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Mar-Apr 1953 Screen.pdf - Air Defense Artillery School

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                               HONOR                                                                        ROLL
    Original Honor Roll                             lllh     AAA Group                             lllh  AAA AW Bn                  102 nd AAA Gun Bn
                                                    Col.    F. H. Shepardson                       LI. CoJ. J. E. Wales             Maj. E. R. Welte, N. Y.
    88th AAA Airborne         Bn
                                                    131h      AAA Group                            l11h AAA Training Bn             1071h AAA Gun Bn
    Lt. Col. R. B. Barry, Jr.
                                                    CoJ.    W. C. Mahoney                          L•. CoJ. A. O. Chittenden        Lt. CoJ. F. R. Mciver
    228th  AAA Group
                                                    261h      AAA Group                            121h AAA Gun Bn                   120lh AAA Gun Bn
    Col. T. H. Pope
                                                    CoJ.    H. D. Lind                             Lt. CoJ. P. R. Cibotti, Jr.      Lt. CoJ. H. C. Gray, N. Me".
    I07th AAA AW Bn IMI
                                                    651h AAA Group                                 121h AAA Training      Bn        123rd   AAA Gun Bn
    Lt. Col. E. R. Mciver
                                                    CoJ. B. E. Cordell                             Maj. L. E. Morlowe               Lt. CoJ. J. E. Dominguez, P. R.
    30Sth AAA Group
                                                    681h AAA Group                                 141h AAA Gun Bn                   1261h AAA AW Bn
    Co!. John S. Moyer,          N. Y.
                                                    CoJ. W. B. Howthorne                           Maj. H. C. Lorek                 Lt. CoJ. R. C. Correa
    Separate        Commands                        142d AAA Group                                  15th AAA AW Bn (SPI              1271h AAA AW 8n (SPI
                                                    CoJ. R. Hardy, Alo.                            Lt. CoJ. B. H. Johnson           Lt. CoJ. H. G. White, N. Y.
    Army AAA Command
                                                    1971h AAA Group                                lBlh AAA AW Bn                   133rd AAA AW Bn
    Lieut. Gen. J. L. Lewis
                                                    CoJ. A. S. Baker, N. H.                        Lt. CoJ. L. H. Burnham           Lt. CaJ. E. J. Modjeske,   Illinois
    Third Army Training     Center
                                                    200lh    AAA Group                             20th AAA Gun Bn                  1371h AAA AW Bn
    Brig. Gen. R. W. Mayo
                                                    CoJ. C. M. Woodbury,      N. Mex.              Lt. CoJ. C. F. Ottenger          Maj. F. R. Nairn
    East AAA Command
                                                    :.I051h AAA Group                              21 sl AAA AW Bn (SPI             140lh AAA AW Bn
    Brig. Gen. F. L. Hoyden
                                                    Lt. CoJ. J. H. Pindell                         Lt. CoJ. D. B. Williams          Lt. CoJ. L. H. Ripley
    Cenlrol AAA Command                             2071h AAA Group                                32nd AAA AW Bn                   1441h AAA AW 8n
    CoJ. D. J. Bailey
                                                    Lt. CoJ. R. G. Irish, N. Y.                    Lt. CoJ. E. F. Moody             Lt. CoJ. R. T. Dunn
    West     AAA Command                            211.h AAA Group                                341h AAA Gun Bn                  1451h AAA Gun Bn
    Brig.    Gen. E. J. McGaw                       CoJ. D. MacDuff, Mass.                         Lt. CoJ. H. B. Reubel            Lt. Col. H. J. Cunningham
    Hqs. For East AAA Spec.                  Sch.   2141h AAA Group                                361h AAA Gun Bn                  1 50lh AAA Gun Bn
    Lt. CoJ. W. H. Nicolson                         CoJ. J. G. Johnson, Ga.                        Lt. CoJ. G. W. Bes.              Lt. CoJ. L. O. Ellis, Jr., N. C,
    Guided    Missile    Dept.                      21Blh AAA Group                                371h AAA Gun Bn                  243rd    AAA AW Bn
                                                    CoJ. V. P. Lupinacci,      Po.                 Maj. R. G. Duncan                Lt. Col. E. E. McMillan
    AA 80 GM School
                                                    nOlh   AAA Group                               38th AAA Gun Bn                  2591h AAA Gun Bn
    CoJ. F. M. McGoldrick
                                                    CoJ. R. H. Hopkins                             Lt. CoJ. S. R. Kelley            Lt. CaJ. M. E. Chotas
    Officer Candidate   School
                                                    2241h AAA Group                                39th AAA AW Bn 1M)               27ls1   AAA AW Bn
    CoJ. K. R. Kenerick
                                                    Col. E. W. Thompson                            Lt. CoJ. P. J. Locey, Jr.        Lt. CoJ. L. C. Soylor
    AAA Repl Training    Center
                                                    2271h AAA Group                                41 sl AAA Gun Bn                 3361h AAA Gun 8n
    CoJ. E. W. Heothcote
                                                    CoJ. P. L. WolI:Flo.                           Lt. CoJ. C. F. Chirico           Lt. Col. P. A. Voyalzis
    Electronics    Dept.                            233rd   AAA Group                              481h AAA Gun Bn                  340lh AAA Gun Bn
                                                    Col. W. T. Stone, Colif.                       Lt. CoJ. D. W. Molone            Lt. CoJ. R. T. Bord, D. C.
    AAA & GM School
                                                    250lh     AAA Group                            491h AAA Gun Bn                  3871h AAA Gun Bn
    CoJ. P. W. Shunk
                                                                                                   Lt. CoJ. G. E. Meyers            Lt. Col. R. Wetheroll
                                                    260lh AAA Group                                50lh AAA AW Bn                   443rd    AAA AW Bn (SPI
    Non-Resident        Ins.   Depl.
                                                    CoJ. G. V. Selwyn, D. C.                       Lt. CoJ. J. O. Hodgson           Lt. Cal. T. F. Gordon
    AAA & GM School
                                                    302nd   AAA Group                              53rd AAA       Gun 8n            450lh AAA AW Bn
    CoJ. T. H. Watkins
                                                    CoJ. J. M. Welch                               Lt. CoJ. J.   H. McCann, Jr.     Lt. CaJ. B. N. Singleton
                                                    3131h AAA Group                                561h AAA       Gun 8n            4591h    AAA AW Bn
    Brigades                                                                                                                        Lt. CoJ. W. F. Shaver
                                                    CoJ. A. F. Hoehle                              Lt. CoJ. M.    A. Selsor, Jr.
    34th AAA Brigade                                3261h AAA Group                                                                 4641h AAA AW Bn
                                                                                                   60lh AAA AW Bn
    Brig. Gen. R. W. Chrichlow                      CoJ. M. D. Meyers, Po.                                                          LI. CaJ. R. E. Glosgow
                                                                                                   Lt. CoJ. Wm. D. Ward
    351h AAA Brigade                                3741h AAA Group                                                                 4951h AAA AW 8n
                                                                                                   63rd AAA Gun Bn
    CoJ. T. V. Stoyton                              CoJ. T. F. Mullaney,       Jr.,     Illinois                                    Lt. CoJ. G. E. Miller
                                                                                                   Lt. CoJ. C. F. Coffey
    45th AAA Brigade                                5151h AAA Group                                                                 501 sl AAA Gun Bn
                                                                                                   641h AAA Gun Bn.
    Col. F. F. Miter                                CoJ. F. G. Rowell, N. Mex.                                                      Lt. CoJ. J. C. Parker
                                                                                                   LI. Col. D. B. Nye
    47th AAA Brigade                                                                                                                502nd     AAA Gun Bn
                                                                                                   651h AAA Gun Bn
    CoJ. G. C. Gibbs                                Battalions                                     Lt. CoJ. H. C. Brown
                                                                                                                                    Lt. CoJ. P. J. Moline
    561h AAA Brigade                                                                                                                5061h AAA AW Bn
                                                    1 sl AAA Training   8n                         661h AAA Gun 8n
    Brig. Gen. H. F. Myers                                                                                                          Lt. CoJ. J. H. Valliere
                                                    Lt. CoJ. H. E. Groham                          Lt. CoJ. C. M. Brown
    105th AAA Brigade                                                                                                               5071h AAA AW Bn
                                                    2nd AAA AW 8n                                  70lh AAA Gun Bn
    Brig. Gen. A. H. Doud,         N. Y.                                                                                            Lt. CaJ. J. M. Corson
                                                    Maj. J. D. Benner                              Lt. CoJ. J. E. Barton
                                                                                                                                    51 81h AAA Gun Bn
    107th AAA Brigade                               2nd AAA Training       8n                      71 sl AAA     Gun Bn             Lt. CoJ. F. A. Werner
    Brig. Gen. J. W. Squire,           Va.          Lt. CoJ. J. Mortinelli                         Lt. Col. B.   R. Brown           51 91h AAA Gun Bn
    l111h AAA Brigade                               3rd AAA AW 8n                                  73rd AAA      AW Bn               Lt. CoJ. R. E. Holt
    Brig. Gen. Chos. G. Sage,           N. Mex.     Lt. CoJ. O. A. Moomaw                          Lt. CoJ. P.   W. Pedrotti        5261h AAA Gun Bn
    1121h AAA       Brigade                         3rd AAA Tng.        Bn.                        741h AAA       Gun Bn             Lt. CoJ. R. W. Molley
    Brig. Gen. J.   W. Cook, Colif.                 Lt. CoJ. A. S.     Noylor                      Moj. L. A.    Waple              53ls1 AAA AW Bn
    26ls1  AAA      Brigade


                                                                                                                                                                              *
                                                    41h AAA AW         Bn                          761h AAA        Gun Bn           CoJ. P. J. Gunloch
    Brig. Gen. J.    B. Moore, DeJ.                 Lt. CoJ. E. O.     Connor,        Jr.          Lt. Col D.    Y. Nanney          550lh AAA Gun Bn
                                                    41h AAA Training           Bn                  771h AAA      Gun Bn             Lt. CoJ. N. E. Cole
    Groups                                                                                                                          S52d

                                                                                                                                                                              *
                                                    Maj. K. L. Boullon                             LI. CoJ. W.   P. Wrighl, Jr.             AAA Gun Bn
    1., Composile   Group                           51h AAA Training     8n                        791h AAA      Gun Bn             U. CoJ. J. Sirickiond
    CoJ. T. H. Leory                                Maj. F. R. Whitehead,     Sr.                  Lt. CoJ. W.   A. Brinkerhoff     5541h AAA Gun Bn
                                                                                                                                    Ll. CoJ. F. J. Lagasse
    2nd AAA Group
    CoJ. A. S. Buynoski
    41h AAA Group
                                                    61h AAA Training
                                                    Lt. CoJ. G. L. Crawford,
                                                    71h AAA AW Bn
                                                                         Bn
                                                                                Jr.
                                                                                                   80lh AAA Airborne
                                                                                                   Lt. CoJ. J. Evans
                                                                                                   82nd AAA AW Bn
                                                                                                                               Bn
                                                                                                                                    6781h AAA AW Bn
                                                                                                                                    Maj. J. B. Crayton, S. C.
                                                                                                                                    6971h AAA A W Bn
                                                                                                                                                                              *
                                                                                                                                                                              *
    CoJ. L. A. Bonifay                              Lt. CoJ. H. E. Michelet                        Lt. CoJ. H. K. Clark
                                                                                                                                    Maj. W. C. Thompson, N. Mex.
    61h AAA Group                                   81h AAA Training     Bn                        951h AAA Gun 8n
                                                                                                                                    6981h AAA Gun Bn
    CoJ. A. A. Adams                                Moj. M. D. Kert                                Lt. CoJ. P. E. Pique
                                                                                                                                    Lt. CoJ. F. Monico, Illinois


                                                                                                                                                                              *
    71h AAA Group                                   91h AAA Training     8n                        961h AAA Gun Bn                  701 sl AAA "Gun Bn
    CoJ. M. J. Marlin                               Maj. W. E. Osburn                              Lt. CoJ. R. E. Hood              Lt. CoJ. F. F. Quisl
    81h AAA Group                                   10lh AAA Training      Bn                      971h AAA Gun Bn
    CoJ. O. H. Kyster, Jr.                          Lt. CoJ. v. T. Terribile                       Lt. CoJ. W. F. Coreoran          Continued    on page 29
        THE UNITED STATES
             ANTIAIRCRAFT
               ASSOCIATION




                                                                           FOUNDED IN 1892
                   OFFICERS                                         Published from 1892 until 1922 as
         LT. GEN. LEROY LUTES                              THE JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY
              HO:\'ORARY PRESIDENT                                 Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
        LT. GEN. JOHN T. LEWIS
                                                                    COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL
                     PRESIDE:\'T
                                                           VOL. LXXXXVI                         MARCH-APRIL,            1953               No.2
   LT. GEN. LYi\lAN L. LE;\INITZER
                 VICE-PRESIDENT

