of a five-sided fort of 5th ures that stand beside the shield, and is called "argent." The most important
Corps, the acorn of 14th Corps, the seemingly support it. thing to remember about the colors and
cartridge pouch with the words "Forty Distinctive unit insignia may be a metals in heraldry, is that a color is
Hounds" on it of 15th Corps, the broad combination of any or all parts of the never placed on a color, nor a metal on 1
arrow of the 17th Corps, and the star of coat of arms of the unit, and figure 2 a metal, unless they are separated by
the 20th Corps. Many of these badges shows some of the possible combinations an edging, or fimbriation.
have been incorporated in the coats of that are now in use. As was shown earlier, the topmosl
arms of present-day units descended Now, we can see why the term crest part of the coat of arms is the crest, or
from those organization. or shield is incorrect in many cases when helme. Originally the crest was a repre-
Some regiments had individual we are referring to the unit insignia. It sentation of the crests worn by knights
badges. One is the red apple with a nu- is safer to call them insignia. on their helmets. Heraldic practice soon
meral 2 on it which was the unit badge Here are a few of the more basic corrupted this to show an entire helmet,
of the 2d New York Infantry "Apple heraldic rules which apply to the design hence the heraldic name of helme. In
Knockers." This badge has been incorpo- of military coats of arms. military heraldry we have kept closely
rated in the current coat of arms of the To begin with, various geographical to the original usage.
105th Infantry. locations on the shield have been given Immediately below the crest is the
The wearing of these badges became specific names, and these points are torse or wreath. This is supposedly a
more widespread after the Civil \Var, always referred to, heraldically speak- representation of the scarves given to
and eventually the \Var Department ing, by those names. Figure 3 shows knights as good-luck charms by their
rn LSJ  8u 6 8 ~
PER PALE PER BEND PER BEND SINISTER PER FESS THE CHIEF THE FESS THE BAR THE BEND
rn [8J B [lJ0 lID8 lJ
QUARTERLY PER SAL TIRE PER CHEVRON GYRONNY THE BEND
THE PALE THE CHEVRON THE PILE
Figure 4. Heraldic division of the shield. Figure 5. Ordinaries commonly used in military shields.
24 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
ladies. and the torse does resemble a crescent (from the coat of arms of make a good motto. i\lottoes may be
cloth. In military coats of arms, the General i\lcClellan), a fi,'e-sided fort in any language; French, Latin, Eng-
torse always has six folds and is usually or a fishhook (from the shape of the lish, Hawaiian, Indian, Greek, and Fili-
colored alternately with one of the Union line at Gettysburg); for the pino have been used.
heraldic metals and the color of the Spanish-American \Var, a ruined tower, In many units, particularly in the
branch of service of the unit. a sheathed sword (if the unit did not infantry, we find the salcire used in the
The next lower part of the coat of leave the United States). A Kataipunan shield. In many cases it is used to rep-
armS is the shield. On the shield .will sun, a bolo, a kris, or a kampilan, may resent the crossed belts of the old-time
be found most of the history of the unit, depict service in the Philippines during infantryman. Sometimes the saltire
and in order to condense this informa- the Philippine Insurrection and for serv- will be in blue, sometimes in white, and,
cion we have borrowed for our use ice in \Vorld \Var 1, a fleur-de-lis, a in the case of those units with Civil
some heraldic devices called the ordi- ruined steeple, a blasted bridge, or de- \Var service, the crossed belts may be in
naries. Some of the more common of vices from the arms of provinces of gray. In shields which show a bend,
the ordinaries we use are shown in France in which the unit served. Figure that is from dexter chief point to sin-
figure 5. 7 shows some of the common combat ister base point, the bends sometimes
Two more heraldic devices used fre- representations found on unit coats of represent a river that has figured promi-
quently on our shields are the cross and arms. nently in the unit's history.
the saltire. The cross is made in dif- At the bottommost point on the coat Designs for unit insignia are drawn
ferent ways, some of which are shown of arms we find the scroll. The scroll bv the Heraldic Branch, Office of the
in figure 6 along with the saltire. usually has the unit motto inscribed on Quartermaster General, based upon the
In designing the coats of arms of mili- it. The scroll itself may be as fancy as history of the unit as outlined by the
tary units, certain symbols have come we wish and will cause no difficulty in Historical Division, Department of the
to represent service in a particular war. the design of a coat of arms, but the Army. \Vhen an appropriate design has
Some of the more common of these are; motto will probably cause much head been completed, it is forwarded to the
for the \Var of 1812, the Cross of St. scratching before a suitable one is unit commander for approval and, if
George; for the Indian \Vars, Indian adopted. As a general rule, some saying accepted, authorization is granted to
arrows or tepees; for the i\lexican \Var, that has been uttered by a member of have the insignia manufactured and
a scaling ladder; for the Civil \Var, a the unit during the heat of battle will distributed.
THE CROSS OF CROSS MEXICAN CIVIL WORLD
ST. GEORGE MOLINE CROSSLET WAR WAR WAR I
/~ • A'::: 'CAN
INDIAN II~INF ~ 29!hENGR
THE SALTIRE INSURRECTION
Figure 6. Types of crosses and saltire. Figure 7. Combat representation on shields.
MARCH-APRil, 1953 25
Know Your Aircraft and the Enemy's
By CAPT. MARVIN D. YARBOROUGH and MAJOR WILLIAM J. LOGAN
IN the forty-nine years since the
\\lright brothers first left ground at Kitty
This command obtained quotas from
the Central School of Aircraft Recogni-
~ A small room for private consultation
with individual students. There were
Hawk, oyer twenty-fi\'e thousand dif- tion, British Fighter Command, and no training aids or equipment ayailable
ferent types of aircraft haye Hown. Of key personnel from this brigade were through normal Army supply channels
those in the air today a good proportion selected to attend. This is an excellen: so a request was made to Headquarters,
are militarv. How many can \'ou iden-
school and our own was set up on a United States Army Europe for train.
tify and recognize? similar plan, with the helpful advice ing funds sufficient to purchase from
In the first days of battle confusion and aid of the British instructors, The British military sources. Items such as
is rife. A few untrained antiaircraft students who successfully completed the Balopticons were improyised by build.
gunners can shoot down a friendly pilot British course for instructors were nat- ing homemade shadowgraphs. Since
and thereby demoralize the air defense urally called upon to take up the job many training aids were necessary much
and weaken all confidence in the anti- of planning and forming the 32nd AAA improyisation was done by the instruc-
aircraft artillery. Both fire discipline Brigade School of Aircraft Recognition. tor personnel. About eight hundred to
and the ability to distinguish friend from A small building was made available one thousand photographs are needed
foe are absolutely indispensable. at the Brigade t\rtillery School Center. to teach a three week course, The prep-
The 32nd AAA Brigade in England The preparation resulted in the follow- aration takes a great deal of effort.
has recognized the need for effective ing layout: A three week course for instructors
aircraft recognition skill and made a ~ A medium sized classroom, capable was begun on ] 7 i\ larch ]952. There
start in producing artillerymen who will of handling fifteen students. were fifteen students in the first course.
klloll' which planes are enemy and ~ All information room containing ta- The school has been running regularly
which are friendly, bles, chairs, and study material such as since that date.
Aircraft recognition is not such a dif- aircraft journals, aircraft magazines,
ficult subject to teach, but there are sev- official publications on aircraft, wall Purpose
eral forms of useless instruction extant charts, models painted with the colors The purpose is to train instructors
in our, service. Here in England, how- and insignia of actual planes, aircraft of for each unit in all battalions. The new
ever, they learned well the necessity for the day silhouette, numerous photo- instructors are returned to their units
sharp recognition of aircraft in the Battle graphs, and aircraft in the news. to teach artillerymen at the battery level.
of Britain, They learned how to teach ~ InstTllctors' swdy room. This is a practicable method for devel-
and train in the subject and have not ~ Sketching room for students' practice oping proficiency in aircraft recognition
forgotten . with plenty of blackboards. throughout the command.
Sgt. Edward J. W'eisenburger, Battery A, 60th AAA Bn, Students scud)' plane
instructs Neo's on the recognition of a jet silhouette.
26 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
In addressing the first class, Colonel enough knowledge to realize, for ex- be used only for advanced training and
~Ietticus W. May, Jr., brigade com- ample, why some aircraft have narrow that for the class to fully realize their
mander. stressed the importance of both thin wings and others have thick wide value, they must first have a grounding
aircraft recognition and fire discipline. wings. in the aircraft concerned. Synthetics
An instructor should use a Balopticon. referred to here are such things as games.
Training Methods The chief purpose of this instrument training films, flash trainer, etc.
There is much more to recognition is to project photographs with which
instruction than a knowledge of a num- to illustrate talks or to give spotting Planning A Schedule
ber of shapes. The instructor must tests. Photographs should be carefully When planning a schedule it must
possess that extra information and per- collected and include shots of interest be decided wherein to include back-
sonal interest that enables him to an- as well as of recognition value. Spotting ground knowledge talks. The first step
swer awkward questions. This knowl- shots should be divided into three is to be sure that the class is familiar
edge wiII also add to the color and inter- groups: with aircraft description. This wiII avoid
est that can be put into what otherwise ~ Elementary much confusion and misunderstanding.
may be a flat silhouette. Once the in- ~ Intermediate Periods used largely for recognition
terest of the class has been aroused, the ~ Difficult should be interspersed with other types
aircraft then becomes real and recogni- Distance is not the only deCiding fac- of classes to prevent the monotony of
tion will follow more easily. tor in separating photographs into these one continuous type of training.
Although a good background knowl- three groups. Clarity, viewpoint, and The official training list designates
edge is essential, the instructor need not background must also be considered. what aircraft to teach. The first aircraft
be a super-spotter. In fact if he is not, Trouble is often experienced when pu- to cover are those to be seen locanv.
he may more readily appreciate the be- pils develop "Photograph Recognition" This should apply both in peace a~d
ginner's point of view and his instruc- that is to say, a "shot" will be identified war, and enables the pupil to put
tion may be considerably more effective. by a mark or blot on the photograph, into practice without delay what he has
The art of recognition has been prac- not by the aircraft itself. The ideal solu- learned in the classroom.
ticed in all walks of life throughout his- tion to this is to have so great a number Bear in mind that although an rec-
tory. One lesson stands out above all of photographs that they need never ognition is the subconscious comparison
others; there is no short cut to efficient be repeated. Since this is impossible, it of different shapes, the instructor must
recognition. When you see an aircraft is recommended that instructors trv al- not be too comparison conscious. To the
flash through the sky either you know tering photographs. One easy way -'isto beginner, comparisons may be very con-
what kind it is, or you do not. Ask any shade in the photographs with colored fusing. Psychologically it is better at
really good spotter how long he has pencil, or to cut out the aircraft and the earlier stages to concentrate on the
been interested in recognition and his paste it on a new background. Such differences rather than on the similari-
answer will provide effective proof that alterations are surprisingly effective. ties of aircraft. Teach the beginner
good recognition requires long and con- It is essential that the subject mat- about a dozen aircraft that cannot be
tinued study. ter be presented in a logical manner. confused. Once he knows these thor-
Methods used ten years ago included The chart below conveys the idea of oughly a few confusable types may be
the code word "WEFT" (Wings, En- teaching easy things first and gradually introduced. More than two aircraft
gines, Fuselage, Tail). While useful to building up to the more difficult items. should never be compared at anyone
remind the pupil to check all parts of an Let us assume that twelve aircraft time.
aircraft's silhouette in the classroom, it are to be taught to a certain group and
never was practicable for spotting actual they have been sorted out into six groups Testing
aircraft. Today with the high speeds of two aircraft each. This means that Repeated spotting practice is an es-
achieved by small aircraft 'WEFT" is in an hour's lecture, after a pair of air- sential part of recognition training but
literally an impossibility. The observer craft has been taught, twenty minutes it must be carried out properly if full
cannot methodically go through the rec- will remain for spotting practice of these value is to be obtained. The pupils
ognition features. He must be capable of two aircraft, and of others previously should be placed so that they can all
instantly recognizing the whole bulk of taught. see the screen easily and are not at such
an aircraft. To sum up, the aim of air- The chart shows that at all times an angle that distortion of the picture
craft recognition training is Instantane- during the program, emphasis is placed will occur. For obvious reasons the class
ous Bulk Recognition. on review, while variety is added with members should not be too close to each
synthetics. Note the synthetics are to other. If the period is to be of any train-
This is valuable for th~ instructor Recognition Aircraft Silhouette work Test Photographs Synthetics
and student alike. Period No. Group (Basic teaching) (fA" uB" tte"
It is given to the student bv means 1 1 1 1
of organized interest lectures ~n such 2 2 2 2 1
subjects as Principles of Flight, High 3 3 3 3 2
Speed Flight, History of Aviation, and 4_ 4 4 4 3 2 1
so on. Once again, the aim is to in- 5 5 5 5 4 3 2
terest the pupil in aircraft and give him 6 6 6 6 5 4 3
MARCH-APRil, 1953 27
ing value the test must be reshown at • Anv deficiencies in the success of the phrase in aircraft recognition "I knowr
the same time as the answers are given trainhtg so that efforts can be made the aircraft, but just can't rememhtt
enabling the individual to learn by his toward correction. the name."