        COL. CHARLES S. HARRIS
                                                                                              CONTENTS
             SECRETARY-TREASURER
                                                           COVER: Dedication ceremony of the Fort Bliss Replica, 1948.
      ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE                            TI-IE ANTIAIRCRAFT         JOURNAL AND ITS PREDECESSORS
          EXECUTIVE COUNCIL                                    ...   1892-1953                                                                    2
   BRIGADIER GENERAL ROBERT W. CRICHLOW,             JR.   THE SPIRIT OF THE CORPS-A GUIDE TO THE FUTURE.
   BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES G. SAGE                               By Lt. Co/. John B. B. Trussell, Jr                                        11
   BRIGADIER GENERAL H. RUSSELL DROWNE
                                                           DEFENDERS OF JAPAN. By. Lt. Carl M. Glielzo                                        14
   COLONEL NORMAN       E. HARTMAN
   LIEUTENANT     COLONEL    FRANCIS X. BRADLEY
                                                           THE l\lISSIONS OF "QUAD LIGHTNING."
                                                                   By Lt. Co/. Daniel B. Williams                                             17
   LIEUTENANT     COLONEL GEORGE W. BEST, JR.
   MAJOR JAMES     E. CALKINS                              OPERATION DEVIL DOG.
                                                                 By Maj. Berkeley S. Gillespie and Maj. Frank Hawthorne, Jr.                  19
                                                           UP FRONT WITH THE 3rd AAA. By Lt. Co/. O. A. Moomaw ....                           20
   The purpose of the Association shall be to              THE VETERAN AND SOCIAL SECURITY.
   promote the efficiency of the Antiaircraft                    By Co/. William H. Dunham, Jr. (Ret.)                                        21
   Artillery by maintaining its standards and tra.
                                                           DISTINCTIVE UNIT INSIGNIA. By Capt. Russell P. iHaJlOn                             23
   ditions by disseminating professional knowl.
   edge, by inspiring greater effort toward the            KNOW YOUR AIRCRAFT AND THE ENEMY'S.
   improl1ement of materiel and methods of                       By Capt. Marvin D. Yarborough and JvIaj. William J. Logan ..                 26
   training and b)' fostering mutual understand.           METEOROLOGY FOR AAA                                                                30
   ing, respect and cooperation among all arms,            ELECTRONICS TRAINING FOR ARTILLERY.
   branches and compone1lts of the Regular                       By Lt. Co/. Henry P. Morse                                                   31
   Arm)', National Guard, Organized Reserves,              VERSATILITY OF RADIO SET ANjGRC-9.
   and Reserl1e Officers' Training Corps.                        By 1st Lt. Arthur B. Nash                                                    32
                                                           WINTERIZATION        OF THE AN(fPS-lD.
                                                                 By Capt. Duncan S. Boughner                                                  33
   The JOURNAL prints articles on subjects of              31st AAA BRIGADE ACTIVITIES                                                        34
   professional and general interest to personnel of       ARMY PRIMARY PROGRAMS. By Lt. Co/. William L. TJlOrkelson                          35
   the Antiaircraft  Artillery in order to stimulate
   thought    and provoke d;8~u88ion.       However,       A FORMULA FOR SUCCESS. By Admiral William M. Fecllteler ..                         40
   opinions expressed and conclusions drawn in             FORT BLISS NEWS: AA OCS-A Progress Report.
   articles are in no sense official. They do not re-            By Lt. Co/. George P. Bayerle, Jr                                            42
   flect the opinions or condusions of any official
   or branch of the Department of the Army.                BOOK REVIEWS                                                                       45
   The JOURNAL does not carry paid advertising.            GENERAL OFFICER RETIREMENTS AND ASSIGNMENTS                     ..                 46
   The JOURNAL pays for original articles upon             NEWS AND COMMENT                                                                   47
   publication. ~Ianuscript should be addressed to
   the Editor. The JOURNAL i. not re.pon.ibJe              SKYSWEEPER UNVEILED AT FORT l\lYER                                                 48
   for manuscripts     unaccompanied   by return
   postage.
                                                                            COLONEL CHARLES S. HARRIS, Editor
                                                                      LT COLONEL RICHARD W. OWEN, Associate Editor
       PUBLICATIOS       DATE:     April   I. 1953                           ~[ Sgt Fred A. Baker, Business Manager
                                                                         Sgt lcl James E. Moore, Jr., Editorial Assistant
                                                                                  Sgt Paull\I. Plumly, Cire. :\Igr.




Published bimonthly by the United States Antiaircraft  Aasociation.  Editorial and executive offices. 631 Pennsyh'ania  Avenue. X.'\' ..
Washington 4, D. C. Terms: $3.00 per year. Foreign subscriptions.   $4.00 per year. Single copies. 75c. Entered as second.class matter
at Washington.   D. C.; additional entr)' at Richmond, Va., under the Act of ~Iarch 3, 1879. Copyright, 1953, by the United States
Antiaircraft Association.
     THE ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL AND ITS
          PREDECESSORS ••• 1892-1953
 WITH          the present complexity and                                                                 TIle United States Naval Instille
multiplicity of Artillery weapons and                                                                  Proceedings     had begun publishing        pc
missions and the rapid development in                                                                  1874, and the Cavalry J01lTnlll, preQ idu
mid Twentieth Century some of us may                                                                   cessor of Armor, in 1888. So our)o            jf
be inclined to conclude hastily that the                                                               NAL became the third of the famil" ~.5
bulk of artillery progress has been made                                                               service journals still publishing. O;h ffJ.
in our generation; that our artillerist                                                                were to come later: I/lfantry Journal l!li
predecessors kept the torch burning but                                                                1904; Field Artillery      JOIlT11l11in 191 rst
dimly through the long dull period be-                                                                 Military    Surgeon    in 1901; Ordnm ~i
tween the Civil \Var and vVorld \Var I.                                                                and the Military        Engineer     in 192(<fa
However, if we take but a brief time to                                                                Quartermaster     JouTllal in 1921.         Jat:
re\'iew through the early pages of this                                                                    l\lavbe our forebears were better <i ris
JOURNAL the progress in our Coast                                                                      in so~e respects than they realized (0]
Artillery we find inspiration in the                                                                   Army Regulations were all containfl';me
thought and vision with which our                                                                      in one small book less than one ind nl
forebears solved the problem at hand                                                                   thick, and all the official training ane 1f
and marked ahead the course which has                                                                  administrative regulations could be car-pel
led to the progress we know,                                                                           ried in a large brief case. I nfmltry DriL gel
   When the JOURNALbegan publishing                                                                    Regulatio/ls (lOR) and Troops in Cain ~I
in 1892 our nation was expanding,                           Brig. Gen. John \V'. Ruckman               paigll, forerunner of Field Service Reg- h]
growing, and witnessing the early days                                                                 Illations, ~'ere in pocket manual size fo
in the de\'elopment          of machinery,             Cavalry was established at Fort Leaven-         Revolutionary progress was being madt fo
equipment,      mills, factories, Railroads            worth.    Just after the birth of our           in the manufacture of guns, carriages DI
and steamboat lines were reaching out                  JOURNAL, a School of Instmction            of   munitions and accessories, and artillery. m
to growing     towns and cities.                       Drill and Practice for Cavalry and Light        men the world over were keen I)' studl.'
   The Army was beginning to arouse                    Artillery was opened in 1892 at Fort            ing and writing on the developments; Ii
itself after a long post Civil \Var sleep.             Riley, Kansas.                                  however, there existed a serious dearth t.
Congress had reduced it to a strength                     The old muzzle-loading cannon of the         of published matter available on artil.
of 25,000. The Artillery was one arm                   Civil \Var era were gradually being             lery matters for the ambitious officers
of five regiments, each of 12 batteries,               replaced with breech-loading rifled can-        and men. As a result of the develop-
of which two in each regiment were                     non and 12-inch B. L. cast iron mortars.        ment in the manufacturing         field, the
horse or field; the rest, foot, seacoast or            The recommendations of the Endicott             artilleryman was confronted with im.
siege artillery. Batteries were scattered              Board ( 1886) for the development of            portant problems which demanded ex.
generally in small posts along the sea-                our seacoast defenses were beginning to         ploration and solution. The time was
board and in the interior, four artillery              be carried out. The Crozier-Buffington          ripe for the birth of the J01/nllll of the
regiments being in the Division of the                 disappearing carriage was being devel-          United States Artillery.
Atlantic.    No regimental commander                   oped for seacoast cannon from 6-inch
had his regiment together.                             up. Smokeless powder was being intro-
   The Artillery School at Fort Monroe
had been originally established in 1824,
                                                       duced to completely alter the conditions
                                                       of seacoast artillery firing by facilitating
                                                                                                       THE       JOURNALwas founded in 1892,
                                                                                                       and evolved from the demands of ne-
but it was not until 1881 that The                     the continuous pointing at moving ene-
                                                                                                       cessity," wrote the late General John
School of Application      for Infantry and            my ships under fire. General Ruckman
                                                                                                       \\'. Ruckman in the september-octD-1
                                                       summed up the general situation as
                                                                                                       ber 1912 issue. He was the nrst editor.
                                                       follows:
                                                                                                       To resume: "In the f<lll of 1891 active
        We acknowledge      the valuable  assistance
    of Colonels Arthur Symons, USAR, and Wil.               "In those days no foreign people           steps were taken by a fe\\' officers at (
    liam Cooper Foote, USA, retired.                                                                   Fort l\lonroe to produce a magazine
                                                         knew that the United States had
        For our Golden Anniversary number in
    January,   1942, Colonel     Symons, then asso.      such a thing as artillery, and, our           which should satisfy the requirements
    ciate editor,   wrote the unsigned     lead ar-
                                                         own people knowing but little                 of the service; and through their ef-
    ticle, THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS, from which
    we have copied extensively.                          more, it really would not have been           forts, and favorable circumstances, the
        From his memory and research,        Colonel     safe to insist on the point too               JOURNALcame to life."
    Foote contributed    valuable   help with infor-
    mation and suggestions.-Ed.                          strongly. Artillery sentiment was              The small group of officers at Fort
                                                         an absent quality."                           Monroe who interested themselves in
2                                                                                                                    ANTIAIRCRAFT        JOURNAL
  ., project studied ways and means of                    ~letcalrs    Ordnance      and             1st Lt. Henry C. Da\'is, 3rd
     uction. J'\linimum cost was essen-                   Gunnery.                                     Artv.
   \. This meant publishing the paper            VIII-Service     Periodicals.                       1st Lt. John W. Ruckman, 1st
 . rhe Artillery School. since the school                                                              Arty, Treas.
      its own press. Some feared that             From the announcement       \\'e quote in          1st Lt. Cornelius DeW. \\Till-
    ependence of action and speech             part:                                                   cox, 2nd Arty., Secty.
 Quid be restricted by the school au-                                                                2nd Lt. Lucian G. Berry, 4th
                                                 "By this, the first issue of the JOHnlal               Artv.
    rities. rendering the publication use-
                                               of the U Ilited States Artillery, is real-
  ". a fear that "proved to be wholly
                                               ized, we \'enture to belie\-e, a hope long-          In the second year of the publication's
   aginary:'
                                               cherished by the more progressive offi-           existence, the form of management was
   Personal letters were written to indi-
                                               cers of the arm. ". ". ". In no branch of
ridual officers stating the terms of the                                                         changed. Lt. Ruckman was given en-
                                               the military service is progress so rapid,        tire charge of the editorial management
 IOject and asking a contribution of
                                               development so unexpected, as in the              (editing by committee has rarely proved
 2.50. This netted subscriptions from
                                               Artillery. Almost all the arts and in-            successful), and a committee of Direc-
 (j) of the 288 officers then in the
                                               dustries are drawn upon to furnish in             tion and Publication was established.
JIlillery, thereby assuring $400 for the
                                               greater or less degree, their share in            This committee consisted of:
  [$tyear. Evidently there was some op-
                                               extending its sphere, in widening its
jKlSitionas well as indifference.     Gen-
                                               applications. \\Tar grows more and more                Col. Henry W. Clossen, 4th
Iral Ruckman continued: "\Vith these
                                               exacting in the requirements it makes                    Artillery
,lara.Lieutenant \Villcox and the writer
                                               of those who make its practical study                  Capt. James 1'1. Ingalls, 1st Ar-
 isited the Commandant of the School,
Colonel Royal T. Frank, at his house,           their profession. True of all arms, this                 tillery
lIld outlined a plan of procedure. At           remark applies with peculiar force to our             Capt. Edmund Zalinski, 5th Ar-
first he wished to call the officers to-        own, for it is in it especially that progress            tillery
gether for a general discussion, but was        opens up an increasingly widening field.              Lt. Erasmus vVeaver, 2nd Artil-
persuaded to proceed to business. A             For us, the development of our artillery                 lery
general discussion at a meeting of offi-        is of especial interest. The proper or-               Lt. George O. Squier, 3rd Ar-
~rs at that time would certainly have           ganization and administration of this arm                tillery
lilled the scheme and postponed action          is perhaps the great purely military prob-
for sever~1 years. \Vhen he was in-             lem that calls for solution in our land.            This arrangement lasted at least until
formed that the manuscript for the first        ". ". ". As artillery literature is increasing   the May-June issue of 1902, at which
number was on hand, he said 'Turn it            day by day in volume and interest, so it         time the names of the members of the
in and we will start.'''                        will be the aim of the JOURNALin some            committee disappeared from the mast-
    The first issue was dated January,          sort to serve as a guide to those engaged        head. During this period, of course,
1892 and distributed in February. Its           in research and investigation."                  the membership of the committee and
table of contents:                                  The two technical articles on pro-           the editor were changed with varying
                                                jectiles by Ruckman and Gosset were              frequency.
      I-Announcement.                            scholarly pieces, each including dia-
     II-The      Effect of \Vind on the          grams, tables and mathematical deduc-
            J'\lotion of a Projectile, by        tions. Lieutenant Simpson's paper on    CONTINUING             with the same high
            Lieutenant John \V. Ruck-            artillery organization       came out flat-
                                                                                         standard, the JOURNAL published as a
            man, 1st Artillery.                  footedly for a re-organization of the   quarterly and included during the first
   III-The        Determination      of the      Artillery, saying:                      year articles by E. M. \Veaver, G. N.
            Velocities of Projectiles by                                                 \Vhistler, and \V. \Valke, then lieuten-
                                                      "Now things are changing. Peo-     ants and later to become eminent artil-
            1'Ieans of Sound Phenom-
                                                  ple are beginning to realize that      lerymen.     Also included were "Field
            ena, by Captain Fernand
                                                  our sea-ports need defending, and      Artillery, Its Organization and Its Role,"
            Gosset,       French     Marine
                                                   that adequate defense cannot be       by Lt. C. D. Parkhurst and "Time Fuze
            Artillery (translation).
                                                   improvised at short notice. If we     and Shrapnel Fire," by Lt. A. D.
    IV-Our        Artillery Organization,
                                                   get these defenses we want a proper   Schenk. However, from the first issue
            by Lieutenant           \V.   A.
                                                   personnel.   vVe need a corps or-     it was predominantly a Coast Artillery
            Simpson, Adjutant,          2nd
                                                   ganization, with a chief, a central   Journal.
            Artillery.
                                                   head. He would be at army head-           A "special number," .No. 5, rounded
      V-Range Tables for the 12-Inch
                                                   quarters, with the seat of govern-    out 1892, including French and Ger-
            Cast-iron B.L. 1'10rtar, by
                                                   ment."                                 man translations on the merits of "Krupp
            Captain James J'\1. Ingalls,
             1st Artillery.                                                               vs. Canet Guns." It was really an Ord-
                                                   Colonel Frank designated a commit-
    VI-The Chilean Navy, by lieu-                                                         nance number. It also included an in-
                                                tee of five officers to manage the JOUR-
            tenant H. C. Davis, 3rd                                                      dex for the year, a financial statement,
                                                NAL:
            Artillery.                                                                   and a list of subscribers.
   VII-Book         Notices-Clark's     For-           1st Lt. vVilIiam B. Homer, 5th        On that list we find Governor Levi K.
             tifications, Maurice's \Var,                Arty.                            Fuller of Vermont, General Faries of

MARCH-APRIL,       1953                                                                                                                       3
Louisiana, nine Ordnance officers, and                                                        sudden awakening from our Rip
Artillery Lieutenants Arthur Murray,                                                          Van Winkle nap) published his
Tasker Bliss, M. F. Harmon, J. D. Bar-                                                        Graphic Tables of Fire. It is true
rette, Adelbert Cronkhite, '''m. Snow,                                                        that Captain Ingalls had already
'''m. Lassiter, and P. C. March.                                                              blazed a way through the hithert~
    In 1893 Editor Ruckman sent out a                                                         unbroken       wilderness, but it re-
circular letter to Artillery officers out-                                                    quired too much work and wom
lining the scope and inviting discussion                                                      to apply his formulae to our daily        to
on "Coast Artillery Fire Instruction,"                                                        practice. Therefore it was a happy
dividing it into three periods: ballistic                                                     inspiration that prompted Lieuten-
firing, target firing, and tactical firing.                                                   ant '''histler    to reduce the results
The response was a sensation. Fifteen                                                         of Captain Ingalls's labors and SO
officers submitted their organized com-                                                       present it that 'he who runs may
ments to make the April, 1894 issue an                                                        read.' "
instructive and fascinating issue to this
day.                                                                                           In Lt. 'Vea\'er's comprehensive c
                                                                                            ments he refers to a practice at a mOl-
    Lt. Ceo. O. Squier orients us,                                                          ing target:
       "In looking back over the past six
    years of practice we find:                    Maj. Gen. Erasmus M. \Veaver                    "At Fort l\'lonroe in the summer
                                                                                                                                    ~
                                                                                              of 1887 Captain S. 1\1. Mills, 5th
      a. Practice with the 4.5-inch
                                                                                              Artillery, then in charge of target c
         muzzle-loading riRe is danger-         which had been done with it up to
                                                                                              practice, had a target towed across
         ous on account of the liabil-          this time. ". ". ". Before beginning
                                                                                              the field of fire and it was fired at
         ity of bursting the gun.               battery target practice with any gun
                                                                                              from a 15-inch S. B. gun. The
      b. The 8-inch converted riRe              we should know all we can learn
                                                                                              practice was not good. The diffi-
         will shoot accurately if intel-        about its performance       from the
                                                                                              culties connected with the practi-
         ligently handled.                      most careful and intelligent ballis-
                                                                                              cal problem of causing the projec-
      c. Practice with the 13-inch and          tic firing by a competent board of
                                                                                              tile and target to meet at a guessed-
         lO-inch sea coast mortars is           artillery experts."
                                                                                              at point ahead, were, I think, a
         useless and in many cases
                                                                                              revelation to most of those who
         detrimental, unless they are             Lt. Willoughby   Walke    stressed bal-
                                                                                              were called upon to fire the gun.
         provided with suitably leveled       listic firing:
                                                                                              The experiments had to be dis-
         platforms.
                                                                                              continued after a few trials be-
      d. The 8-inch and lO-inch siege               "For years it has been difficult to
                                                                                              cause of objections raised by the
         mortars, quite contrary   to           impress upon those in immediate
                                                                                              captain and crew of the boat."
         manual, should be pointed              charge of target practice the impor-
         and elevated before loading.            tance of securing,      previous to
                                                marching to the guns, the necessary            And then upon realism in target prac-
      e. The utmost care should be                                                          tice:
         taken to insure uniform 'den-          ballistic data for an intelligent lay-
         sity of loading' with the 8-           ing of the piece. It has been quite
                                                sufficient for all purposes if the               "v"hatever is done should be, in
         inch converted riRe.
                                                ordnance officer or ordnance ser-             so far as possible, an exemplifica-
                                                geant has copied from the heads of            tion of what we would have to do
      h. The great practical value of           the barrels the granulation        and        in action against hostile war ships.
         'Vhistler's graphic tables of          specific gravity of the powder, and           It seems that we come wide of this
         fire has been shown in the             sent that information to the record-          mark. ". ". ". 'Ve strain after cer-
         practice with the 8-inch con-          er in time to fill up the blank. In           tain refinements which are possible
         verted riRe."                          years gone by, and even now occa-             on the proving ground and of serv-
                                                sionally (when a lot of 1867 pow-             ice in determining     range tables,
   Then    he gives his idea on ballistic       der is used for 1894 practice), the           but which cannot be put in prac-
firing:                                         valuable information, the initial ve-         tice in the rush and excitement of
                                                locit)" determined presumably when            combat."
       "The few shots which were so             the powder was packed and stored,
    carefully and intelligently utilized        is also found suitably painted in               Lundeen, Whistler, Davis, and John
    in a study of the 8-inch converted          white letters on a black barrel head!       Hamilton were also among the dis-
    riRe at Fort i\lonroe gave us more          The practical application of this           tinguished authors.     Editor Ruckman
    real, tangible, valuable results as         data was given but little thought,          later commented, "this number caused
    far as the treatment and behavior of        certainly never intelligently used          such interest in artillery practice that
    this particular gun is concerned            until    Lieutenant    \Vhistler    (to     in the season of 1894 the hitting capac-
    than all the irregular battery firing       whom be given all credit for the            it)' of the batteries increased almost
4                                                                                                        ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
    "Ond belief, and impro\'ement con-                                                          instructor in the School. In 1908 he
    ued during the successive years."                                                           reappeared in Practical Coast Artillery
                                                                                                Gunnery, in which he stressed "hits per
                                                                                                gun per minute" as the accurate cri-
       ROFESSIONAL NOTES" was in-                                                               terion for a firing battery. He continued
       uced as a section in the JOUlli"AL                                                       as a frequent contributor.
      the January, 1894 issue, de\'eloping                                                          At this same time Captain Alston
    to a valuable and long-continued fea-                                                       Hamilton also became a frequent con-
    reo Usually included were reprints                                                          tributor on ballistics, gunnery and armor
       translations of foreign and other                                                        penetration. He was acquiring fame as
      e1v material of professional interest                                                     a successor to Ingalls as the ballistician.
      a;tillerymen. As ml example, Sep-                                                             The 1\ larch-April, 1907 issue carried
     lber, 1912 issue reprinted a letter                                                        an editorial article, Attacks Upon For-
     IIBenjamin Franklin "Relative To                                                           tified Harbors. Referring to an article,
    he Use Of Oil For Stilling The                                                              same subject,.in the Proceedillgs of the
     rares."                                                                                    U. S. Naval 11IStitute, reprinted in
      Beginning with 1896 the JOUR... L     A
                                         ....                                                   Artillery Notes No. 28, and to joint op-
       ame a bi-monthly publication,          a                                                 erations in Cuba under Sampson and
   basis generally maintained throughout                                                        Shafter, Editor Hero's sound lessons
    tS existence, except for a twelve-year                                                      for joint operations, as well as for coast
                                                       Maj. Gen. Andrew Hero, Jr.
   oeriod, 1\ lav 1919 to April 1931, when                                                      artillery, made the editorial a classic.
   t            '
    t was published     as a monthly. \Var                                                      Forty years ahead of his time, he fin-
   ;aused a few issues to be consolidated,        of Coast Artillery, an able and frequent      ished his editorial on this prophetic
   nrstin 1899, next and last in 1917 and         contributor, served as editor for the         note:
   1918.                                          March-April 1902 issue. Captain John
      Lieut. John P. \Visser was assigned         D. Barrette followed him and is shown              "In selecting commanders       for
  /s editor, succeeding Lieu!. Ruckman            on the masthead of the May-June, 1902           future joint operations, it would be
   in 1896 as the       result of a request       issue as editor and manager. The Edi-           wise to select generals conversant
     through channels," which evidently           torial Committee disappeared with the           with Captain Mahan's writings,
  ;ettled the question of official recogni-       same Issue.                                     and admirals who have made a
  cionof the JOURNALand of its impor-                 Captain Andrew Hero, Jr., later Chief       close study of wars on land."
  unce. Lieu!. Ruckman had served as              of Coast Artillery, ably guided the
  editor in addition to his official duties       JOURNAL during the years 1902-1907.
  aspolice and ordnance officer. I-Ience-         His article in January-February       1903,   THE        JOURNALmade no mention of
  forward, our periodical rated a full-time       entitled A Step Forward, cites the bene-      the separation of the Coast and Field
  editor.                                         fits of the act of February 2, 1901, an       Artillery in 1907, at which time the
      Captain \Visser continued the quality       act which increased and reorganized the       Chief of Artillery, General       Arthur
  of the magazine and broadened its               Regular Army, discontinued the regi-          Murray, became Chief of Coast Artil-
  content, contributing himself by origi-         mental organization      in the artillery,    lery. The only evidence was the "Coast
  nal writings, by compilations and by            and established the Artillery Corps with      Artillery Corps" following the names
  translations from the German.                    thirty Field Artillery batteries, 126 com-   of the editors and authors. The crossed
      His article, The Artillery in Battle,       panies of Coast Artillery and a Chief of      cannon insignia had picked up its super-
  his translation of Von der Goltz's Prin-        Artillery, with a total enlisted strength     imposed projectile several years before.
  ciples of \<\I'ar, and his compilation of a     of 17,742.                                        One outstanding virtue of the JOUR-
  history of the Second Boer War are                  Captain Frank \V. Coe, also later to      NAL during the first fifteen years of its
  notable.                                        become Chief of Coast Artillery, devel-       existence was the quality of its illustra-
      The quickening interest in seacoast         oped the manning table idea for deter-        tions. Although engraving processes,
  artillery during the Nineties is evident         mining harbor defense personnel needs        printing paper, and photographic artis-
  in the articles published in the JOURNAL.        in his Coast Artillery Organization in       try were all at a comparatively low level
   ~ew materiel, new fire control meth-            same issue. And to add interest, a fine      in those days, the JOURNALillustrations
  ods, and a new outlook on the missions           argument and plan for regimental or-         were remarkable for clarity and detail.
I and capabilities of the arm brought
 .about a wealth of searching articles by
                                                   ganization in the Coast Artillery were
                                                   presented by Captain Oliver L. Spauld-
                                                                                                    Volume 32, for 1909, included a line
                                                                                                drawing of a woman in a nightgown
I scholarly authors. Rifling of cannon,            ing in the 1\ lay-June 1904 issue.            (an illustration for a bedding advertise-
Igun carriages, ballistics, notes on for-             The July-August 1906 number was           ment) and more color, this time an il-
leign seacoast installations, and subma-           devoted largely to Armor and Ships,          lustration of a steam-boiler recording
  rine mine defenses were topics under             written by Captain John \V. Gulick,          chart.
  discussion.                                      also later to become Chief of Coast              In 1910, Lieu!. Frank S. Clark (edi-
      Advertising increased: one brand of          Artillery. It was later reprinted as a        tor later) won the prize essay competi-
 whiskey was included.                             text for use at The Artillery School.         tion with an essay titled, The Organi-
      Captain E.1\[. \Vea\'er, later Chief         At this time Captain Gulick was an            zation and Training of Coast Artillery