errors. • Any new training aids and ways of At the bottom it is well to write the
SJ.X>Uing ractice should not be con-
p injecting variety into the training so span and length. This will be of interest
fused with testing in the examination that others in the command may benefit. to the class and will give them an idea
sense. In spotting practices variety is of the size of the aircraft concerned.
of value and almost any method within Also at the bottom is a space &.
reason may be used. For examination IT is suggested that a lecture on a an abbreviated "layout" of the aircraft.
pUfJ.X>ses here results must be com-
w single aircraft be presented in from This is primarily to act as a reminder
pared, the instructor should use the fifteen to twenty minutes, as follows: in the student's notebook. The sug-
Balopticon only. Copies of examinations a. Introduction (approximately three gested sequence to be followed is: En..
and of results must be kept by the in- minutes). A few interesting facts about gines, Wing position, Unusual features,
structor to aid him in planning future the construction and performance of the and Number of Fins and Rudders. An
tests and in determining the progress of aircraft, to arouse interest. example, using the Venom, would be
the class. These points plus the neces- b. Silhouette study (eight minutes). lJ/MWM/TB/2FR (One Jet/Mid
sity at times of several classes being This is a detailed study of the large three Wing Monoplane/Twin booms/Twv
given the same test on different occa- places silhouette having as much class Fins and Rudders).
sions show that the Balopticon must be participation as possible. Silhouette study. During this period
used for examinations. c. Balopticon work (four minutes). the class must thoroughly learn the air-
It is said that variety is the spice of This is a brief study of photographs to craft's shape from the silhouette. This
life. It is certainly the secret of an in- show the aircraft as it really appears, shows it as it really is, unaffected by
terested recognition class. Below are including angle shots to show the ef- perspective. Questions will play a big
some of the ways of injecting it into the fects of perspective. It is suggested that part in this if carried out properly. The
training. five photographs to be used here would pupils will remain alert with their minds
~ Organize an information room and include: one head on view, one side focused on the silhouette for the entire
assemble a reference library on old and view, one plan view, one interest shot eight minutes.
new aircraft. and one three quarter view. In using this method it is necessary
~ Arrange visits to local airfields and d. Recognition features (five min- for the class to look at the silhouette
aircraft factories. utes). This is a review by short descrip- as a whole rather than at head on, plan,
~ Encourage sketching and model mak- tions of the recognition features that and side views. When a student is de-
ing. have already been covered. This is brok- scribing the wings, fuselage, or the tail
~ Arrange for outside lecturers to talk en down into three main parts: wings, he must cover all three in his comments.
not only on recognition but also on gen- fuselage, and tail. During this period the instructor
eral aviation subjects. e. A suggested blackboard layout is should use a pointer to run lightly over
~ Keep an Aircraft of the Day board. shown in Figure 1. Stress clarity and the parts being described.
~ Build up a healthy competitive spirit neatness, plus the added advantages of After parts of the aircraft have been
by running spotting competitions with- standardization and uniformity. described the shape will be impressed
in the unit and with other units. Also The name of the aircraft to be studied more firmly upon the mind of the stu-
by playing recognition games, such as must be written in large letters at the dent if a sketch is made. The black-
Bingo, Twenty Questions, One Minute top of the blackboard. This will help board sketch may be simple and without
Please, etc. the students to associate the name of detail but it will convey much more
~ Have a small recognition bulletin the aircraft with silhouette. This will than words. This sketch or sketches
board in a conspicuous place displaying also help eliminate the well known should be made by the instructor dur-
recent articles from newspapers and
magazines, of aircraft in the news.
Finally in the teaching of aircraft rec- VENOM
ognition there are four things that
should be remembered.
No short cuts.
Variety in training.
Testing and Inspecting
As imJ.X>rtantas any other phase of
recognition training is the testing and SPAN: 41'9"
inspecting of all units of the command.
In this brigade each battalion is in- LAYOUT: I J/MWM/TB/ZFR
spected and tested quarterly to discover: igure I.
• Training progress.
28 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
ing the time that the students describe During the projection of the conven- student will look like a broom handle to
the different parts of the aircraft. It is tional views and the interest shots, the another, and perhaps even a carrot to a
necessary for him to direct the descrip- instructor's commentary should serve to third.
tion and at the same time make the remind the class of the main points of The three features should be arranged
sketch. the aircraft to be seen in each view. so that one covers the wings (including
Baloptiwn work: Before proceeding to During the projection of the three quar- the engines in multi-engined types), and
this section the silhouette should be ter angle photograph he should remain one covers the fuselage, and one the
turned face to the board and the sketches silent, permitting the class time to de- tail unit.
removed. The reason for this will be ob- cide for themselves the three brief rec- The features are intended to be a
vious. ognition features. reminder of the aircraft's shape and so
Basically, four photographs of the air- Summary of recognition features: This should be brief and clear. One sentence
craft being studied should be used in the is the review and memory testing part per feature is normally sufficient.
baloptican. In addition one interest shot of the lecture. Again class questioning The final phase of the lecture is given
is advisable, making a total of five photo- comes into play. The three recognition by once again facing the silhouette to-
graphs . .An interest shot may be the features of the aircraft must be obtained wards the class and running over the
aircraft combat loaded or shots emphasiz- and written on the blackboard. This is features written on the blackboard. This
ing unusual features. The illustrations why the sketch was removed and the can be followed by the usual request for
must be carefully selected and must in- silhouette reversed earlier in the lecture. any questions.
clude one head on view, one plan, one During this period it will be neces- The 35th AAA Brigade has rounded
side, and when possible, one interest sary for the instructor to guide the class out an effective aircraft recognition
shot, and one three quarter view. The in understanding the descriptions that training program, by establishing its
first three need not be taken in the order he is teaching. Be sure to guide, not school for instructors in which Army
mentioned so long as they clearly show bully the class. Each member of the training methods were utilized and
the recognition features to be seen from class must be made to feel that he has taught and by periodic inspection of
those angles. The interest shot should a part to play during the entire lecture, all units to check on the progress of the
be shown just before the three quarter. and that his ideas and opinions can be program as it was being carried out by
It must be remembered that the three voiced and heard. Such phrases as "egg the school trained instructors. The
quarter view must be selected to show shaped," "cigar shaped," "carrot shaped," training has been successful in teaching
if possible all major recognition features etc., should be avoided. Experience will instantaneous recognition of aircraft Hy-
of the aircraft. show that what resembles a cigar to one ing over defended areas.
HONOR ROLL *
(Continued from inside front cover) 726th AAA Gun Bn 951st AAA Gun Bn 327th AAA Opns. Del. *
7051h AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. F. O. Roever
Lt. Cal. C. F. Arnold, N. Mex.
764th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. E. D. Winslead
Lt. Col. W. G. Bobbitt
30th AAA Lt. Btry
Capt. W. A. Brant
Mo;. F. W. Smith
SOOth AAA Opns. Del.
Maj. C. D. May, Jr. *
7081h AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. P. l. Gelsinger
71 Olh AAA Gun Bn.
768th AAA Gun Bn.
Lt. Col. T. H. Kuyper
773rd AAA Gun Bn
Blry A, 37th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. A. B. Whitesides
502nd AAA Opns. Det.
Capt. J. R. Myers
506th AAA Opns. Del. *
Capl. T. T. Chisman Lt. CoL G. F. Slavin
7121h AAA Gun Bn 804th AAA AW Bn 1M} 131s1 AAA Opns. Det. 509th AAA Opns. Det.
Ll. Col. R. W. Harnett Maj. S. N. Caudill, N. Mex. Maj. J. l. Welling, S. C. Maj. J. P. Bodkin
7161h AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. Joe R. Stewart, N. Mex.
717th AAA Gun Bn
867th AAA AW Bn
Lt. Col. W. R. Parr
903rd AAA AW Bn
142nd AAA Opns. Det.
Maj. B. D. Boyett, Ala.
177th AAA Opns. Det.
SlOth AAA Opns. Del.
Maj. R. H. Moser
511th AAA Opns. Det. *
Lt. Col. E. D. Pelzer, N. Mex.
720th AAA Gun Bn.
Lt. Col. G. A. Duke, Calif.
Lt. CoL F. J. Petrilli
933rd AAA AW Bn
Lt. CoL R. G. Meguiar
Capt. J. J. Niehoff
286th AAA Opns. Det.
Copt. J. B. Stopyro, Dela.
Maj. G. J. Burke
515th AAA Opns. Det.
Copt. P. C. Hubble *
724th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. CoL E. H. Hahn
950th AAA AW Bn
U. Col. J. P. Wallis, Go.
302nd AAA Opns. Det.
Maj. N. L Funke
517th AAA Opns. Det.
Lt. R. A. Durkins
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 29
METEOROLOGY FOR AAA
Ii'\ the first issue of the ]ol'mal of the
United States Artillery, January, 1892,
tention and more help to the meteoro-
logical section in their work following
observed raw data. This can be dOUt
by another met section, or by the same
the lead article bv 1st Lieut. John W. the prescribed standard procedures. section after shifting the key personnel
Ruckman, the first editor, bore the The first obvious need in each unit is in the section. This procedure has
title: 'The Effect Of The 'Vind On for a well trained officer to direct and sUIX:rbtraining value.
The 1\lotion Of A Projectile." supervise this work. Whereas such well The officer can get a good general
Comparing our problem Editor Ruck- trained officers are not available. Each idea of the accuracy by observing the
man stated: 'The engineer can allow officer so selected will probably have to work and by study of the work sheets.
sufficient strength in his struc~re to train himself by working with the sec- The tabulation of the speeds and direc-
withstand the maximum effect which tion and by study of TM 20-240 and tions of the zone winds gives a good
the wind may produce upon it :(-:(-:(-and T1\I 20-241. indication.
always allow a sufficient margin of
strength, even when wholly ignorant
of the laws of the wind's action. :(-:(-:(-
With the artillerist, however, it is dif-
EVENTUALLY it is hoped to have
warrant officers trained to bear the brunt
F OR a quick and accurate check of
the wind data Major H. R. Jackson, me-
ferent. He is required to send his pro- of the supervision of met sections, but in teorological instructor in the School at
jectiles direct to the point, and can the usual case now, make no mistake Fort Bliss, and his assistant Pfc. J. G. To-
allow himself no margin, one way or about it, an officer is required. He rian get a splendid check on the wind by
the other, the shot must fall neither should have a good background in computing for each standard altitude
short nor beyond, neither to the right mathematics and artillery. Electronics the average wind speed and direction to
nor to the left. Such rigid conditions is also helpful. the point at 83.3% of the standard alti-
require a perfect knowledge of the laws tude. For theory and discussion of this
-of the wind's action and the methods of
computing its deviating effects."
Due in large part to the efforts of
T HE most important part of the su-
pervision is to check the care and accu-
solution see Simplified Wind Determi-
nation in Nov.-Dec., 1952 ANTIAIRCRAFT
JOURNAL. They interpolate between
Ruckman, Whistler, and other artillery racy of the operation, and particularly minute readings to get the elevation and
writers in the early years of this JOUR- the accuracy of the met message. azimuth of this point. The wind azimuth
NAL, the Ordnance Department fur- Under the standard procedure the is indicated by computing the back azi-
nishes to us now in the firing tables plotting and computations may involve muth in hundred mils from the observed
accurate and convenient data on wind about one hundred key operations for reading in degrees and tenths. They
effects and our directors are designed one met message. Each such operation use the standard slide rule to compute
to compute automatically and apply the is a possible source of error. There the wind speed, applying the formula:
.corrections for such effects. should be a regular method of checking Wind speed in M.P.R. =
We still have with us, however, the the message, but unfortunately none .0341 H cot E
practical problem of determining the is provided. The banker, the account- r
ballistic wind as well as the ballistic ant, and the engineer in like cases have Where H = altitude of balloon in
density and temperature. And while a checking method. Likewise we need yards; E = elevation angle of balloon;
we have made progress in this field, it and we can get it here. And that is and t is the time in minutes since release
too, we have not yet arrived at the point the officer's job. of balloon.
where the AAA brigades and groups can In WWII Major General F. Q. C. This method works well for someone
.easily turn out satisfactory meteorological Gardner used to visit his met station who is thoroughly familiar with stand-
data. It is simply a problem which re- in the San Francisco area and check or ard slide rule operation.
quires more attention and better atten- have the Aide check the accuracy of Another method of checking is to use
tion than we have been giving. the message. He used data tables then a wind speed computer as described in
For that reason we have seized every provided for a simplified solution. We Beter Wind Data in Nov-Dee 1951
.occasion during the past two years to hardly need to add that these checks had ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL.This provides
publish articles on meteorology for AAA. wholesome results. We will add, how- a rather direct and simple operation
We have emphasized the need for a ever, that such accuracy checks now are with a computer designed for the spe-
procedure which would be more prac- almost unheard-of. And this is because cific purpose. However, it is necessary
ticable in the field and we have pre- there is no easy, ready to order method first to construct the Wind Speed Com-
sented a simplified solution for ballistic of doing it. puter.
wind determination. Here, however, The most convincing accuracy check For each met section the officer in
we wish to stress the present need in all can be made by having the met message charge needs a ready method of checking
AM brigades and groups for more at- computed independently from the same the met message.