MARCH-APRil,       1953                                                                                                                   5
  Troops, Including Resen'es and Sup-                                                        the 155mm guns and all heavier
  pons, \ Vhich \ ViII Insure their i\ laxi-                                                 artillery.  Field Artillery manned
  mum Efficiency. in Time of Peace, After                                                    155mm howitzers and lighter ani
  their \ Vithdrawal from the Coast For-                                                     The Coast Artillery also furnished
  tifications. The titles of thirtv vears                                                    sonnel for trench artillery, antiair
  ago were documents in th,emseh-es; in                                                      artillery, ammunition trains, and rail
   1911 Captain John S. Johnston won                                                         artillen'.
  the competition with a piece titled,
  \Vhat is the Best Organization of the
  Coast Artillery Corps, United States
  Army, for Tactical Control and Admin-
                                                                                             Xi\'    i\lay, 1919, the JOUl\."<ALbecafll!
                                                                                              monthly, continuing so until l\la
  istration, Including its Relation to Exist-                                                  1931, when it returned to a hi-mom
  ing Staff Departments-Both       for Peace                                                  status. In July, 1931 the subscript'
  and \Var? Captain Paul D. Bunker                                                            were upped 50 cents to $3.00 and h
 won the competition for both 1912 and                                                        continued the same ever since.
  1913, the first with an article on sea-                                                     urgency of war was past but milit
 coast projectiles, and the second with a                                                     interest was still at white heat. The
 piece on the mine defense of harbors.                                                        was off as far as secrecy was concern
     To the beginning of the first \Vorld                                                     and the JOURNALwas packed with .
 'vVar, in 1914, there was little change             Maj. Gen. Henry D. Todd, Jr.             formation about the war that could
 in the magazine. An article on Gun                                                           be published before. Lieut. Co\. Fra
                                                         An original subscriber.
 Erosion, by Lieut. Comdr. H. E. Yarnell,                                                     S. Clark relieved Colonel R. R. We
 U.S. Navy, gave little hint of the diplo-      prize in the 1915 contest on the "Effect      himer as editor in October. The
 matic capabilities this officer would ex-      upon r.leasures for Coast Defense of          torials of both were strong and pe
 hibit in the preliminary jockeying for         the Development     of Submarine and          nent, and are said to have had th
 position in 'vVorld 'vVar II, or of the        Aerial Attack." In 1916 he changed his        effect in the organization of the
 accuracy of his estimate of the inten-         subject to railway artillery and won          war army. Much of the material in t
 tions of Japan.                                again. Again in 1918 Lt. Co!. Fred i\1.       magazine had to do with mobile la
     In the May-June       issue of 1915,       Green also won with a railway artillery      artillery, a natural result of the Co
 Lieutenant Samuel H. IVlcLeary had             subject.                                     duties in France, where a large part
 published a long article, The Aeroplalle           'vVorld "Var I writers on antiaircraft    the Coast Artillery units performed
 in Coost Defense. As might be ex-               included l\lajor T. Q. Ashburn, the late    heavy land artillery.
 pected, Lieut. McLeary made a number            Co!. E. J. \Vallace, Major Glenn P.             The Beaten Zone, one of the m
of poor guesses, but the surprising thing       Anderson and Oliver L. Spiller, now          popular features ever to appear in th
 is that so many of his predictions were         Brigadier General, retired.                 JOURNAL,began in r.larch, 1920. Th
proved correct.                                     In 1917 Col. John A Lundcen, re-         feature's purpose, as statcd in the firs
     In the same year the second ;nticle by     tircd, was recalled to active duty and       issue in which it appeared, was "T
 Lieut. Hobert Arthur was published             appointed editor in addition to his duties   supply a definite and progressivc mean
-Historical     Sketch of the Coast Artil-      as harbor defense commander.        Natu-    of self-instruction     to reserve officers,
lery School. I-Iis first article, Armor          rally, the JOURNALpublication suffered.     young regular officers (verily pcrhaps
and its Application to Ships, had ap-               Only three issues were published in      even the older regular officers), enlisted
peared a year before. Licut. Arthur's            1918. The pace of work at the School        specialists and ROTC college students,
historical research and writing have            printing plant was the greatest obstacle     who desire assistance in their effort to
made him nationally famous. His ar-             to regular printing. The JOURNALhad          keep abreast of Coast Artillery tactics.
 ticles on early Colonial forts, Virginia       low priority at the plant, and Sgt.          techniques and administration."
 to i\laine, appeared later in the JOURNAL      Charles H. i\liller, who was holding the         The applicatory method was used.
in the nineteen twenties before he be-          fort while the editor devoted most of        l\luch of the material was reminiscent
came the JOURNALeditor in 1925.                 his time to his numerous other duties,       of present-day extension courses, al-
     In 1915 Lt. Co!. Henry D. Todd, Jr.        got the magazine out by haunting the         though presented with more informal-
(now i\ lajor General, retired) relie\'ed       printing plant and pouncing when a           ity. l\'lajor J. C. Haw, assistant editor at
Major Williams as editor. About the             linotype or press was momentarily not        the time, did most of the spade work
same time we note a trend away from             in use. This catch-as-catch-can method       in the operation of the department.
emphasis on technical articles that are         produced results to a marked degree. A       Colonel Clark (now Brig. Gen. Retired).
now considered the proper sphere of the         successful attempt was made to incor-        the editor, took great personal interest
Ordnance Corps.                                 porate live material in the magazine; the    in the feature. Many Coast Artillery-
    The war in Europe inlluenced more           war was a source of inspiration for most     men submitted problems for considera-
attention to heavy mobile and railway           of the articles.                             tion.
artillery. The antiaircraft gun and the             In France the Coast Artillery fur-          The same issue of the JOURNALan-
submarine mine also drew increased at-          nished for the American Expeditionary        nounced the cessation of paid advertis-
tention.                                        Forces of General Pershing the artillery     ing, pursuant to act of Congress. Liai-
    Lt. Col. Meade \Vildrick won first          reserve and army artillery. It manned        son, a newsy little magazine published
6                                                                                                          ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
      an adjunct of the JOURNAL for the                                                    strong. outspoken. and respectful.       It
      rpose of keeping contact between the                                                 mioht be said that they make the best
                                                                                              b                     •

     en-present members of the Corps and                                                   reading in the issues of the period.
       wartime members, was discontinued                                                      By 1926 the influence of aircraft in
,\ . reason of the same law.                                                               warfare showed its effect on the con-
      The December, 1921 issue was the                                                     tents page. Antiaircraft was stressed, as
    rst to be printed elsewhere than the                                                   was the role of the airplane in attack
     -hool printing plant. An act of Con-                                                  and defense of harbor defense installa-
          required special authorization for                                                                     oad£ets that aid and
                                                                                           tions. i\ lam' of the b ~
                                                                                                        •

   " blications to be printed in government                                                puzzle Coast Artillerymen today made
    :rinting plants, and the authorization                                                 their first appearance in the JOU&~AL
I for the    JOU&~AL was withheld.      The                                                of this time.
\ magazine was printed in Hampton, Vir-                                                    . The statement, "The Coast Artillery
   jnia, at the plant of the Houston Pub-                                                  JOHTllal pays for original articles upon
n Iishing Company. The hasty move re-                                                      publication" appeared for the first time
i ;ulted in a particularly small issue, with                                               in July, 1928. while Colonel Robert
d theBeaten Zone among the missing.                                                        Arthur was editor.
~ The financial blow was serious. \Vith
x adrertising so suddenly cut off such a
1 ,hart time before, this second strike             Brig. Gen. Frank S. Clark              IN April 1929, the editorial offices of
                                                                                           the JOURNAL moved to the U. S. In-
; ~ight have staggered less self-reliant or
                                                                                           fantry Association Building in \\Tash-
I' less resourceful   men, but the editors
                                             value of the civilian troops in a rapid       ington, D. C. The March number an-
,. of the JOURNALhad no thought of re-
                                             mobilization for war was well recog-          nounced:
r tiring .from the field. They tightened
                                             nized after World \Var 1.
   their belts and went after more sales in
                                                  August, 1923 marked the disappear.             "After thirtv-seven years at Fort
   the Book Department.
                                             ance of The Beaten Zone. In October             Monroe, the JOURNA~ leaves that
    The issue of January,         1922 was of the same year there came to the                station with reluctance, but busi-
  back in the familiar red cover. The        JOURNALa new editor, iVlajor Joseph A.          ness reasons dictate the move.
  Coast Artillery School imprint was back    Green, later Chief of Coast Artillery.          Closer relationship with the other
  again-the special authorization had evi- Advertising, too, made its reappearance           service publications, with the Office
  dently come through. The Beaten Zone       with this issue, but the JOURNAL had            of the Chief of Coast Artillery, and
  was back on deck. Almost the entire        to move from the School printing plant,         with the Corps seems to have be-
  issuewas devoted to the National Guard.    this time for good. \Vith the resump-           come necessarv and to outweigh
  The lead editorial was a plea to those tion of advertising, the quality of the             the advantage; of location at Fort
  in the regular establishment to learn      paper stock took a decided lift; slick          i\.lonroe."
  more about the Guard, that the "in- paper made the illustrations stand out.
  spiration, training, and leadership of a        The lead editorial, Reason to Rejoice,      After the move to \Vashington Major
  great citizen war army" might not be and an article, A Regimental Orgmziza-
                                                                                           S. S. Giffin became editor and Staff Ser-
  lacking.                                    tion for the Coast Artillery Corps, by       geant Charles R. i\liller was carried as
    The February issue, continuing the        Lieut. Col. H. C. Barnes in the April,       business manager, a position he had in
  theme, was devoted to the ROTC.             1924 JOU&~AL, announced         the reor-    fact filled untitled for many years. He
     About this time the magazine began       ganization of troops assigned to the fixed   was a main wheel on the staff over a
  to deviate from its preoccupation with      harbor defenses into regiments, effec-       period that began before \V\VI and
  the stories of the war, and began to tive June 30, 1924 .. As the Editor said:           which did not end until his well earned
  concentrate on current training prob- "The organization of the Coast Defense             retirement after \V\VII.
  lems. In this year the Coast Artillery      Commands into regiments is a cause for          YOH Tell 'Em, or letters to the editor,
  Board gave notice through the JOUR- rejoicing in the hearts of all Coast Artil-          appeared in September of 1929, as did
  ~AL that the ideas of all Coast Artillery-  lerymen. It is a change in policy that       the Activities section. Also at this time,
  men were desired for consideration by meets with universal approval within               subscriptions hit a new low. It was too
  the Board. Coast Artillery Board Notes       the Corps."                                 long after the first \Vorld \Var, and too
, beg,n " , dep,"ment ;n the m'ga,jne.             In June, 1924, appeared the Centen-     long before the 1939 wave of prepared-
                                               nial Number, in commemoration of the        ness. The late lamented depression of
                                                l00th birthday of the Coast Artillery      October, 1929 did the rest. By December
I KN July, 1922, the name was finally          School. In November of the same year        of that year, the circulation curve was
I changed    to the Coast Artillery JOHrnal,   there appeared the Summer Camps              at the lowest point in the JOURNAL'S
  a change that could have been made ap- Number. The importance of the citizen              recent history.
  propriately from the very beginning.         army was recognized, and the Corps              i\lajor St~wart S. Giffin, the editor
     The JOURNALof this period was de- was making a real effort to make training            during those dark days, fought manfully
  voting much space to the National            thorough and practical.                      to hold his circulation and to gain new
  Guard and Organized Reserve. The                 The editorials of this period were       subscribers. i\lanv of us remember his

  MARCH-APRIL,      1953                                                                                                             7
personal letters-they were masterpieces
                                                                                                                                 .       ]
                                                                                      stressed as the only additional soultt
of ''The JOUJL.'OAL  expects e\'ery man to                                            income for the ]OUJL.'OAL;    the a
do his duty" type-and they must have                                                  received from subscriptions did not
worked. The curve began its slow                                                      even the mechanical costs of the pu
upward climb.                                                                         cation.                                1ll
   After the move to \Vashington and                                                     Lieut. Col. Eli E. Bennett took III
after i\Iajor General Gulick, Chief of                                                as editor in 1933 when the Arm\'
Coast Artillery, heard some intimation                                                occupied largely with CCC m~t
                      w
that the JOUJL.'OAL as a house organ                                                  Soon thereafter, howe\-er, the JOUR.~
for the Chief, he appointed an Ad\'isory                                              reHected the increasing activity and
Council of three senior Coast Artillerv                                               velopment in antiaircraft.    Articles
officers in \Vashington, none of whom                                                 scribed the Lewis Charts designed
served under the Chief, to direct the                                                 our present Army Antiaircraft
JOURNAL activities. This Council con-                                                 mander for use in preparation of A
sisted of:                                                                            nre. Captain Robert \V. Crichlow
                                                                                      plained his slide rule designed
     Colonel Samuel e. Vestal                                                         widely used for a similar purpose.
     Lt. Col. William 1-1. Wilson                                                        Captain William F. l\Iarquat in
     Lt. Col. Frederick 1-1. Smith                                                    Tactical   Employment      of Searclllig
                                                                                      in 1935 suggested the then radical i
                                                 Maj. Gen. Joseph A. Green
    (Major General \Vilson, now retired,                                              of battlefield illumination for night
is our senior subscriber-began  in 1901.)                                             erations, which was to be used so
   From this grew a committee of six Ca1'alry Jour/1lI1.                              fectively in World \Var II.                    J   I
officers, one the editor, which drafted      In the lean depression years, this          Major \V. \V. Irvine, President of 0IlI' ~
in August, 1930 a constitution for the affiliation was designed to save all three     Association a year ago, wrote a series ,
United States Coast Artillery Associa- of the journals from unnecessary ex-           articles on organization and tactics f 5l
tion. This was promulgated with bal. pense by pooling hired civilian person-          AAA in the late thirties.                    ~
lots and an explanatory letter, mailed to nel, office space, machinery, and to some
                                                                                         In 1934 Lieutenant Paul B. Kelh U]
officers of all components of the e.Ae. extent, printing costs. Articles of inter-
                                                                                      now a retired Brigadier General, wr~1 1
At a meeting in \Vashington, D. C., est to all three branches could be printed
                                                                                      an entertaining and thought'provokin. /
January 10, 1931, the proposed consti.    with only one charge for typesetting and
                                                                                      piece, "I Will Gladly Pay Tuesday flJ P
tution (approved by 2,338 eligible mem- illustration.
                                                                                      a Hamburger Today," attacking the ,J
bers) was adopted and officers elected       On February 23, 1931, the President      Army "jawbone" system then in vogue n
by mail ballots. General Gulick served . signed the military appropriation act for
as the nrst Association President.                                                       Major Thomas R. Phillips (now l\IiI- I
                                          the next fiscal year, which once more
   Hencefonvard      our magazine     was prohibited the JOURNALfrom accepting        itary Analyst, St. LOllis Post Dispatch: '
published under the supervision of the paid advertising.                              followed up his prize-winning article in
                                                               The Association or-
United States Coast Artillery Associa- dered that the magazine be published           1923 with a strong series of articles in '
tion.                                                                                 the thirties on air power, antiaircraft,
                                          bi-monthly.     The book business was
   The main purpose of the Association                                                leadership, and one debunking the prin-
has been to publish the JOURNAL;how-                                                  ciples of war.
ever, it has done much for the branch                                                    Major Aaron Bradshaw, Jr., who re-
by providing trophies and awards and                                                  cently retired in Europe as a Major
by its function as a rallying point for                                               General, became the editor in Novem-
the branch leaders among the National                                                 ber 1936. His tenure saw the resurgence
Guard, Organized Resen'e, and active                                                  in military preparedness that foreshad.
duty members.                                                                         owed \VvVII and an increasing interest
   Since the war the only medal now                                                   in world events, all of which the JOUR'I
awarded is the one presented annually                                                 NAL presented in its articles and photo-
to the outstanding ROTC cadet in each                                                 graphs. He placed the Association on a
Senior ROTC AAA unit.                                                                 sound business basis with a prosperous
                                                                                      sale of instruction books, and built up
                                                                                      during his tenure a substantial resen'e
T    HE JOURNAL blossomed forth in
its present 81h x 11 format with the
                                                                                      fund.
                                                                                         l'vlajor Generals C. E. Kilbourne,
January, 1931 issue. The larger format                                                Johnson Hagood, W. K. Wilson and
and the higher grade paper made pos-                                                  A H. Sunderland, and Brig. Gen. RoD-
sible better presentation of illustrations,                                           ert S. Abernethy continued as contribu-
better page makeup, and also permitted                                                tors during the period.
the magazine to exchange articles in                                                    As the expansion activity accelerated,
type with the Infantry Journal and the          Maj. Gen. John W. Gulick              more attention was given to field train-
8                                                                                                   ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
     o.      Lieut. General   LeRoy Lutes pub-                                                         devastation from enemy      land artillery
     ~ed his SOP for G4 in 1941 based                                                                  led to the surrender.
       his experience with the Third Army
       Texas and Louisiana maneuvers.
      Co\. Charles G. Sage wrote from                                                                  As
                                                                                                     the Axis air and na\'al forces' de-
                                                                                            teriorated in 1944 and 1945, a great
     ort Bliss Dry Land Coast Artillery in
     q.;1 a few months before he led the                                                    number of AAA and seacoast units were
    _ h CA (AA) to the Philippines and                                                      deactivated to provide personnel for
      (aan.                                                                                 infantry and other units.         By 1946
      ;\t the same time Lt. Col. A. C. ~ 1.                                                 practically all of the Coast Artillery
    \10\' was contributing   his articles on                                                units were either inactivated or assigned
    .~Histor)' of the Coast Artillery Corps.                                                to other tasks.
      Captain Robert J. \Vood (now Briga-                                                       \ Vhen Colonel William 1. Brady took
    dier General) was writing You're III                                                    over as Editor in January 1946 the JOUR-
    The Arm)' Ncnv, Call To Arms, and                                                       NAL circulation was dropping rapidly.
                                                                                            Decision had already been reached to
    IDOre.
     Colonels Robert Arthur and R. E.                                                       do away with the harbor defenses. \Vith
    Turley were writing about barrage bal-                                                  only two active AAA battalions left in
    kJonsin AAA.                                                                             the United States the morale in the
                                                                                             branch was low.
                                                          Lieut. Gen. LeRoy Lutes               That was a time when the value of
  COL. CHARLES THOl\IAS-STAHLEbe-                                                            the Association came to a true light.
 camethe editor in 1940, but served only                                                     Fortunately, General Lutes and Colo-
                                                 General Case says "\Vithout too many
 I few months.    Col. W. S. Phillips fol-                                                   nel Brady had the reserve funds which
                                                 blank spots it was possible to disentangle
 lowedhim, and in turn was relieved by                                                       General Green and the editors from
                                                 the complex causes of the damage to the
 0>\. Frederic A. Price in l\'larch 1942.                                                    Bradshaw to Price had so wisely tucked
                                                 only large harbor defense ever reduced
 Subject to security restrictions         the                                                away. These they used judiciously to
                                                 in battle. It is interesting to note that
 JOURNALwas aggressively           reporting                                                 maintain the high standards of the
                                                 not one shot was ever nred by the
 upon the experience and lessons from                                                        JOURNAL.
                                                 enemy navy in the process." However,
 the \Var. The circulation continued to                                                          Foreseeing a certain expansion even-
                                                 the Japs purchased it at a terrific cost.
 expand under Colonel Price to reach a                                                        tually in the antiaircraft and guided
                                                 Protecting the rear and Hanks of Ba-
 peak in late '43 of almost 10,000. The                                                       missile fields, General Lutes assembled
                                                 taan, as it did, Corregidor warded off
 Association prospered and under wise                                                         the Antiaircraft leaders from the Guard,
                                                 Jap Naval interference in that epic de-
 management a substantial reserve fund                                                        the Reserve and the Regulars and led
                                                 fense and enabled \Vainwright's gallant
 was tucked away for the rough days                                                           the movement to bolster the morale
                                                 force to hold out long enough to upset
 ahead.                                                                                       and esprit.
                                                 completely Japan's war schedule in the
    Early in 1942 when the combat arms                                                            Likewise Colonel Brady called on
                                                 Far East. Then the troops on Corregi-
 chiefs' offices were eliminated under                                                        Antiaircraft authors to spark the JOUR-
                                                 dor continued the resistance until the
 the Army reorganization,        Maj. Gen.                                                    NAL. Among the articles published was
                                                 lack of water at Corregidor and the
 Joseph A. Green, our last chief, took                                                        a series of interesting articles covering
 o\'er the Army AA Command with                                                               the war history of the major AAA units
 headquarters in Richmond and directed                                                        in all theaters. Looking to the future
 the rapid eJo,:pansionand training of AAA                                                    the editor also published a series of
 units in the states. General Green,                        CHIEFS OF ARTILLERY               valuable articles by our leading officers
 always zealously active in the interests         Brig. Gen. Wallace F. Randolph 1903-1904    and civilian scientists in the guided
                                                  Brig. Gen. John P. Story       1904-1905    missile and atomic fields. Soon he had
 of the JOURNAL,continued as the Asso-
                                                  Brig. Gen. Samuel M. Mills     1905-1906
 ciation President until he was relieved                                                      the JOURNAL circulation again on a
                                                  Brig. Gen. Arthur Murray       1906-190B
 by Lt. Gen. LeRoy Lutes in early 1945.                                                       steady climb. In 1948 the name was
    i\leanwhile, Col. E. B. Walker re-                 CHIEFS OF COAST ARTILLERY              changed to THE ANTIAIRCRAFTJOUR-
 lieved Colonel Price as editor in Janu-         Brig.   Gen.   Arthur Murray ..... 1908-1911           NAL.

iary 1944 and continued to report the            Maj.
                                                 Maj.
                                                         Gen.
                                                         Gen.
                                                                Erasmus M. Weaver .1911-191B
                                                                Frank W. Cae          1918-1926
                                                                                                           The present editor took over in June,
 War activities of the Coast Artillerv                                                                  1950. The July-August issue summa-
                                                 Maj.    Gen.   Andrew Hen, Jr        1926-1930
 Corps, through 1945.                        '   Maj.    Gen.   John W. Gulick        1930-1934
                                                                                                        rized the Army Reorganization Act of
    The Specia~ Corregidor Issue, March-         Maj.    Gen.   William F. Hase ., .. 1934-1935         1950, reuniting the Artillery. It also
 April, 1945, in which Colonel Stephen           Maj.    Gen.   Harry L. Steele       1935-1936         reparted the establishment of the Army
 ~1. rvlellnik gave his eyewitness ac-           Maj.    Gen.   A. H. Sunderland      1936-1940         Antiaircraft  Command,       with Major
                                                 Maj.    Gen.   J. A. Green           1940-1944*
                                                                                                        Gen. \Villard \\1. II\'ine as its nrst com-
 COuntof Hcnv The Japs Took Corregi-
 dor, was an outstanding \Var issue.                'General  Green actually served as the Command-     manding general. Before that issue ap-
                                                 ing General of the Antiaircraft  Command during the
 Supplementing this is \Var Damage to            last two years.
                                                                                                        peared, however, the communists had
 Corregidor by Brigadier General Homer                                                                  invaded South Korea.
 Case, in the i\1ay-June 1947 issue.                                                                       The conHict which followed has

    MARCH-APRIL,         1953                                                                                                                       9
probably aroused and amazed our people                                                                         cussion, study.   From the telescope
as have few war campaigns         in history.                                                                  the range finder, to radar; from the
To start with, it rudely wiped out some                                                                        ting room to the director the JOUR.\
prevalent   and false ideas about push-                                                                        was closely integrated  into the life
button warfare.   It also restored in some                                                                     esprit of the Coast Artillery.  And SO
degree to its proper perspecti\'e     the im-                                                                  continued   until 1950 when the
portance on the battlefield of the ground                                                                      Artillery    Corps ceased to exist. Bef(
soldier.  In those campaigns       the AM                                                                      that, however,        the Coast Artillery Jll'
troops ha\'e been in the hottest of it,                                                                        pIe had become the Antiaircraft                   Art;,
side by side with the Infantf\',       Armor,                                                                  lery.     So the A;\'TlAIRCRAFf JOUR.\
Artillerv  and have establish~d         firml"                                                                 marched       on without          any perceptih
their pl~ce on the Armv combat team. '                                                                         change in purpose or loss of spirit.
   \"lith splendid  help and a series of                                                                           From      its inception          the     JOUR."
top flight articles from i\ la jor General                                                                     achieved distinction          for its scientific eJ
\Vm. F. Marquat, United Nations AAA                                                                            plorations       and     development           in
Officer, the JOURNAL gave full cover-                                                                          fields of artillery        interest;    first in baf hit
age on the AAA troops in Korea. The                                                                            listics, gunnery,       ordnance      materiel, a betl
JOURNAL brought         to the AAA Troops                                                                      position     finding;     later in power, elec;iln
in training the world over the stories of                                                                      tronics, and communications.                It helped e
AAA in Korea from the colonels, the                          Lieut.     Gen. John       T. Lewis               to establish        in the Coast Artillery              .Ie
captains, and the corporals in command.                 President,      Antiaircraft      Association          high standard in precision.              And alwa)1 1
We should mention a few like Colonels                                                                          when we have been keen enough to ~
Hain     and O'Mallev;         Lieut. Colonels                                                                 maintain      a balance in that precision \\~ n
Ackert, Cheal, Killil~e, Henf\' and Tate;                                                                      have been on solid ground indeed.                         l
Lieutenants      Robert Morriso~,      William              EDITORS OF THE JOURNAL                                  At times the JOURNAL may have erred mC
Keeling, and Paul VanTure.                           Lieutenant John W. Ruckman .. 1893-1895                    but it has usually been progressive                and the
 . This brings us up to current history;             Captain John P. Wisser         1896-1902                  constantly      striving to find and publicize thi
however, we'll mention           from last year      Captain Erasmus M. Weaver .. 1902                          a better way to do the job next time au
                                                     Captain John D. Barrette       1902
the series of artic1es from Lieutenant                                                                          vVhenever we learned to shoot the gun' :hi
                                                     Captain Andrew Hero, Jr.       1902-1907
General leRoy Lutes' diary on some of                Major Thomas W. Winston        1907-1912                   straighter,    or to maintain       the equipmem .1
his own practical problems and experi-               Major James M. Williams        1912-1915                   better, or to defend the installation             more Ie
ences in directing the supply of all our             Colonel Henry D. Todd, Jr      1915-1917                   effectively, or to support the Navy, the ,h
fighting    forces during World War II.              Colonel John A. Lundeen        1917-1918                   Air Force, or other Army elements better. b)
                                                     Colonel Robert R. Welsh mer    1919
    The Journal     of     tIle U Hited States
                                                     Lt. Co/. Frank S. Clark        1919-1923
                                                                                                                we have gone to the JOURNAL to publish ;,
Artillery was founded nine vears before              Major Joseph A. Green          1923-1925                   it. \Vhen our troops distinguished    them- dl
the Artillery     Corps was o~ganized         in     Major Robert Arthur            1925-1929                   selves in battle, as they have done so dl
 190 I, and fifteen years before the sepa-           Major Stewart A. Giffin        1929-1933                   well in Korea, the JOURNAL took the 31
ration into the Coast Artillery Corps and            Lt. Co/. Eli E. Bennett        1933-1936                   lead in extolling     their  achievements.    t
                                                     Major Aaron Bradshaw, Jr       1936-1940
the Field Artillery        in 1907; however,                                                                    Thus the JOURNAL has contributed           to (
                                                     Colonel Chas. Thomas-Stahle .. 1940-1941
from the beginnino I:> it was essentiallv , the      Colonel Wilmer S. Phillips     1941-1942                   the esprit and fighting elTectiveness of
Coast Artillery Journal, a name it did               Colonel Frederick A. Price     1942-1943                   the     Antiaircraft Artillery.
not adopt until 1922. If the Coast Artil-            Colonel Eugene B. Walker       1944-1945                         Now as we undertake       to initiate    a new
lery interest were in Civil \Var Rodman              Colonel William /. Brady       1946-1950                   chapter in the life of this JOURNAL, we
                                                     Colonel Charles S. Harris       1950-
or Dahlgren       guns, or rifled guns and                                                                      do so in growing strength      and in full
disappearing     carriages, that interest was                                                                   readiness to carryon.    Our guiding pur-
reHected in the JOURNAL.                                                                                        pose will be to continue    the fine spirit
  When that interest shifted in 'vVorld               antiaircraft artilleries,  the JOURNAL was                and traditions    of this JOURNAL since
"Var I to railway, mobile, trench, and                in the forefront       with description, dis-               1892.



         The HISTORY OF THE FRENCH FIRST ARMY
              \Vith a preface by Gen. fisenhower          and an appreciation          by Liddell   I-Iart, l\larshal     de Lattre covers the war
              from December     1943 through       to its conclusion.     In his treatment     of international       controversies   de Lattre adds
              stature to his book and himself with his restraint           and dignity.      He was an artist in warfare, but one with iron
              will and fierce drh-ing power.        He had deeply engrained            faults, as he knew himself, but high military virtues.
              The story told by the commander         of the French First Army is a notable one little known as yet in this country.


              by Marshal £Ie LaUre £Ie Tassigny                                                                                             $6.75

10                                                                                                                                 ANTIAIRCRAFT          JOURNAL
        THE ~5PIRITOF THE CORPS-A                                                                                GUIDE
                  FOR THE FUTURE
                                           By LT. eOL. JOHN B. B. TRUSSELL, JR.