:30 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
Electronics Training For The Artillery
By LT. COL HENRY P. MORSE
ITROUBLESHOOTI~G which is troubleshooting of the particular circuit. Here are Some Questions and
not founded on a sound grasp of theory, With the student's back turned, the in- Answers:
plus an intimate knowledge of circuit structor injects a trouble into the cir- QUESTION: \Vh)" is it necessary to
hookup, is nothing more than tinker- cuit. This can take any number of forms, giye an officer as much technical train-
ing." such as substituting a bad tube for a ing as an enlisted man?
Those words came from a radar officer good one, switching two wires around
ANSVI1ER:The Department feels that
in Korea. And we certainly agree here on a terminal board, shorting across a
in the case of highly complicated elec-
in the Department of Electronics of the resistor, etc. The student is then required
tronic equipment, proper supervision
Antiaircraft and Guided Missile Branch to make a step-by-step analysis of what
can be accomplished only by knowing
of The Artillery School. is causing the trouble, where the cause
as much as the men under you,
The Department of Electronics is re- is located, aDd correcting it.
QUESTION:Your course of fourteen
sponsible for the technical training of all At the present time, four different
weeks in basic electronics is comparable
radar and fire control equipment repair- courses are being conducted in the Fire
to the amount a student would receive
men for the artillery. It will have the Control Equipment Section. The first
in four years of college. Is that much
same responsibility for guided missile fire of these is a combination of two former
knowledge of electronics necessary?
control equipment repairmen. courses. It is on the SCR 584 and the
ANSWER:Yes, that can be illustrated
The schooling problem is approached M9 director. This course is sixteen weeks
in several ways. Take the training of
in this manner. An incoming student is in length. The second one is on the
an automobile mechanic. Before he
sent first to the Basic Electronics Sec- AAFCS 1\133 and takes twenty-three
learns how to change a carburetor or
tion of the Department. Here, the stu- weeks. The third course covers the
reseat a valve he learns the principles of
dent spends fourteen weeks studying the AAFCS T38 (the fire control system operation of gasoline motors. From this
principles of electricity, radio circuits for the new 75mm Skysweeper), and is knowledge of the principles he learns
and finally basic radar circuits. All in- twenty weeks long. Fourthly is the how to diagnose malfunctions. The De-
coming students who have not previ- course on the AN/MPQ-lO, the new partment endeavors to do the same thing
ously had a course in basic electronics
countermortar radar, and it is of ten with electronic technicians. However,
are given an identical course. No at-
weeks duration. Included with the first the complexity of a radar as compared
tempt is made to give any of the circuits
three courses is also a short course on to a gasoline engine is on the order of
of a particular piece of equipment. The
the AN/TPS-1D. Adding to the above. 10 to 1. Ergo, it takes ten times longer
student spends three hours daily receiv-
times, the fourteen weeks spent on basic to teach the principles of electronics than
ing conference type instruction, and
four hours in a laboratory. electronics, it will be seen that these re- it does to teach the principles of a com-
Upon completion of basic electronics pairmen courses run from twenty-four bustion engine.
the student moves to the Fire Control to thirtv-seven weeks. When a malfunction occurs in a gaso-
Equipment Section of the Department. If a person has had a previous course line engine, the cause is generally lo-
At this point he is channeled into a on radar or schooling in electronics, he cated in the same place that the mal-
course built around the specific piece of is eligible to take what is known as a function manifests itself. This is not true
equipment on which he is to be trained. transition course. This course elimi- of electronics equipment. At least 50%
His school day is similar to that which nates the fourteen weeks of basic elec- of the time the cause of an electronic
he had in Basic Electronics. First, he tronics and starts the student out on the malfunction is located in an entirelv dif-
ferent place than where it evidences it-
attends a three-hour conference on a equipment portion outlined in the pre-
particular circuit of a particular piece of self. To locate the cause of electronic
vious paragraph. At present this type of
equipment. The theoretical operation of troubles requires a knowledge of the
course is being conducted on the M33
the circuit is gone over thoroughly, to characteristics of electronic components
include possible malfunctions and and their effect on one another.
There has recently been started a re- Over the past eight years the Depart-
known points of troubles, their causes
vised officers course of thirty-two weeks ment has compiled a list of over 350
and how to detect them. Then he spends
four hours working on the particular duration. This is a course which is a trouhles that have occurred to the
circuit on the actual equipment. These combination of all the newer equipment. SCR-584 in the field. In time a similar
four hours are divided into two parts. The officer receives instruction in basic list will be built up for the newer radars
First he performs a number of experi- electronics, the M33 and T38 fire con- and computers. It would be entirely pos-
ments designed to illustrate that the trol systems, and the AN;TPS-1D and sible to teach a repairman how to recog-
circuit works in the manner described AN/MPQ-lO radars. Essentially he re- nize and correct these troubles without
in his previous conference. The second, ceives the same instruction as an enlisted a knowledge of electronics. He would
and largest part, is devoted to actual man but at an accelerated pace. then be working by rote, and if an
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 31
unknown trouble occurred he would be of selective service personnel. If total mo- QUESTION: Aren't you teaching a l~
stumped. The Department feels that it bilization came tomorrow this backlog of of maintenance that is properly a re.
is much more satisfactory to give a man maintenance men would normally be sponsibility of a Technical Service?
a good background of basic principles immediately frozen in the army, so there ANSWER: That is an important ques-
and a complete knowledge of circuitry. would be no immediate increased need tion, and it is debatable. Going strictly
He is then capable of diagnosing almost for this type personneL The rate of by regulations, the organizational main-
any trouble. It takes a little longer in output of the Department, \\"'ith no tenance man is authorized to perfDrnl
time but the end product is far superior change in size, could produce as many maintenance within the limits of the
in quality. repairmen as sets of fire control equip- tools and spare parts authorized for i$-
QuESTION: Some of your courses are ment produced by industry to equip sue to the unit. However, the ability 10
nine months long. If total mobilization newlv activitated units. From this it can use a soldering iron, wrench or screw.
should come, would they be cut down? be seen that there would be no need driver on one particular part is perfectly
ANSWER: The Department is con- to shorten the courses to meet any im- transferable to any other part that Ie-
tinuously striving to reduce the length mediate need for trained maintenance quires the use of such a tooL By the same
of the courses. With the advent of the men. token, the ability to trace a trouble In
new M33 integrated fire control system QUESTION: You have set very high
a part which is authorized to be replaced,
it was decided to teach the complete standards for admission to your courses. is also usable to trace a trouble to any
system to one man. Formerly, one man Is this necessary and does it not make it
learned the radar and another the com- difficult to get enough students?
Actually the Department does not ill-
puter. This took six and five months each ANSWER: The high standards are nec-
tempt to draw a line based on a list of
respectively. Each man had to go through essary. The Department has gone
tools and spare parts issued with the
basic electronics first. By combining the through its records and calculated that,
piece of equipment. The guiding prin-
courses, two man months were saved. of the personnel who entered the courses
without the required prerequisites, about
ciple has been the training of a mainte-
Actually the Department is making
considerable strides in reducing the 50% fail to finish. That is too expensive nance man capable of keeping the equir-
length of the courses. The M33 system in terms of money and energy wasted. ment in operation in the field without
comprises two radars and a computer, Actually, since the start of the Korean dependence on the Technical Service.
yet the course is only two weeks longer war, the Department has had no dif- The Department feels that there will be
than the former SCR 584/M9 course. ficulty in obtaining students. It draws times under combat conditions when
With present plant and equipment, full directly from the RTC at Fort Bliss, and technictil service support is not tlllailable.
strength T ID and all present student units in general have managed to find When such conditions exist, the unit
quotas filled, the Department can turn a fair number of qualified personnel to commander should htllle tlllailable a
out sufficient maintenance men annually send. Our present flow of graduates will trained man capable of doing the maxi-
for present requirements. This rate was meet the needs of the antiaircraft units mum amount of maintenance if all types
set up because of the one year availability in the present troop basis. of spare parts are issued to him.
VERSATILITY OF RADIO SET AN I GRC-9
By 1sf LT. ARTHUR B. NASH
Radar Officer, 89th AAA Gun Battalion
ALTHOUGH the rated maximum headquarters, in the Baltimore area, and windstorms. The terrain was moder-
range of the AN/GRC-9 is stated in batteries of the battalion, which were ately favorable in that it was generally
TM 11-263 as 25 miles when used in rotating to Bethany Beach, Delaware, flat with no serious intervening features.
stationary position, the 89th AM Gun for service practice. Faced with the re- Normal operating frequency being be-
Battalion recently used this set success- quirement for an administrative com- tween 6000 and 7000 kilocycles, or ap-
fully and consistently over a distance munications net without incurring ex- proximately the center of the set's fre-
of approximately 125 miles, for a period cessive telephone bills, the battalion quency range (two to twelve mega-
of almost a month. Communication commander, Lieut. Col. Thomas H. cycles), it was decided to continue the
was continuous and satisfactory for that Barfield, directed the author to experi- experIment at the usual frequency, even
entire period, and contact was made not ment with various antennae, in order though recognizing its characteristics of
only with the net control station but possibly to establish the necessary cir- short daytime and medium nighttime
with other stations in the net as well. cuits. How this was done is described range. It is interesting to note, in retro-
This unusual and gratifying perform- in the following paragraphs. spect, that the frequency was particu-
ance of the AN/GRC-9 came about as The tests were conducted during av- larly appropriate as time of day appeared
the result of a requirement for reliable erage mid-Atlantic seaboard winter to have little if any effect on the success
communications between the battalion weather, with good weather, rain, and of the experiment.
32 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
~Iany types of antenna were e:-.-peri- found that a change of six inches in to be the most satisfactorv. It was found
lDented with and greatly varying ef- any portion of the doublet assembly re- that when usin!! the hand oenerator
I fectS were obtained. Finally, after sev- duced power output sharply. although
several seconds should elapse between
I eral preliminary tests were made, it was reception was only moderately affected. the time the load indicator olows and
I decided that a doublet type antenna This limitation, particularly as it re- '"
actual voice transmission begins, other-
'lI'Ould provide the optimum results. lates to lead-in wires, was found to be wise a "flutter" will be heard at the re-
The lead-ins and radiators were cut to a critical factor in determining the loca- cei,'ing station. Also, steady operation
exact lengths required for one-half wave tion of the radio station itself. In this of the hand cranks is particularly neces-
radiators and lead-ins as given in Tl\l particular instance, the aerial was sus- sary to prevent fading and the conse-
11-263. The entire assembly was made pended about fifteen feet above the quent need to repeat messages .
• of field wire \V-IIOB. To avoid splices ground, the radiators were terminated Initial contact O\'er extreme range is
the entire length of one radiator and on insulators, and cord was used to fasten hard to establish and patience and great
lead-in was measured from one piece of insulators to antenna supports. In an care are needed. It was found advisable
wire; the wire was then carefully sepa- effort to make an exhaustive research of
to set aside a certain hour for makino
rated to a point where the lead-in began, the effectiveness of various types of'
initial contact, thus assuring the full '"
I and that point was taped to prevent
,further separation of wire. Thus the
antennae, other types were tested, par-
ticularly the long wire and whip types.
attention of operators at each station and
eliminating delay and confusion. Once
tWO separated pieces served as radiators No contact, either transmission or re-
communication ~as been established it
and the remaining twisted portion as a ception, was possible when the whip
was maintained in routine fashion.
lead-in. Copper wire, made into a more was tested. \Veak and intermittent con-
tact was possible with a long wire an- In evaluating this experiment, and
permanent unit, may be used if obtain-
able, or the antenna supplied with the tenna, but only during late afternoon the successful operation of the ANI
, AN/GRC-9 can be used, provided the hours. Because of the directive effect GRC-9 over extreme distances, it is con-
proper length of radiator and lead-in of the doublet, local interference was cluded that such range is feasible and
can be obtained for the frequency uti- reduced with this antenna, whereas readily attainable if the directional
lized. It is important to note that no with a whip or longwire assembly local qualities occasioned by the arrangement
subsequent changes in length of lead-in coast guard and amateur stations could described herein are acceptable to the
or radiator should be made if satisfac- be heard. using unit. Such use indeed confirms
tory results are to be expected. It was Hand generator operation was found the versatility of the "ANGRY-9."
Winterization of the AN ITPS-ID
By CAPT. DUNCAN S. BOUGHNER
Radar Officer, 8th AAA A W Bn .