J   T  HE Coast Artillery Corps was es-
   tablished in 1907 by legislative action
                                                  only by preserving the organizational
                                                  patterns of the past, regardless of the
                                                                                                terials-sand re\'eaed with palmetto logs.
                                                                                                Behind these rude walls stood a motley
~ which recognized the functional division        conditions of the present, is to confuse      collection of cannon, gleaned from ships
   between field and coast artillery mis-         form with substance. It is to mistake         and militia arsenals. But the gunners
t ~ions. Forty-three    years later, in 1950,     the meaning of the lessons taught by          who stood by the pieces, ready to leap
   the Artillery was reestablished as a sin-      the heroic achievements of the men            into action at the order of their com-
I glearm .                                        whose names make up the long roster           mander, Colonel \Villiam 1\ loultrie,
   . Those are the bare facts. But they           of the Corps.                                 made up in determination what they
( do not tell the story or hint at the gal-          The deeds which gave birth to our          may have lacked in experience.
• lant tradition of the Corps.                    tradition give us just cause for pride,           For hours the British ships stood off,
     There are those who look upon the            but in the ston' of those deeds there is      pounding away .at the fort with their
   increasing integration of the artilleries as   also a lesson and an obligation for us        cannon and hurling enormous explosive
  the death-knell of the fine traditions of       today. To see that story as a whole, we       projectiles from the mortars on their
  the Coast Artillery. But the essence of         must look back well before 1907 and           bomb ketches. Throughout the day, the
  the Coast Artillery was its spirit, and         look forward beyond 1950, for the story       Americans fired slowly, for their powder
  the spirit of the heavy artillerymen was        begins with the earliest major military       supply was low and running lower. But
  alll'ays one of service. Although the           operations of the infant nation, fight-       slow as it was, the AmeriClm fire was
  rer\' nature of the mission meant that          ing for its independence, and extends         steady-and deadly. It rak~d the decks
  this service was characterized more often       through all American wars to date.            of the British men-o'-war. The Ad-
  by steadfastness than by dash, by the                          >(0   >(0    >(0
                                                                                                miral was wounded; his Rag-captain was
  same token it demanded a high order of                                                        killed; every officer on the Ragship's
  derotion. It demanded, further, a high             Probablv the first clear-cut coastal de-   quarterdeck became a casualtv. Finallv,
  degree of adaptability, a readiness to          fense operation by Americans was the          goaded beyond endurance, (he Briti;h
  adjust to changing conditions and to            defense of Charleston, S. C. against the      commander ordered two of his vessels
  take such action as the new situations          assault of a British Heet in the summer        to run past the fort's front so as to catch
  called for.                                     of 1776. On the northern shore of the         it on the Hank and turn its.interior into
     To feel that the tradition of our gal-       entrance to the harbor stood a make-          a shambles with a deadlv crossfire.
  lant predecessors can be maintained             shift fort improvised of available ma-            Fortune favored the ;\mericans that




    World \X1ar I: Coast Artillery Fires Railway Gun in France.              \XTorld \X1ar II: Self-propel1ed AA \X1eapon in the ETO.
    MARCH-APRIL,    1953                                                                                                                 11
 da\'. The two vessels ne\'er completed         his vessels forward. As they mm'ed up       last that the men of the heavy
 th~ir manem'er, for they ran aground           the river into range they were met by       would lav aside their rammer sta
 in shoal water directly under the fort's      a storm of iron. Hastily, the Admiral        take up riRes. And when the Ame .
 guns, which immediately seized the             ordered a withdrawal. Once more, from       launched the final blow against
 opportunity thus offered. One of the           a safe distance, the ships resumed their    i\le),.;can capital, the blow which Was
 vessels b)"oke loose, limping back to safe-    bombardment.     The American gunners       bring the campaign to a close, they
 ty, but the other lay helpless, being         endured as best they could.                  vanced under the co\'er of fire f
 pounded to pieces. Finally her captain            Meanwhile, a force of British soldiers   siege cannon which had been painf
 ordered his crew to abandon ship, leav-       was marching toward the city by land.        and laboriously hauled from the
 ing a slow match in the magazine. The         Iney moved slowly, delayed by a de-          It was an arduous task, but it eased
 British Reet, thwarted by the American        termined rear guard of American in-          way for the infantry which stormed
 defense, gave up the assault and sailed       fantrvmen. As the enemy commander            heights of Chapultepec.
 away.                                         cam; into \'iew of Balti~ore he saw
                                               before him a strongly fortified height
                                               across which he must fight his way to            The Civil \Var was characterized

 IT       was almost forty years later, but
  the enemy was again the British Navy
                                               reach the city. There was only one way,
                                               he decided: the Navy must reduce Fort
                                                                                             extensive maneuver on land and by F
                                                                                             eral superiority at sea. Both of th
                                               i\IcHenry,    then pound the fortified        characteristics tended to minimize
  and the determination of the gunners
                                               height from the Rank while the British        part which could be played by hea
  was unchanged when the artillery de-
                                               infantry smashed through.                     artillery. However, it is a frequent
  tachments under Major George Armi-
                                                  The ships made one more gallant try,       overlooked fact that the opening en
  stead stood ready in the autumn of
                                               and once again they could not pass the        gagement of the war, the fight for F
   1814 to defend ~he city of Baltimore
                                               wall of fire laid down by McHenry's           Sumter, was peculiarly a coast artill
  against assault. Only weeks before, the
                                               guns. The Admiral reluctantly         sent    action. It is true that the cannoneet1
  \'ilIage which served the United States
                                               word that he had failed. Reversing it-        who manned the guns behind Fort Sum
  as a capital city had fallen to the in-
                                               self, the land force retraced its line of     ter's brick walls were finally forced bt
  vaders. Now the blackened ruins of its
                                               march. Baltimore was saved, and the           the tremendous, pounding punishmen
  public buildings bore silent witness to
                                               threat of foreign attack was laid to rest.    of the fire of an overwhelmingly sUpt
  the depths to which the country's for-
                                                                                             rior number of cannon to lower then
  tunes had fallen.
                                                                                             Rag in surrender. But it is also true tha'
      The men who found a precarious
                                                                                            the steadfastness of their defense "'ot
 shelter behind the masonry-faced dirt         MORE          than thirty years went by      one of the significant turning points 01
  walls of Fort i\'icHenry looked down         before the United States was faced           the war.
  the river toward the forest of approach-     again with war. This time the enemy              The garrison's commander,        l\'lajor
 ing enemy masts with grim foreboding,         was Mexico, but Mexico had no navy           Robert Anderson, was an artilleryman
 but with no slackening in their firm in-      and there was no requirement for coast       who already had a distinguished career
 tention to stand and fight and, if neces-     defense of the United States. That doe~      behind him. His orders were ambiguous.
 sary, to die in defense of the city.          not mean that the heavy artillery stood      leaving to him the option between re-
      While the gun commanders were call-      idle during the campaigns south of the       sistance, which would almost certainly j
 ing off the .ranges to their crews, the       border. Siege artillery played a signifi-    lead to war, and surrender without aI
 line of British vessels was seen to halt,     cant part in the reduction of the de-        fight. It should not be forgotten that I
 still out of range of the American guns,      fenses of Monterey and in holding the        the newly inaugurated       administration
 There was a Rash of £lame, a mushroom         center of the line at Buena Vista.           of Abraham Lincoln was not backed by
 of smoke and then, booming dully across          It was the fire of massive cannon         a majority of public opinion.
 the water, came the report of the first       which forced the surrender of Vera               There was a substantial body of senti-
 British shot. Quickly other enemy ves-        Cruz. True, when General \Vinfield           ment throughout the country for ac-
 sels took up the fire. The Americans          Scott led his forces inland from Vera        ceptance of Southern secession. But
 replied, only to curse as their rounds        Cruz toward Mexico City, some of the         Anderson courageously chose the hard
 sent up splashes well short of the targets.   heavier artillery pieces had to be left      and dangerous       course, with results
      Desperately   the gun commanders         behind because of lack of horses to          which electrified the nation. By forcing
 blocked up the muzzles of their pieces,       drag the cannon through the mountains.       the Confederates to strike the first bloll',
 trying to extend the range by increas-        But the officers and cannoneers did not      he united the country overnight in a
 lng the elevation. But the thrust of          stay in the rear. Some of them manned        passionate support of the President's
 the recoil downward instead of back-          captured Mexican field batteries. Nota-      policy. The battle of Fort Sumter was
 ward was more than the mounts could           ble among these men was a young lieu-        a tactical defeat; but without any ques-
'absorb and the first gun so fired was         tenant, carried on the records as Thomas     tion it was a moral and strategic victory.
 hurled off the carriage, knocking over        J. Jackson but known to history by the
 some of its crew as it fell.                  sobriquet of "Stonewall."
     The British Admiral,       watching          Still other heavy artillerymen became
 through his telescope, sure that the time     temporary infantrymen.       This was nei-   ON      the Confederate side, heavy ar-
 had come to move in for the kill, ordered     ther the first time nor by any means the     tillery did its part in many a hard-
12
                                                                                                          ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
fought battle. When, in 1862, a Union         conduct of the Spanish-American War.          tell again the details of the gallantry of
armY was in the verv outskirts of Rich-       But the blunders brought out by the           the men on "The Rock" who for weeks
Il1o~dand a naval flotilla was sent up        war led directly to extensive reforms,        repulsed the enemy's heaviest assaults
the James River with orders to "shell         among which was the formalization of          from the sea and from the air. The
the city to surrender," it was the heavy      the separation of Coast and Field Ar-         steadfastness and heroism of the can-
artillery at Drewry's Bluff which drove       tillery. Technological developments had       noneers of Corregidor was in the most
the Federal ships, reeling, back the way      taken the techniques of the two artil-        brilliant tradition of the Corps.
they had come. The cannon had served          leries far apart and had required exten-         As the war progressed, the seacoast
elo<}uentwarning that the river route         sive specialization. It was in tactics        mission was increasingly overshadowed
to Richmond was barred.                       rather than technique, however, that the      by the evolving antiaircraft. In this
   Confederate cannon forced the Fed-         two types of artillery differed most          newer function, the Corps showed its
eral army attacking Vicksburg in 1863         sharply. The Field Artillery accom-           mettle at Anzio, at Omaha and Utah
to resort to a wide maneuver which con-       panied and supported the field army           beaches, at Buna and Hollandia and
sumed months and involved heavy cas-          and was directly involved in the infantry     Biak, in the Ardennes-in fact, at every
ualties. Passage of the Mississippi River     effort. The Coast Artillery, however,         scene of major ground action through-
was denied to the Union by the cannon         was in a sense a closer adjunct of the        out the war. In time, the growth of
which frowned down from the bluffs.           Navy than of the Army, due to its mis-        American air power gave the United
Only by bloody frontal assaults from          sion of protecting the country against        States substantial control of the air, with
the landward side of the town was Grant       attack from the sea.                          a corresponding decline of targets for
finally able to take his objective.               The beginnings of a change in this        antiaircraft artillerymen. Once more
   Again, a Federal joint amphibious          situation came when the First World           batteries were formed as riHe companies.
task force moving toward invasion of          War provided new missions for the             But many kept their cannon and, lack-
Texas through Beaumont was turned             Coast Artillery. As before, it was charged    ing targets in the air, trained their
aside by the fire of the gallant Com-         with coastal defense. As before, also,        sights with deadly effectiveness upon
pany F, First Texas Heavy Artillery-          it provided heavy siege guns to accom-        targets on the ground. From being the
the "Davis Guards." The task force was        pany the field army. But beginning in         heaviest artillery the Corps suddenly
driven back, but before the ships could        1917 it took over the service of trench      found itself the lightest; but the gal-
extricate themselves from the trap into       mortars and, more significantly with re-      lantry, the spirit and the determined
which they had fallen, two of the four        spect to the history of the Corps, of         sense of duty remained unchanged.
escorting gunboats had lowered their          antiaircraft artillery.
ensigns in surrender, and Texas was               Antiaircraft was a crude art in those
freed for many months from the threat         days, notwithstanding       the relatively        It is only natural that a change such as
of serious attack.                     •      slow and fragile targets provided by air-     the end of the Coast Artillery's existence
                                              craft of the time. It is interesting and      as an organizational entity should have
                                              a cause for considerable pride that, de-      been accompanied by nostlllgia. But
   It was during the three decades after      spite its lack of experience in this new      nostalgia should not become regret. The
1865 that the Army reached the. lowest        field, the American antiaircraft in the       theme running throughout all the heavy
point in its history. In the interests of     A.E.F. chalked up a record which com-         artillery's existence, before and during
economy it was repeatedly reduced in          pared favorably with the records of our       and since its existence as a separate
strength and pay and rank. The Army           more experienced allies. The Ameri-           Corps, is service, unHinching devotion
found little opportunity in its lengthy       cans' score in 1918 was one German            to duty.
series of skirmishes with the Indians         plane destroyed for each 1,050 rounds             Today, the characteristics of the con-
for professional and technical develop-       :£ired. The rapidity with which the           duct of war have changed in many vital
ment. Although the artillery could not         Americans developed a professional com-      respects. Coasts are no longer defended
escape all the effects of this period, sub-    petence in antiaircraft fire is testimony    with cannon, but with aircraft operating
stantial and significant progress was          to the Coast Artillery's technical ability   far beyond the range of the heaviest
made nevertheless in heavy artillery           and its willingness to master new tasks.     gun. The most threatening attacks are
armament.                                                                                   not to be anticipated from the sea but
   By 1890, the development of coastal                                                      from the air.
cannon had approximated its highest              The Coast Artillery lost trench mor-           What remained of the Coast Artillery
point. The establishment of up-to-date        tars after 1918 but kept antiaircraft.        Corps in 1950 was almost all antiair-
defenses came none too soon, for al-          The twenty-odd years between the two          craft. While antiaircraft has an im-
though the fear that Admiral Cervera's        World Wars were marked with tremen-           portant role in the defense of the home-
Spanish Heet would strike the Atlantic        dous development in the gunnery and           land, it has an equally important role
coast in 1898 proved to be unfounded,         technique of antiaircraft fire. How well       to play with the field army. It is a part
the threat was real enough at the time.       the new lessons were learned and ap-          of the ground combat team, with a dis-
                                              plied was spectacularly demonstrated in        tinctive contribution of its own to make
                                              one of the first great battles of World       to the support of the infantry on the
  The Army's professional stultification      War II, the defense of Corregidor. This       line of contact. This contribution has
between 1865 and 1898 was the direct          epic struggle was peculiarly the Coast        been made with conspicuous effective-
cause of the ineptness so typical of the      Artillery's own. There is no need to          ness in Korea.

MARCH-APRIL,1953                                                                                                                     13
    Abandoning a purely defensive status,      metal into the thick of the fight. In a          The future holds no curtailment
the antiaircraft artillervman has taken        sense, this is a new mission, but the         the contribution we can make; ind
his place beside the doughboy, filling         successful discharge of new missions is       through the amalgamation of the an
a special niche between the infantry's         nothing novel for our arm.                    leries and in the introduction of re\'
hea\)' weapons and the field artillery's           \ Ve can take pride in the sen'ice of     tional")' new weapons it promises
light howitzers. Thus, while organiza-         our predecessors, and for guidance today      opportunity for marked extension
tional separation of the artilleries made      we can look to the precedents they set,       expansion of the sen'ice we can ren
tactical sense at the turn of the century,     not only when they fought their primary       \Vhen we adapt ourselves to the COn
it does not make sense today.                  weapons but when they fought as in-           tions which exist today, and to the fa\'
    In essence, we who were Coast Ar-          fantry and as field artillery, when they      able developments of tomorrow, we Q
tillerymen have acquired since early in
\Vorld \Var II a distinctly new mission,
                                               manned mine planters and searchlights
                                               as well as cannon, when they made
                                                                                             not betray the gallant tradition of  1h.1
                                                                                             Coast Artillery. We merely live up
a mission which is something like that         their versatilitv their trademark.    The     that tradition. It is in this sense l/u:
of the "Hying" horse artillery of a cen-       advent of new conditions and new weap'        the spirit of the Corps is truly a guide~~
tury ago, enabled by light and mobile          ons obligates us to carryon that versatili.   for the future.                          \\
equipment to throw the weight of our           tv.
                                                                                                                                      re'

                                                                                                                                      \


                                                                                                                                       t.


                                DEFENDERS OF JAPAN                                                                                     [1

                                                                                                                                       k


                                           By LIEUTENANT CARL M. GUELZO



  A hair-splitting argument as to wheth-       moved from public life, who promised          that the NSF is neither an army nor erel
er tile National Safety Force is ml army       Japan the world and gave it the gall of       destined for use outside Japan.
or a police organization featured the          defeat instead, have made the military           The unassuming name National Safe-
Diet session yesterday-Nippon     Times,       suspect in the eyes of the people, and        ty Forces, has only served to increase the
Friday, 5 December     1952.                   to a nation as prideful as Japan, the loss    suspicion of those who recall the om-
                                               of prestige aftendant upon military de-       niscient power of the old Imperial Army.

N     0 extended period of residence in
Japan is required to mark the numerous
                                               feat is just as undesirable as the loss of
                                               the democratic privileges so brieHy en-
                                               joyed.'     I
                                                                                             The NSF began as the National Police
                                                                                             Reserve; but under the pressure of ad-
                                                                                             verse public opinion, the name was soon
and varied contrasts in Japanese life,            The newspapers report frequent argu-       changed to the present title of National
the spotless cleanliness and cordial cour-     ments in the Diet for, but especially         Safety Force. In the same fashion, the 1
tesy in the Japanese home compared             against, appropriations for the NSF lest      Mari~ime Safety Board supplants the
with the shabbiness of public buildings,       a revived army grow from the nucleus          old Imperial Navy. The use of many
and in particular, the efforts of the Japa-    represented. by the police organization.      trained officers of the Imperial Army,
nese Government to maintain a means            Again and again, Dietmen are asked the        although none who were held guilty of
of internal defense without giving of-         same question: "What is the National          political or military crimes, has served
fense to a highly critical public or violat-   Safety Force: Army or police?" But the        to restore the shadow but not the sub-
ing the national constitution tend to          question is not without relevance.            stance of the former military grandeur
confuse the casual observer.                       Famous Article 9 of the Japanese Con-     of Japan.
   An ancient culture forced to taste the      stitution, reputedly written by General          The reason for the existence of the
bitter fruits of defeat looks with some-       MacArthur himself, forbids war or pos-        NSF is obvious as long as Japan is to
thing more than mere apprehension on           session of the means of waging war.           be without a means of protecting herself
the re-activation of any group that may        Legally, an armed force for the purpose       from the attacks, both outside and with-
revive the former nation-wide power of         of aggression outside the geographical        in her borders, of the advocates of world
a military clique.                             limits of "japan is not possible; but a       communism. Japan, not unlike her in-
   Historically, the military have always      police force for the purpose of internal      ternational neighbors, also must protect
been strong in Japan and the experience        defense is not prohibited. The amount         herself but, in so doing, prefers the pas-
of Japan in the ways of democracy has          of money and the general nature of the        sive means of the NSF.
been too brief to provide much of a            NSF activities and appropriations lead           The organizational structure of the
bulwark against the forces of a deter-         many Japanese to fear a revival of the        NSF is a strangely conglomerate mix-
mined resurgence of military power.            old Imperial Army and compel the Gov-         ture. It is a joining, but neither a union
The former military leaders, now re-           ernment to issue repeated reassurances        nor a blending, of elements of the U. S.
14                                                                                                         ANTIAIRCRAFT     JOURNAL
  \rn1v and the old Imperial Japanese          is senior superintendent, corresponding         A good example of the attractiveness
 :\rn1;' and retains readily distinguishable   with the U. S. grade of major general.       of life in the NSF lies in the recent
 characteristics of both.                      The pay scale is between 39 and 60           recruiting campaign for nurses, as re-
    The severe discipline and the almost       thousand yen per month (U. S.-equiva-        ported in the 6 December edition of the
 religious awe in which authority was          lent: $108.30 to $166.80). There are         Nippon Times. A quota of 62 nurses
 held in the Imperial Army are absent          sewn commissioned grades below the           was authorized in the grades of cadet
 md replaced by a type of discipline           top. A senior inspector ranking with a       (about equal to Senior Patrolman in
 based on understanding and respect for        U. S. captain at $37.50 to $47.40 month-     pay) through major, but 800 applica-
 the indi-ddual and authority more close-      ly, while the senior patrolman, corre-       tions were received: about thirteen ap-
 Ir allied to the American model.              sponding to our master sergeant, draws       plicants to each opening. Contrast this
                                               $24.90 to $31.80; the lowest grade, pa-      with the fact that a nurse in the old
                                               trolman, receives between $14.10 and         Imperial Army could never rise higher
THE       uniforms are distinctly Ameri-       $16.20. A two-year longevity increase        than the NCO grades.
can in style and are a far cry from the        is provided for.
                                                                                               The Government spent 30,000 yen
choke collar and wrap puttees of World
                                                  Allowances are limited at best. The       for uniforms in addition to those nor-
\Var II. Close scrutiny of the uniform
                                               equivalent enlisted grades, of course] re-   mally provided for each of the women
reveals an OD wool "Ike" jacket but of
                                               ceive rations and uniforms in kind] and      finally selected and also was compelled
a much looser fit than the original
                                               a daily allowance of 70 yen is provided      to exercise additional caution in keeping
;\merican model, and somewhat baggy
                                               for the enlisted mess for each man. Of-      the rank and file away from the new
wool OD trousers, with the entire outfit
                                               ficers are given an initial issue of uni-    enlistees. The interest in the new nurses
topped off by the common, garden varie-
                                               forms in kind, but receive no other          evidenced by their compatriots may be
ty of billed service cap. The cotton kha-
                                               uniform allowance. The charge in the         due to the fact that their ages range
kis of the summer uniform are similar
                                               officers' mess is 80 yen a day, but this     from 23 to 42 and, in the words of one
to but lack much of the trimness of
                                               must be paid by the individual officers      patrolman, "They're much younger than
American summer uniforms. Generally,
                                               since no ration allowance is provided.       we expected, and good-looking too." All
the items of uniform are neither castoffs
                                                                                            of the nurses were unmarried and, at the
nor surplus of the American Forces, but            Pay, although not particularly gener-
                                                                                            time of enlistment, were strictly forbid-
are manufactured specifically for the          ous] is a vast improvement over that
                                                                                            den to hang their washing in the open,
0JSF.                                          of the Imperial Army which allowed
                                                                                            to avoid provoking "incidents."
                                               little more than pocket money. The na-
                                                                                               The pay, although a strong incentive,

T    HE pay is a definite step upward
 on the financial scale for the majority
                                               tional average individual monthly in-
                                               come of ten thousand yen is more than
                                               amply met by pay and other benefits to
                                                                                            is not the only attraction. In the days
                                                                                            of the Imperial Army] the average farm
                                                                                            boy accepted for enlistment took a step
 of Japanese who join the NSF. The             be derived from service in the NSF.
                                                                                            upward on the social scale. Living con-
 policy of utilizing trained officers inso-    Those who are careful of their pay find
                                                                                            ditions, even as scanty and primitive as
 far as possible frequently results in of-     their savings at the end of a two-year
                                                                                            they were in the army, were a vast im-
 ficerswho, although schooled in the best      enlistment enough to establish them-
                                                                                            provement over civilian life; and food
 pre-war Japanese Army military colleges,      selves in a small business, marry, or oth-
                                                                                            in the army encampment was both more
 never climbed higher than first lieu-         erwise get started in some civilian oc-
                                                                                            plentiful and of better quality than that
 tenant, find themselves catapulted into       cupation.
                                                                                            to which the average recruit was accus-
 captaincies and majorities in their new
                                                                                            tomed. The college or university grad-
 duties. The use of these men reduces
 the training burden considerably. The
Chinese Communists have long memo-
                                               T    HE regular pay added to the bonus
                                               paid upon discharge has provided a
                                                                                            uate was virtually forced to attend
                                                                                            advanced military schools to become an
                                                                                            officer and thereby raise himself even
ries and there is reason to susp,ect that      powerful economic incentive to enlist-
                                                                                            higher.on the social scale.
qualified Japanese, trapped in Red             ments. The first group of two-year en-
China, are being employed in their mili-       listees received a mustering out bonus          In spite of their apparent harshness,
tary specialties.                              of fifty thousand yen that was] how-         the officers of the Imperial Army took
   Titles of rank follow those of the usual    ever] considerably reduced in subsequent     a rather paternalistic attitude towards
Japanese police organization, but insig-       years. The high discharge bonus and          their men, especially since the quality
nia of rank are patterned after those of       the adequate salary are both a help and      of their performance determined the
the Imperial Army. A rectangular badge         a hindrance in recruiting. Enlistment        amount of prestige each officer had
approximately 1}i" x 2" of black felt          quotas are usually heavily oversub-          with his superiors and, indirectly, their
pinned to the right breast indicates the       scribed, with a ratio of applicants to       chances for promotion.
rank with a system of horizontal gold          openings of thirty to one not uncommon;         Despite the hardships of military life,
stripes and chrysanthemum-shaped sil-          but the high MOP also discourages re-        many preferred the security and prestige
ver pips. Almost every other type of civil     enlistment since the average oriental is     offered by the sen'ice to the uncertainty
department, from policemen and firemen         a firm believer in the old bird-in-hand      in ordinary civil life .. The fairness of
to customs officials] has adopted a similar    adage. Because of these economic fac-        treatment, "the much improved rations,
system of indicating rank.                     tors, the ;\JSF experiences a relatively     and the economic improvement offered
   Highest ranking official of the NSF         low re-enlistment rate.                      by the l\'SF serve to magnify the ad-

MARCH-APRIL, 1953                                                                                                                  15
vantages   inherent   In   modern   military    be enjoined by PIO's to respect the           winters and, unfortunately,      a han
life.                                           status and the profession of the soldier;     place to sleep. The sergeant of the gUa
                                                they ha,'e been doing just that since the     awakened the sentry, who explain
                                                beginnings of their national existence. In    that he had crawled into the truck .
OTHER          than the economic and per-       the same fashion, the individual member       see the time. i\lutely, the sergean:
sonal ad,'antages, a third factor enters        of the NSF need not be reminded of            pointed to the fresh, unmarked snot
into the attracti,'eness of military life:      his duties and responsibilities as a public   around the truck. Instead of being SUm-
                                                servant; he, himself, his parents, grand-
social prestige. Traditionally, the military
man has ranked high in the Japanese s0-
cial order. The traditional classes of socie-
                                                parents, and ancestors since time im-
                                                memorial have always been deeply con-
                                                                                              marily shot, the sentry was restricted I(
                                                                                              the post.
                                                                                                 Married officers and patrolmen an
                                                                                                                                          T
ty in Japan-royalty,     samurai (soldier),     scious of the honored status of the public    permitted to li,'e off post, but little ad :be
farmer, and merchant (even today movie          official and envious of those able to se-     vantage derh'es therefrom since the gell-J,e
stars, despite their income, rank fairly        cure positions in the government service.     eral policy is to keep encampments ;.Jlil
low on the social scale )-graded       more                                                   inconspicuous and away from metropo~ rs
according to importance to the nation                                                         tan areas.                                  :PO'
than according to wealth or affiuence,          DUTY         in the NSF is much easier           Training is semi-military in nature. Bl
placed the military relatively high. The        than was life in the Imperial Army. The       American advisers, once fairly numet. \\1
professional officer, more closely allied       patrolman's day begins at 0600. Rev-          ous, have been steadily reduced in paS!,rc
to the feudal Smll1lrai than the ordinary       eille is held at 0700 and work begins at      months until their numbers are now :Ill
soldier, who was more often than not            0800. After an hour for lunch, work           highly limited and restricted to the high. ;01
drawn from the peasantry, was highly            or training continues until retreat at        er echelons. Squads, platoons, campa. :a
revered and respected for both his mili-        1700. The patrolman may do whatever           nies, battalions, regiments, and divisions a 1
tary prowess and his status as a servant        he wishes with his time between 1700          are patterned generally after the organ. gJ
of the government. The soldiers of peas-        and 2100; but by 2100 he is required to       izational structure of the American In
ant birth never lost their social status        be in bed. And today the NSF patrol-          Army. The NSF division has its qual' :h
as farmers, but as military men were far        man sleeps on a cot or bed instead of         termaster, transportation, and other sen', In
more highly regarded than the brothers          the bare Hoor, ground, or straw mat pro-      ice elements; the special service to opel' tb
who remained on the farm. Even to this          vided by the Imperial Army.                   ate the Post Exchange; but engineers tl
                                                                                                                                            -(
day, the descendants of the old sam1lrai           Absence from any of the required           and artillery, instead of being integral
families, although no longer engaged in         formations formerly carried the death         parts of the organization, are attached
military affairs, carry the social rank and     penalty or at least severe corporal pun-      to divisions as special troops. Armament
status of their forebears.                                                                    is limited and includes no armor 01
                                                ishment; the disciplinary code of the
   Much of this traditional respect, deep-      NSF is not nearly so strict. A first of-      heavy artillery.
ly ingrained by centuries of high social        fense, if properly and logically explaina-       The lack of weapons and equipment
rank and special privilege accorded the         ble, is dismissed with a reprimand; a         for modern warfare emphasizes the as. t
military, has been carried over into mod-       second offense costs the guilty patrol-       surances of the Japanese Government '
ern life. True, the modern counterpart          man his pass; a third offense brings a        that the National Safety Force is pri- 1
of the feudal sam1lrai no longer has the        court-martial and, if convicted, a fine;      marily a police organization for the in. 1
authority to put to death the unwary            while repeated offenses carry dismissal       ternal defense of the nation. The NSF
commoner who gives offense by laugh-            as the highest penalty.                       has never been used except in the sup-
ing or crying at inopportune moments,              The story is told of one NSF sentry        pression of local riots and other civil
but habits and attitudes with centuries         on guard in a motor pool on a bitterly        disturbances.  The NSF is not yet an
of tradition behind them do not die             cold, snowy night. The rear of a nearby       army, nor is it yet able to accomplish
easily.                                         truck provided a convenient shelter from      its mission to defend Japan against for-
     The Japanese people do not have to         the chill dampness typical of Japanese        eign aggressors.