DUE to severe winter conditions an MI8 four-wheel, two-ton generator corners and both sides. The rafter to
here at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., some trailer. This trailer has outside jacks left front is omitted to allow for the
4 method had to be found to winterize on rear for stabilization and an excel- pedestral unit. The door is in the cen-
the AN(fPS-ID. The tent supplied as lent bracing dolly wheel in front. The ter rear. The walls can be lined with
a component part is not suitable for the platform on the drawbar can be used celotex or any other insulation for more
extreme cold weather here. In trying for mounting the PU-I04. We put a comfort.
out several methods of installation two floor of I inch by 4 inch with 2 inch by The units are stacked and facing as
solutions became apparent, one of which 4 inch props in the trailer. The fly follows: The antenna base and receiver-
also presented an answer for a more portion of shelter S-68(fPS-I D is used transmitter, left front corner facing to
mobile setup. Both solutions satisfy all as a roof and held on by strapping rear; the power supply and signal com-
requirements without impairing the ef- around the top of the framework. The parator in right front corner facing to
ficiency of the unit. walls are made of ~-inch plywood with rear; the indicator and modulator are
The first, which for lack of a better 2 inch by 2 inch frame. The roof has a halfway toward the' rear on right side
name we shall call the "Mobile i\'leth- lengthwise beam, 2 inch by 2 inch with facing left. The leveling jacks of the
od," is constructed as follows: A five- either 2 inch by 2 inch or I inch by 2 radar are only under the receiver-trans-
foot-high removable cab was built around inch rafters to right front, both real mitter and antenna base units. The
MARCH-APRil, 1953 33
antenna sections are carried in trucks top of the \'estibule were removed and but at right angles to the stack. T ~
with gas drums. 2 inch by 6 inch bracing put under the sliding curtains can be hung, screeni~
Tests show that this arrangement pro- vestibule floor. The regular tent, the operator from light entering tht
vided maximum mobility. \ \lith wooden S-68tTPS-l D. bracing cables and fly windows. A work bench is installed or
bases with bolts holding the other two were installed as normally prescribed. one side of hut. The sto\'e is in tht
stacks. no difficulty was encountered as to The tent falls on the sides of vestibule opposite end of the hut from the radar I
stability either on good or bad roads, or and is lashed there with rope. The fly For fire protection a CO:? and a stand-
across rough terrain. The stacks did not gives added weather protection and is ard foam extinguisher must be aVai\.
sway or slide nor did it affect adjust- held down on hut side by placing one able, The CO:? extinguisher is for the
ments made before move other than to of the six inch hut securing bands in its radar; it will not damage the parts.
check level. The a\'erage time for normal place with edge of fly under it.
This provides necessary winterizatiOll
getting on air from move was 25 min- Remm'al of units is simplified in this
for the radar. \Ve have used a standard
utes. The unit itself, when on air, fur- manner by removing fly, tent, antenna,
CP tent with curtains rolled up to
nishes enough heat to be comfortable and the canvas end of vestibule onto a
house the generators whose exhaust ex.
even when it is zero degrees outside. 2Y.!-ton truck.
tensions are suspended out the windol\'.
The second method employed docs Inside the \'estibule the stack faces
not give the mobility of the method This allows sufficient protection for
inward which simplifies cabling. The
described above but it does provide a transmitter just clears the top of door. maintenance and servicing without be- \
much more suitable place for operation The servo amplifier unit in the antenna ing e:\"}Josedto elements or danger from
and maintenance crews while on shift. base unit can also be removed if neces- exhaust fumes. Gasoline drums are On
An M48, four section hut (James- sary by removing the screen in ventila- an open platform with a sheltering roof
way) was set up. In the vestibule the tor above the door thus making all outside of tent. A foam extinguisher is
stack was set up less the indicator and units immediately available. The mod- used in this tent.
modulator units, facing the inside of the ulator and indicator units are set on a These solutions offer a possible interim
hut. The inner door and the canvas wooden platform just inside the door or permanent utilization.
31st AAA Brigade Activities
On 29 January 1953, I-Iq and Hq noncommissioned officers set. Other Brigade until May.
Btry, 31st AAA Brigade, under com- married personnel have had no diffi- The grapevine has indicated that
mand of Brigadier General Eugene F. culty finding adequate housing within Colonel John C. Steele, Commanding
Cardwell, moved from Fort Lewis, six miles of the Base in the communi- Officer Sth AAA Group, and Colonel
\Vashington to McChord Air Force ties of Lakcwood and South Tacoma. Henry D. Lind, Commanding Officer
Base, \Vashington. McChord Air Force Hcadquarters Battery is housed and 26th AM Group, will be leaving the
Base is the home of the 2Sth Air Divi- messed in the "Castle," a large brick command this summer for school. Colo-
sion, commanded by Brigadier General barracks. nel Steele to the National War College
T. Allen Bennett. Its mission is the General Cardwell reports that Gen- and Colonel Lind to the Army \Var
air defense of the Northwest Sector. eral Bennett and all of the Air Force College. Colonel H. G. Haskell has
Thus, the Army and Air Force head- people at McChord have gone all out to been ordered to the Sth AAA Group to
quarters responsible for the air and make the 31st Brigade personnel com- succeed Colonel Steele in command.
antiaircraft defense in the Northwest fortable and welcome. Lt. Colonel Grant S. Green, former
are now located on the same reserva- General Cardwell was on extended Commanding Officer of the S13th AAA
tion. This close proximity will result in TOY at Headquarters \Vestern Army Gun Bn recently departed for overseas
improved coordination of planning and AA Command in February and I\-larch shipment.
operations. between the departure of Brigadier Gen- Lt. Colonels Charles F. Ottinger,
McChord Air Force Base converted cral Berry and the arrival of Brigadier Arvid P. Dahl, and Arthur E. Holt
two adjacent 63-man barracks into com- General i\kGaw. The S2, Captain have recently joined the Brigade. They
pletely adequate office space for the vVilliam D. Knapp, and the 54, Captain have been assigned as commanding
Brigade Headquarters. By cross service Kenneth V. Frankenfield, have been officers of the 20th, 83rd, and Sl9th
agreement, finance, medical, post supply, ordered overseas. Captain Frankenfield Battalions respectively.
and communication seI\'ices are fur- has been replaced by Captain Joseph E. i\'iajor Donn M. i\IcCann, executive
nished. i\ larkee. The Brigade Radar Officer, officer, 5th AAA Group, and Major
From the small number of quarters l\Iajor Floyd I-I. Bjorklund, is taking the Leonard T. l-lansen, executive officer
available on the base, the Brigade has short course at the Command and Gen- 518th AAA Gun Bn, have recently
been allocated one officers set and one eral Staff College and will be lost to the joined.
34 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
ARMY PRIMARY PROGRAMS
By LT. COL. WILLIAM L. THOR KELSON
,T HE Army Primary Programs, some
fifteen in number, consist of a grouping
programs in no different sense than any
one of the Army Primary Programs. In
ficer corps have received familiarization
training in it at the schools. It was given
of practically all of the activities of the fact the basic guidance for all unit train- great impetus in the Department of the
:\rmy. These activities are so grouped ing directives, programs, and schedules Army by Lieutenant General r.laxwell
into the Primary Programs that they can is Army Primary Program No.6, T rain- D. Taylor, who placed much emphasis
be readily administered because each ing. upon the Primary Programs in the ex-
program consists of related activities for The only really new thing about the ecution of his responsibilities as Deputy
which specific objectives can be set. The Army Primary Programs is that they Chief of Staff for Operations and Ad-
program system is a vehicle for better represent the first attempt to encompass ministration. Last year the system was
management in the Army. The Primary practically all of the Army activities adopted in the Fourth and Sixth Army
Programs and their subdivisions called within a single framework. \Vhile spe- areas. It is being studied in certain o,'er-
activities are used by many individuals cific Army activities such as construc- seas areas, and in the very near future
throughout the Army. Planners use tion of buildings have been programmed will be adopted in all of the continental
them as a means of laying out future for many years, no single set of related Armies.
courses of action in fair detail. Budg- documents stated and correlated most The need for an all-encompassing
eteers use them as a means of justifying all Army activities. The program system programming system was demonstrated
budget requests for future years. Gen- represents our long-standing concepts 01 by a number of things. Among these
eral Staff divisions follow them in carry- planning, of looking to the future, em- were the findings in 1949 of the
ing out their activities. Soon army com- bodied into a formalized framework en- Commission on Organization of the
manders and some overseas commanders compassing most of the activities of the Executive Branch of the Government
will use them as basic guidance for their Army, and executed on a scheduled generally known as the Hoover Com-
op~rations. Finally, program directors, basis. Also, the Programming System is mission. The Commission recommended
the deputy chiefs of staff, and the Chief related to the JCS planning cycles, and that the whole budgetary concept of the
of Staff, use them as a means of meas- is geared to the budget cycle of the Fed- Federal Government be refashioned by
uring accomplishments against objec- eral Government. the adoption of a budget based upon
tives. In other words, the Primary Pro- Program Management is now being functions, activities, and projects which
grams of the Army are gradually be- taught in the Army 'Var College, and they termed the "performance budget."
coming the basic guidance for most in time will become a subject of instruc- The Primary Programs, since they are
Army activities. tion at other general service schools. functional groupings of activities and
To understand the Army Primary Some senior officers feel it will never be can be related to the Performance Budg-
Program System or Program Manage- entirely effective until more of the of- et structure prescribed by the Hoover
ment one must first approach the prob-
lem with a knowledge that there is no
great mystery involved. 'Vhile the Army
Program System is sometimes discussed DEPARTMENT OF ARMY
as a new innovation, there is really noth- PRIMARY PROGRAMS
ing new about it at all. The Army has Program Director
always had programs. However, these Troop Gl
programs have been related to specific Command and Management Gl
Military Personnel Gl
fields of endeavor. For example, each
Civilian Personnel Director, Civilian
one of us is familiar with training di- Personnel, OCS
rectives, training programs and training Intelligence " G2
schedules for all size units. These are Research and Development Chief, R&D, OCS
Industrial Mobilization G4
Supply Distribution and Maintenonce G4
Lt. Col. Thorkelson first appeared in the
March-April 1949 issue of the JOURNAL as
author of "Activities of the IX Air Defense Installations G4
Command" in World War II. In 1946 he Construction G4
served with General Cloy's secretariat in Training G3
Berlin and is now the G3 member of the
Joint Projects Appropriate G's
Junior Program Advisory Committee, Deport-
ment of the Army. Notional Guard Chief of NG Bureau
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 3S
Commission, were a natural develop- National Security Act of 1947 as activities. A forecast of the Anny man
ment from the findings of this group. amended, and the experience gained in power requirements for the year unde
World War II which resulted in the consideration to include the number II
adoption of the Primary Program Sys- individuals to be called each month
BUT the findings of the Hoover tion. In September 1949 a Planning through the selective service system is
Commission, directed as they were to- Manual entitled the Department of the contained in this program.
ward better management, were not the Army Planning System, FM 101-51, was The Intelligence Program provides a
only impelling reason for the adoption published. This was the first of four statement of the intelligence activities
of a program system by the Army. The field manuals covering planning and of the Army, as does the Research and
unification hearings which started im- program management at the Department Development Program of the research
mediately after the end of World War of Army level. In the summer of 1950, and development activities. The Indus-
II and resulted in adoption of the Na- a manual on the Program Management trial Mobilization Program furnishes
tional Security Act of 1947, were di- System, FM 101-54, was published. guidance for the establishment and
rected at economy in the military serv- This manual has been followed by a maintenance of the Army's reserve pIant
ices. There were other reasons for the number of Special Regulations which capacity and industrial preparedness
passage of the Unification Bill, but cer- delineate in greater detail the contents measures in the event of a total war. The
tainly economy was one of the high- of the Army Primary Programs and the Training Program is the bible for all
lights of much of the debate on this operations of the Primary Program Sys- training activities.
measure. tem. These are constantly being revised The most important of the Primary
In 1949 the Act was amended to give and new regulations published as ex- Programs, dollarwise, is the Materiel Pro-
the Secretary of Defense much more perience is gained in programming. gram. This program provides objectives
direct control over the budgets of the The scope of activities included in for the procurement of such major items
three Services. The budget became a the Primary Programs can be seen from of equipment as artiIIery, tanks, and ve-
basic tool of the Defense Secretary in briefly looking at the contents of each hicles, and small arms. Other items such
unifying and controlling the activities of the fifteen Programs. The Troop as bridging materiel, heavy materials
of the services. While it cannot be said Program contains a statement of the handling equipment, radios, guided
that these changes in the authority of force structure of the Army. A tabula- missiles, ammunition, special training
the Secretary of Defense alone were in- tion indicates major units, that is, divi- equipment and a multitude of other
strumental in the adoption of the Army sions, regimental combat teams, and items are also included.
Program System, still they had a very separate battalions; it shows where the Because of its importance, and be-
significant influence. The influence units are to be deployed in the fiscal cause it is iIIustrative of a program docu-
came in the realization by the Army year under consideration, states the ment, let us examine the Materiel Pro-
that through a sound program~ing sys- composition of the General Reserve, and gram in greater detail. The contents
tem it would be better able to defend includes certain detail on the Reserve of this very important document can
its requests for funds both before the Forces Program. Basic recommendations possibly best be iIIustrated by an ex-
Secretary of Defense and the Congress. on force structure and organization of ample, the M-47 tank. The requirement
Another factor was the experience units are made by G3, although Gl is portion of the FY 1952 Materiel Pro-
gained in World War II which dra- the director of this program. gram showed the number of tanks re-
matically illustrated the importance of The second program is one entitled quired for the active Army, for combat
"lead-time" in both training men and the Command and Management Pro- consumption in Korea, for peacetime
procuring materiel. Adequate programs gram. This program consists of an ac- consumption elsewhere, for the civilian
were required to balance the require- cumulation of misceIlaneous activities components, and for the Mobilization
ments of lead-time, both in personnel which do not properly belong in tl].e Reserve. These figures G4 computes
and in equipment, to produce a fighting other Primary Programs. For example, from the statement of units in the Troop
force capable of taking a given objective it contains a statement of war and mo- Program. The sum of these represented
at a specific time. All of this required bilization planning, the military mis- the total requirement. Next were indi-
detailed long range planning. Without sions, budget responsibilities, statistics, cated the quantity of M-47 tanks or-
such planning and programming of legislative activities, and other miscel- dered in FY 51 and the number of other
requirements, the necessary goods and laneous activities. Gl is the director of tanks on hand which were considered
materials, the tools of war, were not the Command and Management Pro- a satisfactory substitute item for the 1\1-
available to our fighting men when gram while each of these segments is 47. The difference between this total
needed. This led to the development the responsibility of the Assistant Chief and the requirement total was the pro-
of a programming system which encom- of Staff within whose purview the ac- curement requirement for FY 1952.
passed more than the specific Army ac- tivity largely falls. So far the figures were largely a mat-
tivities related to a theater or operation; ter of computation. The next one, which
it led to the development of the Primary was the number of tanks to be procured
Program System which brought into THE Military Personnel Program in FY 1952, represented the essence of
balance the many complex facets of our provides for the management of military programming. This was the program
modem military operations. personnel as individuals. It furnishes objective for tanks and could be equal
It is a combination of these factors; guidance for assignment, promotion, to or less than the tank requirement.
the Hoover Commission findings, the separation, awards, and other personnel Establishment of this objective required
36 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
, balancing of requirements with the was changed, if necessary, to conform trial College of the Armed Forces.
,railable appropriations and national to the number of dollars available for Having examined the scope of the fif-
producti\'e capacity. This is the area in their purchase. teen Primary Programs in a brief fash-
which compromise and good judgment Other programs are the Supply Dis- ion, let us turn to the three phases of
are most essential. \Vhile G4 made the tribution and l\laintenance Program, the Program l\lanagement. Program l'-.lan-
initial recommendation as to how many Services Program which contains the agement is not a complex concept; it is
ranks should be included in this pro- requirements for the housekeeping and the exercise of command through pro-
<,ram. mam' other individuals could administrative support of the Army, and grams. Primary Programs are the basic
~odify this' decision. the Installations Program which pro- ingredients of Program Management.
The most influential of these were the vides for the management of the fixed The three phases of Program l\lanage-
Chief of Staff, the Secretary of Defense, plant of the Army. Requirements for ment are: the development of the Pri-
representatives of the Bureau of the new installations and for new structures mary Programs, the execution of these
Budget, the President, Congressional on existing installations are included in programs, and finally the review and
committees and finally the Congress. the Construction Program. Finally, the analysis of the execution of the pro-
Some changes were made by most of National Guard Program contains the grams. (See chart)
rhese individuals. However, major modi- requirements of the National Guard, The development of Primary Pro-
fication of the l'-.lateriel Program to in- and the Joint Projects Program provides grams, which consists generally of es-
clude all the items in support of these for those joint tasks in which the Army tablishing objectives and goals for each
tanks was not made until funds were participates. It furnishes guidance for program and the activities thereof, is
appropriated by the Congress. At that the Army participation in the Armed accomplished in the Department of the
time the exact quantity of tanks and Forces Special \Veapons Project, the Army long before the programs are to
other items in the l\lateriel Program National \Var College, and the Indus- be executed. In fact, the program ob-
jectives and the programs themselves
are prepared in advance of the prepara-
PHASES OF PROGRAM MANAGEMENT tion of the budget for the same fiscal
FOR FISCAL YEAR 1955 (JULY 1954-JUNE 1955) year. By this means the programs be-
AUG - DEC 1952 JAN - FEB 1953 MAR - De:: 1953 JAN-J\JN 1954 come the basis for the Army's budget_
request, and the request is defended
PROGRAM PIIOGRAN AIINV APPROIIIA-
08JECTIVES OOCUNENTS 8UOGn nONS ACT before the Congress in terms of the con-
$ $ tent of the programs. The programs, like
liS) FV 1655 PU8LIC L.w
the budget, are prepared for a single
fiscal year. To illustrate the lead-time
DOlLARS PROVIDED BY APPROPRIATI required in the preparation of programs,
DEYE lOPIl ENT .- AC~ it is interesting to note that in the fall
TRAINING NATEIlIEL MILITARY OTHEII
and early winter of 1952-1953, the pro-
JUNE 1954 PROGRAMS
PR06lIAN PR06lIAN PER5a'l1Cl. PROgRAMS grams for fiscal year 1955 were being
REVISED TO FIT OOL1.ARS prepared.
Following the preparation of the pro-
grams, the budget which will provide
the funds to support and carry out the
programs is prepared and defended be-
fore the Congress. When Congress
II DAILY H£WS III
passes the Public Law known as the
Annual Appropriations Act, money is
EXECUTION CALLED UP (JULY 1954-
THIS MOIffiI JUNE 1955)
available for the Army to carry out its
~~€g programs. Frequently, the appropria-
---- tions are somewhat less than required
to execute the programs as originally
prepared. Therefore, on the appropria-
tion of the funds the programs are re-
vised so that they are in keeping with
IIEPORTS FIlON the money available for their execution.
CONNANDS This revision includes processing of
what are known as change orders to the
Primary Programs, and preparing more
REVIEW AND ANALYSIS PROGRESS detailed changes to the schedules which
JULY 1954 - JUNE /955 30 REPORTS
(PREPARED e>e.J£CTlVf-r are developed from the programs.
Deots QUARTERLY 20 .-?-.
Cots OPNS a BY THE
10 /ACGONPL' ..... ENTS
During the fiscal year in which the
ADMIN programs are in effect quarterly reviews
,JIlL AUG SEP of progress achieved are made. At this
time each program director reports on
MARCH-APRil, 1953 37
the progress made during that quarter concept of balance. This is a term u
toward the achie\'ement of the objec- a great deal at the Department of A!lIf
tives established in his particular pro- le\'el and can mean a number of ~
gram. This is a most important step in ferent things. Generally, when balall<'t
Program i\lanagement, for it is at these is spoken of in regard to programmillt
quarterly redews that the Army top it means the status of equilibrium br.
management has an opportunity to see tween the fifteen primary programs
how well not just one, but all activities insure correlation of the combined OUl-
of the Army are proceeding in relation put of these programs. For example, tJ.
to the program which was established material procured under the 1\lateri
for these activities. The Comptroller Program must be adequate to suppoq I
of the Army has the responsibility for the forces contained in the Troop Pro-
presenting these quarterly reviews, and gram.
for formulating conclusions as to the Another expression of balance is bal-
relative accomplishment of all of the pro- ance within a particular program. For
Lieut. General Lyman L. Lemnitzer example, in the Construction Program,
Having discussed the phases of Pro- the acquisition of land, the preparation '
gram Management, let us turn now to G3, and G4 together with the Special of necessary underground utilities, and
Assistant to the Chief of Staff for Civil- the proper locating of new construction
the responsibilities of certain senior of-
ian Component Affairs. on a given installation, must all be car-
ficers in the Department of Army for
An unofficial group known as the ried out on a definite time schedule.
programming. The Deputy Chief of
Staff for Plans and Research, Lieut. Junior Program Advisory Committee has Imbalance would result when either fa.
Gen. L. L. Lemnitzer, has the responsi- been organized at the Department of cilities are constructed without regard
bility for preparing the program objec- Army level to do much of the prelimi- to the station master plan, or facilities
tives and for the initial development of nary work for the Program Advisory are built at an installation which does
the programs. This is his responsibility Committee, The Junior Program Ad- not require them to the extent that some
because he is in charge of over-all Army visory Committee consists of action of- other installation does.
planning, and" the programs in their ficers representing each of the members There are other meanings to this word
development phase are planning docu- of the senior committee. The Program "balance." Balance is sometimes inter-
ments. The Comptroller of the Army, Advisory Committee is particularly ac- preted to mean the proper equilibrium
Lieut. Gen. George H. Decker, takes tive in the development phase of pro- between active forces and mobilization
the programs and from them prepares gramming. It also has certain functions capabilities. This requires the Army to
the annual budget. Once the funds are in regard to reprogramming after the keep on an active status adequate troops
appropriated by Congress for the fiscal Congress appropriates funds. to carry out its present requirements and
year for which the programs were de- For each of the fifteen Primary Pro- commitments, but not keep so many
vised, the Deputy Chief of Staff for grams a program director is designated. that money required to develop mobili-
Operations and Administration, now (Chart 2) These program directors are zation capabilities is spent fo; active
Lieut. Gen. Anthony C. McAuliffe, uses with a few exceptions the chiefs of gen- forces.
the programs as a management tool in eral staff sections. G4 is the program One of the big ad\'antages of an all-
determining the effectiveness of over-all director for the largest number of Pri- inclusive programming system is that it
Army operations. It is to him that the mary Programs. Program directors are brings together all of the operations of
quarterly review and analysis of Depart- responsible for submitting drafts of pro- the Army so that the question of bal-
ment of the Army programs is made. gram objectives to the Program Advisory ance is brought more clearly into focus.
Committee, and on approval of the Pro- \Vithout a programming system there
gram Directive by the Chief of Staff, is a natural tendency to consider balance
As in any large organization, there
are a number of working groups in the
the program directors prepare the de-
tailed program documents. These in-
in the immediate problem at hand,
whether it be materiel, mobilization,
dividuals then are responsible for the force structure Of the general reserve, or
lower echelons who perform many of
execution of the programs in the fiscal any other pressing problem. Program-
the detailed operations and who sub-
ming, because of its all-inclusive nature,
mit plans to senior officers for approval. year for which they are designed. This
brings to light the many different aspects
The Program Advisory Committee is requires them to produce detailed sched-
of the problem of balance.
such a working committee. Its function ules of snecific portions of the proorams
- b ' The concept of balance then has par-
is to review and make recommendations to make necessary modifications in the
ticular application in the preparation of
to the Chief of Staff on program ob- programs, and to report quarterly on the programs for future fiscal years. It is
jectives and programs. This committee execution of their program during the in the planning stage that the programs
is composed of General Lemnitzer's As- fiscal year. In other words, the program are so drawn up that the proper balance
sistant for Planning Coordination, Brig. directors are the individuals carrvinob the
• between them, within each program,
Gen, Barksdale Hamlett, the Chief of major responsibility for programming. and between immediate requirements
the Budget Division, 1\laj. Gen. Geo. An interesting and much discussed and mobilization capabilities is estab-
Honnen and the Deputies of Gl, G2, aspect of Program 1\lanagement is the lished. After these Primary Programs
38 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
of the Army is still in its infancy. How-
ever, since 1951 when the first real
efforts to make it work commenced.
there ha\'e been a number of significant
achievements. In the fall of 1951 a set
of abbreviated Army Program Docu-
ments was prepared and used for fiscal
year 1952 which of course is the period
from July 1951 to July 1952. In early
1952, sets of program objectives were
developed for both fiscal years 1953
and 1954. The objecti\Oes for fiscal year
1953 were used in preparation of the
budget estimates for the year, and the
Army is today operating under the FY
1953 programs. As soon as funds are ap-
propriated this spring for FY 1954, the
programs for that year will be changed, Lieut. Gen. George H. Decker
Lieut. Gen. Anthony C. McAuliffe
if necessary. and become the operating
are in the execution phase, balance is documents for FY 1954 starting on 1 accomplished quite intelligently once
constantly checked both within and be- July 1953. the assumptions upon which the alter-
tween programs by the program direc- At the present time, the detailed pro- nate objectives are developed have been
tors and through the quarterly progress grams for FY 1955 are in preparation. accepted, because then a dollar figure
reports. In this way there is a continu- These will be available for preparation can be placed on individual programs.
ous check on such things as the con- of the FY 1955 budget. It will be the This is a most important consideration
struction of barracks at the optimum first time that not only the program ob- in view of the express political trend
time before they are required by the jectives, but also the detailed program towards cutting military expenditures.
personnel enumerated in the l\lilitary documents have been available for budg- This requires that the Army must max-
~ Personnel Program. Also, programs are et preparation. imize the funds it obtains from the
a way of helping the program directors For the past year quarterly progress Congress. Consideration of alternative
to do first things first. Since balance is reports on the execution of Primary Pro- objectives is one way of doing just this
such a general term, when it is being grams have been made to the Deputy thing.
discussed it is well to find out exactly Chief of Staff for Operations and Ad- Another major achievement in the
which of the many aspects of balance ministration, who in turn has made a re- past year has been the statement of risks
the speaker is describing. port to the Chief of Staff. This is a very which has been prepared for use of the
In terms of time sequence, the pro- significant achievement, and one which Secretary of the Army and the Chief
gramming documents are firmly geared has brought programming into focus at of Staff in their budget justifications be-
to the Federal budget cycle. Programs the Department of Army level more fore the Congress. The risks are a state-
are de\'eloped for each fiscal year, and than any other programming activity to ment of what effect a given budget has
as stated earlier, are prepared approxi- date. These progress reports are a very on the combat readiness of the Army
mately a year to a year and a half before effective tool for top management, and and its capability to perform its assigned
the fiscal year to enable the budgeteers Generals Taylor and McAuliffe have mission. This information can be used
to use the programs to develop the nec- used them in exactly that sense. Fol- by the Secretary or Chief of Staff with
essary budgets and justification for them. lowing each of these quarterly reports a salutary effect when legislators are
However, the Federal budget is not the in which the accomplishments of the bent on making across the board cuts.
only planning document to which pro- program against the objectives estab- The Secretary of the Army, and his
grams are related. Programs are closely lished for it are reported, the Operations assistants who occasionallv sit in as non-
related to mobilization and war plans, Deputy has taken corrective action if participants at Program Advisory Com-
both of the Army and of the joint staff. it has not already been taken bv the mittee meetings have found the program
Recent efforts have been made to closely program directors. system of the Army to be of major as-
correlate the joint and service planning sistance to them in correlating the many
with budget preparation. The Army
Program System is correlated very care-
fully with this effort. It is in the devel-
IN the past year the directors used
factors which have been developed and
different facets of Army operations. In
fact, recently ~Ir. Pace made the state-
ment that he thought the program man-
opment phase of programming that the refined both by the budget officer and agement system of the Army was one
greatest reference is made to these other the G4 to make a flash cost estimate of of the great forward steps taken in gov-
basic planning documents. However, the program objecti\'es. This has en- ernment in recent \'ears.
changes in any of them would of course abled the Program Advisory Committee E\'en the failures and shortcomings
necessitate reprogramming and program in their consideration of program objec- of programming have been an area of
changes. tives for a future year to also consider achievement. Because, where the pro-
Program ~Ianagement in the Depart- alternate sets of objectives. This can be gram system was inadequate or where
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 39
it became too much of an academic ex- this method of controlling the armies' program director. the control of the
ercise, changes ha\'e been made to im- non-tactical operations. Programs also ecution phase of the system has
proye program management. The system need to be made more Hexible, and capa- greatly imprO\'ed.
is constantly under study by the Gen- ble of change and modification. Such Programming will continue to p
eral Staff. During the past summer the a step was made in October 1952 when \'ide better management in the Armv
entire format of Army programs was re- SR 11-10-3 was published prodding for Effective programming will mean t'
viewed, simplified, and reduced in bulk. schedule changes. Previously there was Army will get more for its defense
A great deal remains to be done to no orderly provision for reHecting oper- lar, largely through better balance of i
make program management effective. ating changes in the program schedules. many acti\'ities. Finally, programmin
For one thing. the system will have to Considerable confusion resulted. \Vith forces people at all echelons to think
be extended throughout the army areas the procedure now adopted for making farther to the future. This in turn re-
and certain overseas commands in order schedule changes according to prescribed sults in more realistic development of
to achieve the maximum benefit from criteria and with the appro\'al of the future programs and budgets.
A FORMULA FOR SUCCESS.
Delivered as the Commencement Address to the Class of 1952 at the U. S. Naval Academy.
By ADMIRAL WILLIAM M. FECHTELER, U.S. Navy
Chief of Naval Operations
I SUPPOSE that from time immemo-
rial it has been the aim of those who
acquired the basic ingredients for full,
happy, and useful careers. \Vhat you
ever high may be your professional at-
tainments, without integrity you will
address classes of graduates to make an have learned and absorbed here will re- certainly fail of greatness.
attempt at presenting them with a formu- main with you throughout life. Your
la for success. attainments, however, must be wisely Industry
It has been my observation, I regret employed and constantly developed if It may seem a little old-fashioned, but
to say, that such attempts to chart the they are to serve you and your country I shall remind you that you must work
path of the future for young feet to fol- well. The use and development of your hard. Industry is, I think, the second
low usually meet with something less talents are now in your hands. From ingredient of success.
than complete accomplishment. this day you become the responsible Industry may be defined as the ap-
There are probably many reasons why party. plication of one's efforts to a task or busi-
this is so. Only one reason is necessary ness. It was once the established pattern
to explain it, however. The reason is Integrity of our society. I hear that hard work is
that the graduates are almost certainly The essentials for your success con- no longer regarded as the virtue which
thinking of other things. The entire sist not alone of techniques, skills, and it was once considered to be.
future of the young men lies before knowledge. Of this I can assure you, however: it
them; and already the plans for its en- The first and the priceless ingredient is still a virtue in the Navy and in the
joyment are being formulated in their of success is integrity. other Services as well, and you will
minds. Integrity is that quality of mind and never reach such exalted rank that you
It is inevitable that this be so. spirit which we associate with honesty can dispense with the business of hard
I have a deep abiding interest in the and good faith either in public or in work.
progress and future happiness of the private life. It implies a moral state of All of the world's benefactors, the
members of the Class of 1952. Indeed mind in which high principle and good truly great men and women of all time,
the whole naval service shares my inter- character are inherent. have been consecrated to their work. I
est. I am glad, therefore, to have this Preserve your integrity. Do not lose know of none who was not diligent and
opportunity of speaking to you on one of your sense of decency. persevering.
the most important days of your life. \Vithout these things you cannot serve
You who are graduating today have your country well; you cannot even live Thrift
a happy personal life. The third essential to success is thrift.
*Reprinted with permission from the October
1952 issue, U. S. Naval Imlilllle Proceeding!. However brilliant vou may be, how- Like integrity and industry, it, too, is
40 ANT/AIRCRAFT JOURNAL
an old-fashioned word. One's whole life may well be a prep-- The Service of your Country is a stern
Thrift can be defined as the \vise use aration for a brilliant success which, so taskmaster. It will make many demands
of human and material resources. It is far as the world knows, was earned with- upon you and may be less than tolerant
ill1portant to all of you in your personal in the scope of a few days or a few hours. of serious shortcomings. Remember that
affairs and it is important to your Gov- you are entering active service at a crucial
ernment that you do not \vaste its money Service time in your Country's history. You are
or its resources. Integrity, industry, thrift, and profes- to be depended upon and you cannot
The essence of thrift is to spend less sional competence. These with one other afford to make mistakes.
than we receive. "If you know how to attribute are the essentials of your suc- Although the Service is rigorous, in it
spend less than you get," said Franklin, cess. you will find a life of satisfaction-a life
"you have the philosopher's stone." The remaining attribute, and the most so attractive that those who leave it will
Thrift requires the determination to important ingredient of all, is the con- carry with them, more often than not,
hold to purposes and to keep first things cept of service-a deep and selfless de- an abiding nostalgia for the Service and
first. It requires foresight and self-denial. votion to your country. its ways.
You must approach your work with Whatever you do, whatever happens
Professional Competence the zeal and earnestness of a clergyman. to you, there is always one thing over
Your attendance at the Naval Acade- Yours is a service and a responsibility which you will have absolute control.
my has put you well on the road to pro- which requires dedication. It is that you can always do your best.
fessional competence. This competence It is not merely a job-or even a posi- Usually your best will be good enough.
I regard as the fourth essential to success. tion. It is a status. What I mean to say may be stated
Never overlook an opportunity to in- You must regard your career as an thus:
crease and exercise your professional opportunity to serve. It is not a question 'Whether a man accepts from Fortune
skills. This is preparation for ultimate of "What does the Service have to offer her spade and looks downward and digs
usefulness. me?" But rather it is a question of or from Aspiration her axe and cord and
It may well be true that the achieve- "What have I to offer the Service?" looks upward to scale the ice, the one
ment of extraordinary success with con- As the years pass, you will find the and only success which it is his to com-
sequent advancement is largely a matter path of duty complicated not only by mand is to bring to his work a mighty
of opportunity. heavy responsibilities but also by con- heart."
No man can make his opportunity. flicting advice, and sometimes by heavy
He can only make use of such opportuni- pressures from men who earnestly be- Conclusion
ties as occur. Many persons retire after lieve themselves to be right. To you, young gentlemen of the class
years of solid achievement without hav- Let me urge that throughout your of 1952, and to all of you who are gath-
ing had any great opportunity to dis- careers in the Service, you adhere stead- ered here, let me affirm my unwavering
tinguish themselves. fastly to the simple virtues which have faith in the glorious future of our Coun-
However, so far as I know, no one given character to the lives of our great try. You are privileged to playa part
has ever distinguished himself in high leaders. in it.
places without long and faithful prepara- I commend to you as guidance the To you who are graduating today and
tion. Even should opportunity come to words of Theodore Roosevelt when he who are about to take the oath of high
the man who is unprepared, he will be said: and honorable office, let me remind you
unable to take advantage of it. "Let us see to it that we neither do again that America looks to you for lead-
Although no one can make his own wrong nor shrink from doing right be- ership in a troubled time.
opportunities, success is not an accident. cause the right is difficult; that on the I have every faith that in peace and
The surest way of rising to the top of one hand we inflict no injury, and that in war you will serve your Nation un-
one's profession is by thoroughly master- on the other we have a due regard for selfishly, faithfully, courageously, and
ing the details of each _duty as it is the honor and interest of our mighty well; and that you will set an example
reached. When a man does that, fame, Nation; and that we keep unsullied the to every American in the responsibilities
if it comes to him, is but an episode. renown of the Flag which beyond all of citizenship.
His mind is fixed solely upon the full others of the present time or of the ages My congratulations and good wishes
development of his powers and the ef- of the past stands for confident faith in go with you as you leave your alma
fective performance of his appropriate the future welfare and greatness of man- mater.
work. kind." May God bless you every one.
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 41
1o'tt Bliss flews
AA OCS-A PROGRESSREPORT
By LT. eOL. GEORGE J. BAYERLE, JR.
Assistl1lzt Director OCS Dezlt.
THE success of any school can be
measured only in the effectiveness of
his commISSIOn after successfully com-
pleting the rigorous course.
e\'a]uating the leadership potential or I
officer candidates. Not mentioned hol\. \
its product. Since the product of an Class Number Tweh'c graduated on c\'er, was the extra efforts made within I
officer candidate school is theoretically 19 i\larch 1953. With thc graduation the comparatively short training period
an officer capable of effectively leading of this class almost one thousand artil- to give each candidate a broader insight
others in combat or in garrison, the Icn' officers havc bcen commissioned via into the full responsibilities and obliga-
yardstick for measuring the success of candidate training at Fort Bliss. How tions of an officer. ]n connection with
the Fort Bliss product rests with Anti- are thcse officers performing? To answer this, the school has solicited and ob- I
aircraft unit commanders throughout this question a survey team of three of- tained the fullest support from citizen •
thc world with whom our graduatcs ficers visited individualh' antiaircraft groups in EI Paso, from interested De-
are serving. All wc at AA OCS can units throughout the United States. partment of the Army and Army Field
do is to hopc that wc have given our Unit commanders were interviewed in Forcc rcsearch units, and from groups
graduates thc equipmcnt they need to great detail concerning the progress of of expcrienced educators. All of these
copc with the great responsibilities they OCS graduates. The answers received extra activities are pursued with only
are encountering in the field. \Vhilc were completely reassuring. It was fur- one objective in mind, that of produc-
wc may not yet have final and positive ther ascertained that many are filling ing the best possible junior oHlcer for
knowledge as to how our graduates will positions of responsibility far beyond our antiaircraft units.
measurc UD when faced with the on-the- those for which they are trained at Fort Few; iF any matters are overlooked.
job responsibilities of a 2nd Lieutenant, Bliss. Concerncd about the inadequate kno\\'l-
thcre isn't one officer on the staff and Previous editions of the ANTIAlH- cdgc the average young officer has of
faculty of the school who does not feel CRAFT JOURNAL have carried articles things financial, responsible EI Paso
a real glow of satisfaction as he sees which covered such matters as the pro- citizens were approached and requested
each candidate stcp forward to receive gram of instruction and methods of to provide qualified civilians to lecture
Reviewing officers and graduating class (Class No. 11) at graduation parade. Left to right: Maj. Gen. Haydon L. Boatner,
Deputy Commander Fourth Army; Co!. Kenneth R. Kenerick, Director, OCS; Captain James P. Anderson, Senior Tactical
Officer, Class No. 11; Candidate Max D. Kitterman, Honor Graduate, Class No. 11 and the graduating class.
42 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
1\ leyer (retired); Brigadier General Cle-
sen Tenney (retired), Dean at New
i\lexico A & i\1 College; Dr. \\T. H. El-
kins. President of Texas \\'estern Col-
lege: ~Ir. Chris P. Fox; and many other
Rather than feeling any smugness in
the methods and practices employed in
the de\'elopment of candidates at Fort
Bliss, the school has had searching anal-
\'ses made of these methods b\' dis-
tinguished civilian educators and army
psychological research units. Their find-
ings ha\'e. without exception, placed a
stamp of appro\'al on the policies, pro-
cedures and operation of the school;
their recommended changes have in each
case co\'ered only minor matters and
have where possible, been incorporated
into the svstem. The officer candidate
u.s. Armv Photo school however, will ne\'er be satisfied
Distinguished Graduates of a.es. Class 12 are congratulated by Colonel k. R.
• Kenerick, a.es. Commandant. Left to right: Jack H. Thomas, Kenneth WI. that the system cannot be improved. As
Leaver, Colonel Kenerick; Robert H. Ketchum, honor graduate; Richard B. Sulley, time and experience dictate, progressive
Thomas e Nelson, and Robert L. Schrodetski. changes will be made in order to con-
tinue providing antiaircraft artillery
candidates on savings, investments, in- while at Officer Candidate School. The units with the finest officers possible.
surance and legal matters. The response book is comparable to the best annuals The school is always interested in the
was typical of El Paso. Through the and yearbooks published in the univer-
comments of field commanders concern-
good offices of i\ Ir. Chris P. Fox, Vice sities. Yet this must be done in the
ing any aspect of OCS operations. Simi-
President of the State National Bank. candidate's free time.
larly, the school is extremely interested
these experienced civilians were pro- Intensive efforts are continuallv made in the role commanders play in the rec-
I'ided and each candidate class receives to provide the candidate with every tool ommendation and selection of enlisted
a thorough orientation on subjects which he'll need to make a success of his com- applicants for OCS. It is imperative
are so necessary to the young officer in missioned career. Guest lecturers are that enlisted men under consideration
handling his personal affairs and in presented whenever it is believed the for any OCS are sincere and earnest in
guiding and assisting the men in his speaker has something worthwhile to their desire to become an officer; that
unit. offer the potential officer. All these ac- they have been adequately oriented in
Realizing the importance the distaff ti\'i~ies culminate in the impressive grad- the nature of the training they will re-
side has on the career of an olllcer, the uation ceremonies which take place each ceive-training which will prepare them
wives of officer candidates are given a month. Here again, the graduation for the responsibilities of an officer-
thorough briefing in "Customs and speaker is chosen with great care. Among training of 22 weeks duration which is
Courtesies of the Service." In these brief- those who have aCldressed graduating exacting and demanding-training in
ings matters affecting army protocol and classes arc Congressman Ken Regan, lo- which they will undergo constant super-
proper dress arc discussed. The interest cal representative to the United States \'ision and e\'aluation. It's a diffIcult
shown by the young wives in these dis- Congress; Honorable Robert E. Thoma- way to ge: a commission but a wav
cu"sions has been gratifying. son, Federal District Judge and onetime which will pay di\'idends for life.
If you don't know how to dance, United S~ates Congressman, father of
come to Antiaircraft Officer Candidate the well remembered Thomason Act;
School. \Veekly dancing classes are pro- Lieutenant General \Villiam I-loge,
I'ided for those candidates whose terpsi- Commander of the Seventh Army; i\la- As we go to press, information
chorean abilit\, is on the weak side. jor General Haydon Boatner, Deputy has been received that the AAA
Remember, all this must be sandwiched Commander of the Fourth Army and OCS at Fort Bliss will phase O1lt
in with the regular technical and lead- famous for subduing communist rioters with the gradl/ation of tile last
ership training, and constitutes only a in Koje Prison; ~Iajor General Terry class in JIIly. After that, AAA
part of the candidate's extracurricular Allen (retired) famed wartime com- OCS stl/dents will train at Fort
activity. Each class prepares a class book mander of the 1st and 104th Infantr\' Sill.-ED.
delineating the activities of that class Di\'isions; ~ lajor General G. Ralph
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 43
Bliss Unit Gets Streamers Bliss, was recently re-assigned to the ~
The 531st AAA A\V Battalion recent- East Command, where he is assigned as
ly received battle streamers for its \Vorld chief of staff, Ryukyus Command <-.
\Var II sen'ice, in a ceremony held on Okinawa.
Movie Makers at Bliss Noel Field, Fort Bliss. He has been succeeded by Colonel
Shooting of the l\letro-Goldwyn-i\lay- Distincti\'ely a Fort Bliss unit, the Arthur A. Adams who was formerly O!l
er picture, "Take The High Ground," duty in the G3 Section, at Center Head-
53lst was activated in July 1942 and
opened at Fort Bliss on February 5. quarters.
reactivated here in July 1952 where it
The post is cooperating in filming is again .undergoing training.
the picture which has been appro\'ed Lt. Col. Gay E. Miller has assumed
by the Department of the Army. command of the 495th AAA Battalion,
'Take The High Ground" will be a replacing Lt. Col. James E. i\loore who
full-length rough-comedy feature. Its has been assigned as Assistant G3 at
title is derived from a famous infantry Center Headquarters.
command spoken throughout history,
'Take the high ground and hold it." New executive officer of the 6th AAA
Group is Lt. Col. Gordan G. Walters. \
Addresses Graduates He has been succeeded by Lt. Col. Phil- '
Dr. Wilson H. Elkins, president of lip J. GunOlach as CO of the 531st AAA
Texas "'estern College at El Paso, Battalion.
Texas, delivered the commencement ad-
dress at graduation ceremonies for Class More New Buildings
No. 10, Antiaircraft Artillery Officer Ground-breaking ceremonies for three
Candidate School at Fort Bliss, January more new permanent-type buildings-
22. part of the huge expansion program now
Following Dr. Elkin's address, l\lajor under way at a cost of $291,112.
General S. R. 1\ lickelsen, Commanding The three structures include a field
General of Fort Bliss, presented diplo- printing plant and two shop and labora.
mas to 47 graduates, who were sworn Coat of arms of the S31st AAA A \'\1Bn. tory buildings. The latter are to be used
in as second lieutenants in the Organ- The gold lion on the black shield of its by the Gunnery and Electronics Depart-
blazonry recalls that the unit was cited ments of the School.
ized Reserve Corps.
by the Belgian Army and received the The symbolic "first shovelful" of earth
Fourragere for action in Belgium and
ROK Officers Study for the new construction was turned by
in the Ardennes. The fleurs-de-lis sym-
Two Republic of Korea Army officers bolize the battalion's campaigns in Nor- l\lajor General Stanley R. Mickelsen.
are among the Allied officers currently mandy and Northern France and the Other military officials present in-
enrolled as students in the Antiaircraft battle-axe is used to represent its par- cluded: Brig. Gen. Hobart I-Iewett, As-
and Guided Missiles Branch of The ticipation in the Rhineland and Central sistant Commandant of the School; Col.
European Campaign. The Latin motto
Artillery School at Fort Bliss. Peter Shunk, head of the Electronics
Means "\X'e speak with tire."
Brig. Gen. Kim Kai Won and Col. Department; Col. T. H. \Vatkins, direc.
Lee Hi Tai are students in the Artillery To Far East Command tor of the Nonresident Instruction De-
Officers Advanced Course, studying U. Colonel \Villiam J. \Vuest, command- partment; and Col. Joy 1'. \Vrean, head
S. antiaircraft artillery tactics, techniques ing officer of the 6th AAA Group since of the Gunnery and Materiel Depart-
and materiel. its reactivation in February, 1952, at Fort ment.
This giant German V-2 rocket tinds its ultimate duty in Major General S. R. Mickelsen breaks ground for one of a
welcoming visitors as they approach Center Headquarters. group of new buildings for the School.
44 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
well's personal papers, first opened in
i\ la\' 1950.
, [_B_O_O_K_R_E_V _IE_W_S II This volume traces the origins of the
prewar program of the U. S. for equip-
ping the Chinese Army, de\'elops the
YOUR WAR FOR PEACE by Frank L. and both are competent historians. They unusually complicated command situa-
Howley. Henry Holt & Company. 166 did not collaborate. Dr. i\ lacDonald tion that developed in the CBI Theater
pages. $2.75. wrote the stories of Arnaville and Sch- and concludes with Stilwell's decision
midt, Dr. i\lathews wrote of Altuzzo. reached in October 1943, "I have about
Brio. Gen. Hawlev writes this book
" . The latter had the unusual opportunity reached the limit of what I can do." As
III his usual forthright style after a re-
of going over the battlefield a few days General Orlando War, Chief of Mili-
":fnt trip to Europe. It is just about
after the engagement in company with tary History, states in the Foreword
IIhat you would expect from the tough
many of the surviving combatants. In "Reading the history of the China-Bur-
minded first military governor of Berlin.
all three articles the stage is set by an ma-India Theater will be an eye opener
Hisbook is just as dynamic and positive
explanation of the general plan followed and a lesson to those who, in the future,
.IS were his activities in Berlin through
by the instructions which were given to have to deal with allies in far distant
[heair lift days.
the small units e>..-pected to execute lands about whom so much should be
How refreshing and natural. 'They
them. Every detail of each action is known and so little is."
areout to get us and we had better get
then described, down to the movements To make it easier for the reader, each
them first. ... The greatest vulnerability
of privates with a significant role. The chapter ends with a clearly written sum-
of the Russians in economic, political,
picture is as complete as the available mary. In short, this volume sets a high
military, and psychological fields is their
e\'idence permits. standard that we trust will continue
mability to change .... We should
throughout this series.-\V.C.F.
'leep them so busy worrying about what
WINCHESTER by Harold F. William-
wewill do next in Berlin that they will Received and Noted Briefly
son. 494 pages, 8 by 11. Combat
not have time to carry out a plan in
Forces Press. Price $10.00. THE APPROACH TO THE PHILIPPINES.
Shanghai.... \Ve should withdraw
By Robert R. Smith. (United States
the respectability of recognition which The advent of the repeating riRe and Army in World War II; The War in
the present criminal organization in the the winning of the \Vest. This is more
the Pacific.! The Supt. of Documents,
Kremlin enjoys. \Ve should put an end than history of the conquest of a con-
Washington, D. C., 600 pages, $5.50.
to the farce of joyously bowing to them tinent, it is also a saga of the growth
at social functions, while they stimulate of an important segment of American It deals principally with the amphibi-
warfare which is killing our people .... industry. It shows the development of ous and ground operations along the
We must substitute actions for words, a small gunsmith's shop in the early New Guinea Coast in 1944. It is of
and determination for timidity."-C.S.H. decades of the 19th Century and the interest to the military student and to
inRuence it had as it expanded on the those who engaged in these or like
UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD nation in war and peace. operations.
WAR II. THREE BATTLES: ARNAVILLE,
THE CAMPAIGN ON NEW BRITAIN.
ALTUZZO AND SCHMIDT. By Charles STILWELL'S MISSION TO CHINA. By
By Lt. Col. Frank O. Hough, USMCR,
B. MacDonald and Sidney T. Math- Charles F. Romanus and Riley Sund-
and Major John A. Crown, USMCR.
ews. U. S. Government Printing Of- erland. (United States Army. in World
220 pages, $3.75.
fice. 460 pages. Maps and iIIustra- War II; China-Burma-India Theater)
THE MARINES IN THE CENTRAL SOL-
F. lions. Price $4.00. Washington, Superintendent of Docu-
OMONS. By Major John N. Rentz,
ments 1953. Pp. xix, 441. $5.00.
The Historical Section, in this vol- USMCR. 186 pages, $2.75.
ume, undertakes a new line of attack The first of a three-volume subseries
These two books are part of a series
on the problem of presenting American on the history of the U. S. Army in
being prepared by the Historical Branch,
participation in the late war to contem- China in \Vorld \Var II, this volume
Headquarters U.S.M.C. Both are pub-
porary students. The three battles were relates in a most interesting manner the
lished and sold by the Supt. of Docu-
not selected because they are important intricate problems that confronted Gen-
ments, U.S. GPO, \Vashington, D. C.
ones, but partl}: because they are typical eral Joseph \\T. Stilwell in his efforts to
They deal with the Marine landing
of many other actions and partly be- carry out the order of General George
and ground action in the New Georgia
cause data are reasonably abundant. In C. i\ larshall to improve the combat ef-
Islands and on New Britain as the
a way, therefore, the celebrated studies ficiency of the Chinese Army and to
allies set out from Guadalcanal to neu-
of Ardant du Picq are now repeated increase the effectiveness of U. S. aid
after seventy-five years: this book tells to China. Compiled in the Office of the
Thev are of interest to the casual
what really happens to human beings Chief of Military History, Department
milita~' reader and to the veterans who
in action. It also explains to a present- of the Army, as one of the volumes in
participated in like campaigns.
day company commander how important the Army's History of \Vorld \Var II,
training in fundamentals is to later suc- it is well arranged, thoroughly docu- CAN RUSSIA SURVIVE? By F. B. Czar-
cess in battle. mented and carefully indexed. Its value nomski. Philosophical Library. 126
The authors both served in the Army is enhanced by the use of General Stil- pages. $2.75.
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 45
Gen. Armstrong bids farewell to Col. \X'illiam A. Cauthen
at Camp Stewart.
Maj. Gen. Aaron Bradshaw Gen. Armstrong Retires
Former JOURNAL Editor Retires
BRIGADIER GENERAL CLARE H. AR1\ISTRONC
retired March the 31 st for physical disability at \Valter
MAJOR GENERAL AARON BRADSHAW, JR., re- Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D. C.
tired January the 31st for physical disability in Heidelburg, General Armstrong graduated at \Vest Point in 1917 and
Germany, after more than 35 years of service. served in the Infantry until 1921 when he transferred to the
Graduating from the l'vlilitary Academy in 1917, he served Coast Artillery.
with antiaircraft in France in \V\"/1. An aggressive AAA In 1943 he took command of the 50th AAA Brigade,
leader ever since, he served as the editor of this JOURNAL serving with it a short while in England. Landing with the
from 1936 to 1940. (Sce article beginning on page 2.) First Army in Normandy, his Brigade later served with the 1
In 1942 Gcneral Bradshaw servcd with antiaircraft in Third Army in its movement across France.
North Africa. I-Ic thcn commandcd the 34th AAA Brigade Late in 1944 General Armstrong organized the "Antwerp
wi:h thc Scvcnth Army through the Sicilian campaign. X" command for the antiaircraft defense of that vital port
In 1943 he commandcd thc 35th AAA Brigade with the against the German V bombs. The 56th U.S. Brigade and
VI Corps in Southern Italy nnd moved on in 1944 to the 80th British Brigade were attached to the 50th Brigade.
command the antiaircraft defenses of Anzio. After that The defense continued under his command till April, 1945
he took ovcr the Antiaircraft Command of the Fifth Army when the V bomb attacks ceased. During that time his
to participate in all the Italian campaigns. antiaircraft gunners brought down 2281 German V bombs.
His last assignment was as G4 of USAREUR. Upon The port continued to function every day during the siege
his retirement Generali\ [anton Eddy, Commander-in-Chief and General Armstrong achievcd his reputation among the
in his praise emphasized that, "General Bradshaw's planning, citizens of that city as the "Saviour of Antwerp."
foresight, and drive and energy in getting monumental tasks War Decorations: DS1\'[, BSM (OLC), CR.
accomplished have contributed greatly to the present degree After the \Var he served as the Military Attache at Brus.
of readiness of this command." sels, Belgium, until 1950 when he returned to take com.
War Decorations: DSM, SS, Li\[ (OLC), BSM, CR. mand of Camp Stewart, Ga., whcre he promptly organized
General and i\ Irs. Bradshaw now reside at 6606 Barnabv that active AAA Training Center. He relinquished his
St., N.W., Washington, D. C. . command at Camp Stewart on February the 20th to Colonel
". ". ".
William A. Cauthen, his Chief of Staff.
Brigadier Genera[ Robert \V. Berry, formerly Command- Brigadier General Richard \V. l\Iayo, rccently promoted
ing General of the \Vestern Army AA Command at Hamil. after his outstanding service with the 5th F.A Group in
ton Air Force Base, California, departed in February for Korea, has now arrived to take the command.
the United States European Command Headquarters to take ". ". ".
over his duties there as Dircctor J I. General Officer Assignments
Brigadier General Edward J. i\ IcGaw relieved General l\lajor General Walter L. \Veible, formerly Chief of the
Berry as the Commander in the \Vestern Army AA Com- Logis;ics Division, SHAPE, recently reported for duty at
mand. His last assignment was as the artillery commander Headquarters, Fifth Army to become the Deputy Command-
of the VI Corps at Camp Atterbury, Indiana. ing General.
National Guard Exam for USMA
Enlisted members of the Armv and
?2ews and Comment Air National Guard with one fuil year
of military service may apply for' the
annual competitive examination for en-
trance to the United States i\lilitarv
31st after more than 41 "ears of service. Age limits are from 17 to 22 vears
The JOURNAL Merger
He has served during th~ past two years on July I, 1954. Minimum educational
In the merger proposal ballot, which
as Chief of the Career Record Analysis requirements call for a high school di-
dosed on i\larch the 2nd, the members
Branch in the Adjutant General's Office. ploma or the equivalent.
voted to authorize the Executive Coun-
Colonel and i\ Irs. Haw plan to make Application should be made through
cil to effect a merger with The Associa-
their home in California. the respective state Adjutant Generals
lion of the U. S. Army and to merge
to the Adjutant General, Department of
this JOURNALwith the Combat Forces
Colonel Lawrence C. i\litcheli retired the Army for authorization to take the
Journal. Accordingly, the Council
for physical disability in \Vashinoton ' annual \Vest Point designation examina-
promptly began negotiations to make 0
D. G, February the 28th after more tion. Those making the highest scores
final arrangements for and to effect the
than 35 years o'f service. For the past will be appointed cadet candidates and
few years Colonel Mitchell has also will be eligible to take the regular com-
It has been found impracticable, how-
served in the Career Records Analysis petitive entrance examination in i\ larch
vrer, to complete the necessary arrange-
Branch, TAGO. Colonel and Mrs. ~Iit- 1954 for entrance in July. '
ments satisfactorily by the original tar-
get date of May the 1st, as was once chell reside in Falls Church, Virginia.
". ". ". R. I. Guard Unit \Vins Trophy
anticipated. TIle Council intends to
Colonel Edward B. i\IcCarthy retired Five Times
work out all the arrangements involved
in the merger in a thorough and busi- for physical disability at Fort' Devens,
Award of the Eisenhower Trophy for
nesslike manner and is devotinoo its ef- i\lass., on February the 28th after more
the fifth consecutive year was made to
forts toward that end. \\Then those than 35 years of service. I-lis last assign-
Battery C, 243rd AAA Gun Battalion '
arrangements are agreed upon, the ment was as the Post Executiye. Colonel
and Mrs. McCarthy are residing in commanded by Capt. Cortland Clarke,
merger date will be fixed and an-
\Vellesley, Mass. Rhode Island National Guard. The
i\leanwhile we continue to publish
.. ". ". unit, in Bristol, R. I., has been rec-
the ANTIAIRCRAFTJOURNAL and carry Colonel Volney \V. \Vortman will re- ognized as outstanding every year since
on other Association operations in our tire for age in Washington, D. C., on the award's inception in 1948.
normal procedure until the arrange- April the 30th after more than 35 years ". ".
ments are completed. of service. He has also served for the The Chief of the National Guard Bu-
past two years in the Career Records reau has recently announced the follow-
Analysis Branch, T AGO.
.. ". ".
ing trophy winners:
202nd AAA Detachment (RCAT)
Colonel Carl B. Wahle retired for won both the Pershing Trophy in the
physical disability at Walter Reed Army First Army area and also the State of
Hospital on February the 28th after 32
i\hssachusetts National Guard Trophy.
years of service. His "last assignment was
Battery C, 265th AAA AW Battal-
in Charleston as the Senior Military In-
tructor with the \Vest Virginia' Na- ion was awarded the State of Florida
tional Guard. National Guard Trophy.
Colonel Fred J. \\Toods retired for Battery A, 204th AAA AW Battalion
physical disability on i\ larch 31 at Let- was awarded the State of i\lississippi
terman General Hospital in San Fran- Guard Trophy.
cisco after thirty years of service. Hq & I-Iq Battery, 120th AAA Gun
Battalion was awarded the State of
New 10th Group CO New i'lexico Guard Trophy.
Col. Hennessy at Nuernberg Hq & Hq Battery, 236th AAA Group
Colonel Harold P. Hennessv is now Colonel Charles G. Dunn has as-
was awarded the State of \Vashington
Deputy Commander of the N'uernberg sumed command of the 10th AAA
Group in Korea, relieving Colonel Guard Trophy.
~lilitarY District in Germany.
, , Battery C, 945th AAA Bn., Delaware,
George R. Carey, who is now Deputy
Retirements G3 at Eighth Army Headquarters. Co!. Eisenhower Trophy.
Colonel Joseph C. Haw retired for Dunn was previously the deputy post Battery 0, 113th AAA Bn., Iowa,
age in \Vashington, D. C., i\laI;ch the commander at Fort Bliss. Eisenhower Trophy.
MARCH-APRIL, 1953 47
SKYSWEEPER UNVEILED AT FORT MYER
Antiaircraft's latest automatic weapon
DEi\'IONSTRATED For the First the gun is an auxiliary sight which the human hands.
time in the vVashington, D. C. area, the operator can use to direct the gun to a Rate of fire is 45 rounds a minute. A
AntiaircraFt Artillery's newest answer to more critical target or to one in an area half-minute supply of ammunition is on
low-Hying enemy planes was on public where the radar is not currently scan- the carriage.
display recently at Fort Myer, Va. nmg. The 300-pound magazines can be in.
The new 7Smm AA piece loads, aims, \Vith the information from the radar, serted by a trained crew in less than
tracks and fires automatically. Only Four the computer directs the aiming of the IS seconds. With enough loaders and
operations are required of the gunner. gun. This occurs when a "deadman" the ammo properly distributed, the gun
The first is to load the gun. Two 11- foot pedal is depressed, stopping scan- can fire for as long as necessary. f
round magazines carry the load. The ning by the radar and starting it' track- The service tests of the Skysweeper
shell weighs I2~ pounds, carries a prox- ing. This is the third step that the were done by Army Field Forces Board
imity fuse. gunner must take. No. 4 at Fort Bliss where MA bat-
Second step is to start the radar scan- vVhen the gun is set to track, the talions are undergoing training in the I
ner, an integral part of the gun. The computer takes the inFormation From the complex details of operating and main- ~
radar set, on the left front of the mount, tracking radar and transmits directions taining the new weapon. Skysweeper
sweeps the sky once every 40 seconds to the servo-motors which move the bar- fire control and gunnery courses are be-
to a IS-mile radius. InFormation that re!. The computer automatically figures ing conducted at the AAA and Guided
returns to the dish antenna mounted speed, range and the course of the target. Missile Branch, The Artillery Schoo!.
on the top of the radar console feeds to It also figures the necessary "lead" so There is also a 37-week course in
the computer mounted on its own con- that a shell will arrive at the correct maintenance at the Aberdeen Proving
sole on the right front of the mount, and point in the target's path. Grounds.
to scopes on the radar control panel The gunner then presses the firing Auxiliary equipment includes the 1\18
where it can be monitored. button. vVith this fourth step, the gun Army cargo tractor and motor-dri\'en hy-
One scope is used while the radar is fires automatically. It is Fed, rammed draulic jacks used to emplace the gun
scanning, another while tracking. Off and the cases removed, untouched by for firing,
48 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT
BALANCE SHEET-DECEMBER 31, 1952
THE ORA VISUAL
EASEL CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash on deposit $ 5,732.88
Office cash fund 25.00
Merchandise accounts $2,754.65
Less reserve for bad debts 567.17 2,997.48
Inventory of books, held for sale 79.87
rUE/PEAL TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS
rKA/NINu AID Office furniture and equipment
Less reserve for depreciation
DEFERREDCHARGES AND OTHER ASSETS:
fOR ALL Inventory of office supplies $1,521.65
Deposit with U. S. Government Printing
MILITARY Office 34.27 1,555.92
TOTAL ASSETS $1 0,511.32
LIABILITIESAND NET WORTH
Accounts payable $ 66.82
District of Columbia sales tax . 1.27
TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES $ 68.09
ALL ALUMINUM. Not a splinter of wood to warp,
wear or tear.
Unexpired subscriptions $11,012.75
LIGHT AS A FEATHER-almost. Only eight DEFICIT:
pounds if you want to be technical. Balance, December 31, 1951 $ 801.18
RUGGED as the Rock of Gibraltar. It will take the Less: Net profit for the year ended
meanest abuse. December 31, 1952, per Exhibit Boo 231.66
PORT ABLE because it folds flat as a pancake. lY2" Deficit, balance December 31, 1952 569.52
thick by 38%" high by 28%" wide. TOTAL LIABILITIESAND NET WORTH $10,511.32
INST ANT ANEOUS. You can unfold it and set it
up in ; seconds flat unless you are all thumbs.
WRITING PAD feature eliminates need for messy
blackboard. THE UNITED STATES ANTIAIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION
CHART HOLDERS of improved design. \Vill ac-. BALANCE SHEET-DECEMBER 31, 1952
commodate many charts at several heights, even if
they are as big as the side of a barn. ASSETS
$49.00-Special Discount To Subscribers Cash in bank $ 1,007.69
Investments: Schedule 1
U. S. Government bonds $64,135.63
for full details write- Common Stock 160.00 64,295.63
TOTAL ASSETS $65,303.32
SURPLUS 8ALANCE, December 31, 1951 $64,805.40
631 .Pennsylvania Ave., N.\X'. \X'ashington 4, D. C. Excess of recipts over disbursements for the year
ended December 31, 1952, for Exhibit B 497.92
SURPLUS BALANCE, December 31, 1952 $65,303.32
n LITTLE BU LL"
Patent Applied for
Successfully ill use by:- TIle Pe1l1lsylvallUzRailroad-TIle Met-
ropolitan Police, District of Columbia-and U. S. Military
*Ideal For The Range Officer illstallatiolls-
*Command Control in Garrison or
*An Aid to the Instructor
*Voice Control at Formations
*Useful at Athletic Events
• INSTANT TRIGGER ACTION
Press the Switch and Talk No Warm-Up Required
Effective Up to 1/4 Mile
Only 51/2 Ibs. Complete
• POWER SUPPLY
6 Standard Flashlight "D" Batteries Only-Inexpensive
Horn - 91f2 in. diameter
Unit Complete - 11 in. high
• BATTERY LIFE
Intermittent Operation ... 8 hrs. per day for (3) Three
Weeks. Approximately 120 to 150 Hrs.
• LIST PRICE - $124.00
631 Pennsylvania Avenue. N. W. WASHINGTON 4. D. C.