              TECHNIQUE FOR ADJUTANTS
                                    BY MAJOR A. M. CHESTER
        Here is a book you must have if you're an adjutant-a       book you can use whether
        you're an adjutant's assistant or just a guy who has to fill out a form occasionally.
        T eclmique for Adjutants, by a man with 25 years' experience in the Corps, outlines the
        responsibilities of the job at any level-gives techniques, hints on management, ideas
        for organizing work. You'll never be mystified by paper work if you own a copy of
        Teclmique for Adjutants-and      use it.            CLOTH $2.50          PAPER, $1.00
                                                               Order from
                                                      Antiaircraft       Journal
        631 Pennsylvania    Ave., N.\V.                                                               WASHINGTON           4, D. C.


16                                                                                                          ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
ld
at
1
                     The Missions of HQuad Lightning"
                                                          By LT. COL. DANIEL B. WILLIAMS




If!      HE Quad Lightning designation for                 direct fire for that unit is used for AM       rear of the 1\ ILR are used for deli\'en'
lei- .,e 21st AAA A\V Bn (SP)         is indica-           protection of the medium field artillery       of indirect fire. This indirect fire    is
 n- re of the equipment within the bat-                    battalion, thus adhering to the basic          used during hours of darkness for sup-
Its Jlion, its organization   for combat and               principle of not having any element of         porting patrols and for harassing and
t- :s current assignment. The battalion                    the artillery in reserve when it can be        interdiction  fires. In recent months
     :!lOvedoverseas in late 1950 from Fort                logically employed.                            techniques ha\'e been de\'e1oped for the
e. Bliss,Texas equipped with M16's and                         AAA protection for the three light         use of the indirect fire to effect mortar
r. 'Il5Al's as principal fire units. vVhile                field artillery and one medium field ar-       suppression.
Sl,rocessing in Japan in preparation for                   tillery battalions is provided on orders
If ~mmitment       in Korea, M16's were sub-               from Division Artillery Hq. to the
1- ;rituted for the l\H 5A I's, giving the bat-            "Quad Lightning" Battalion, which pro-         INDIRECT         fires are deli\'ered from
I_ :alion for its major fire power capability              \'ides for the AAA defense of these bat-       a defiladed position with registrations
s 110131 of sixty-four 1\,116's and the des-               talions at all times. The AAA battery          being fired by normal field artillery
     ~        as
1 mival in Korea on January
                                     .
    J911ation a "Quad Fiftv" unit. After
                                      10, 1951,
                                                           given this mission assumes responsibility
                                                           for the defense and its coordination with
                                                                                                          means. The adjustments are made by
                                                                                                          forward observers of the field artillery
    the battalion was assigned to the 25th                 the field artillery battalion commander.       battalions or in some cases the AAA
    Infantry Division. This assignment to                      The fire support for infantry regi-        platoon commander will fire the registra-
    the famous "Lightning" Division paved                  ments by antiaircraft artillery fire units     tions and make fire adjustments.      This
    the way for the designation as the                     is provided for in orders given from the       type fire has been made more effective
    "Quad Lightning" Battalion.                            Division Headquarters through the Di-          by stripping the tracer element from
       The battalion has remained with the                 vision Artillery command channel and           APIT ammunition and using the flash
    2;th Infantry Division as its organic                  usually provides that one platoon of           of the exploding incendiary round to
    AAA AVVunit throughout the six major                   AAA A\V is attached for operations to          adjust by. The lethal effects of this
   campaigns in Korea since 10 January                     each committed infantry regiment. The          type fire are attributed to the fact that
    1951. In addition three light field ar-                battery commander who has the AAA              the enemy cannot hear the approaching
   tillery battalions and one medium field                 protection responsibility for the direct       round and even at long ranges, the fifty
   artillery battalion make up the major                   fire support field artillery battalion of an   caliber projectile remains effective for
   units of 25th Division Artillery. As a                  infantry regiment is given the further         plunging fire. These fires are delivered
   result of the campaigns in Korea and                    responsibility of providing that regi-         dependent upon wind and temperature
   the lessons learned, the battalion has as-              ment's direct fire support platoon.            for maximum ranges up to seven thou-
   sumed an organization for combat which                      The technique of providing fire sup-       sand yards, giving effective fires from
   prescribes that each of three batteries                 port for infantry regiments, developed         two thousand to five thousand yards in
   provide one platoon in the antiaircraft                 from combat experience, has provided           front of the MLR.
   artillery role for protection of a light                an SOP that two or three of the "Quad             As a matter of interest in the organi-
   lieJd artillery battalion and one platoon               Fifties" be placed in direct fire support      zation for combat, it is to be noted that
   for support of an infantry regiment                     for each committed infantry battalion.         in early 1952 on the recommendation of
   committed in combat. The fourth bat-                    The remaining fire units are emplaced          combat commanders in Korea, the thea-
   lery is used to provide AAA protection                  in positions one thousand to fifteen           ter authorized augmentation of each in-
   for critical installations,     defiles and             hundred meters behind the MLR and              fantry division with twelve M16's to in-
   bridges within the division sector and                  are available for indirect fire support.       crease fire power. These M16s have been
   for special missions. vVhen an infantry                 For offensive operations this organiza-        handled in varying ways. Some divisions
   regiment is in reserve, the "Quad Fifty"                 tion for combat gives each forward mov-       have allocated them direct to the in-
   platoon normally allocated to provide                   ing battalion augmented "Quad Fifty"           fantry units who have in turn passed
                                                           fires and leaves the infantry regimental       them to tank companies or heavy weap-
                                                           commander with additional fire support         ons companies. The 25th Division gave
         Lt. Col. Daniel B. Williams,     commanding       which he may allocate to either of the         this authorization for augmentation in
      the 21st AAA AW Bn (SPI, has had active               forward battalions or which he may com-       equipment to the 2]st AAA A W (SP)
      experience    with AAA units during WW II.
      Since, he served as an instructor at the AA          mit with his reserve to carry through          Bn and continued to provide "Quad
      & GM Branch, TAS, in the Department            of    the impetus of an attack to the final          Fifties" for support of infantry regiments
      Gunnery.    He is a graduate    of the Advance
      Course, The Armored School and the Regu-             objective. In defensive operations the         by attaching fire units of the 21st to
      lar Caurse    of the Command       and General        same distribution of fire power is made;      the regiments for operations .. The aug-
      Stafl School.
                                                           however the fire units emplaced to the         mentation pro\,ides a base of equip-

    MARCH-APRil,          1953                                                                                                                   17
 Brig. Gen. Louis E. Heath, Commanding General, 25th                Lt. Cot. D. B. \X'illiams, congratulates Captains Elmer T.
 Division Artillery, inspects Quad 50, C Battery. Cpt. Phil-        \X'ilkins (right) and Edward C. Maxwell (center), during
         lip F. Hoenkica, and PFC Robert S. Blair.                                 presentation of the Bronze Star.

ment to support tactical needs and carry      fantry operations. The program includes     vided. At the completion of a four \reei \.
out required maintenance.                     At\A range practice for all fire units of   cycle by platoons - in the 1\1\1\ role,. :ic
   Since the latter part of 1952 the bat-     the battalion on a rotation basis using     relief of the i\ILH platoons is effected :tJ
talion has been assigned the responsibili-    four fire units at a time, which arc re-    and those platoons complete the foUl?I
ty for 90mm direct fire sector weapons,       lieved from their primary missions and      week cycle. Thus within a period 01.n
which were assigned to the division.          sent to an AAA firing range. To enable      four months all fire units have com- JI
These weapons have been manned by             all fire units of the battalion to com-     pleted the eight weeks training program I
                                                                                                                                      d
personnel from the battery which did          plete this training program, blocks of          The battalion has proven itself to be (
not have an infantry direct support mis-      four weeks of training have been pro-       an effective part of the ground combat I
sion and which in general were used                                                       team in Korea. By proper coordination
to protect division installations, critical                                               and control this battalion provides AAA
defiles and bridges. These guns have                                                      protection for the critical target areas
                                                  Summary Of Decorations
been fired principally from the i\ILR                                                     within the division sector and at the
                                                     21st AAA AW BN ISPI
against bunkers and cave type artillery                                                   same time a heavy augmentation in the
                                                             In Korea
positions. In some cases they have been                                                   fire power of infantry units committed
                                                         Individual Awards
used for augmentation of the long range                                                   in combat. During periods of static de-
                                                 Silver Star                     20
harassing and interdiction fires of the                                                   fense, it is desirable, both from a train.
                                                 Soldiers Medal                   2
field artillery battalions during hours of       Bronze Star for Valor           54       ing and morale standpoint, to rotate the
darkness.                                        Bronze Star for Merit           61       At\A platoons between their AAA mis-
    \Vith the increase of the communis:          Commendation      Ribbon         4       sion and their direct fire support of
air capability, more and more emphasis           Purple Heart                   159       infantry. The organization for combat
has been placed on the "Quad Light-                Distinguished Unit Citations            wherebv the battalion remains essential.
ning" AAA role. Preparations to more ef-            1st Platoon Battery "B"                ly und~r the commanding general pf
 fectively carry out this hole have includ-         2nd Platoon Battery "B"                the division Artillery for effective cen-
 ed comprehensive training under static                   Campaign Stars                   tralized operational control is considered
combat conditions. This training has               CCF Intervention                        desirable. The basic principles of tech.   I
been effected by the conduct of officer            First UN Counteroffensive.              nique and tactical doctrine currently
                                                   CCF Spring Offensive
 refresher courses, NCO refresher courses                                                  published in Department of the Army
                                                   UN Summer-Fall      Offensive
 and the institution of a realistic train-         Second Korean Winter                    publications and taught by the service
 ing program for all units not committed           Korean Summer-Fall                      schools have been proven fundamentally
 directly on the MLR in support of in-                                                     sound.




                                         BATTERY DUTIES
      No one in coday's Army has time to dig through stacks of regulations, FMs and TMs to find out what he should
      be doing. No one needs co! Bat/ery Duties, by Lt. Cot. Robert F. Cocklin and Major Boatner, tell you what your
      job is in the battery, show you all the necessary details of it in language so clear there is no room for misunder-
      standing. Whether you're the battery commander or the newest recruit, there is something in this book that will
      help you do your job more efficiently.                                                     Cloth $2.50; Paper, $1.50


18                                                                                                      ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
                           OPERATION DEVIL DOG
                           AAA In The Surface Role In Support Of The 1st Marine                      Division


                                           By MAJOR BERKELEY S. GILLESPIE
                                                      68th AAA     GUll   Battalion


                                        and MAJOR FRANK HAWTHORNE,                             JR.
                                                         53 10th AM       Group



     :'-Jon-divisional AAA units of the 10th                                                   the rear areas, the final selection of posi-
  \:\A Group in Korea, consisting of the                                                       tions had been made and personnel and
  'l8thAAA Gun Battalion (90mm), 78th                                                          equipment from the battalions which
  .\:\r\ Gun Battalion (90mm),           50th                                                  were to participate in the operation were
  .\:\A A\V Battalion (SP), and 865th                                                          moved to the forward areas to begin the
  \:\A r\\V Battalion (SP), recently par-                                                      pick and shovel work on the gun posi-
  :icipated in Operation Devil Dog. This                                                       tions. This phase of the operation turned
  :ulminated an extensive FA training                                                          out to be a very difficult one since it
  program conducted at AAA defended                                                            was decided to construct one primary
  installations, with the firing of indirect                                                   gun position with A\V sites which would
  md direct FA missions in support of the                                                      be complete with gun revetments, bunk-
  1stMarine Division. During the action                                                        ers and communications         prior to the
  described by this article, the 10th AAA               One round on the way!                  movement of the weapons to position.
  Group was commanded by Col. George                                                           This entailed the setting up of a field
  R. Carey, who has since been reassigned       Leonard B. ~ lain. This AA party was           mess, an aid station, and all other facili-
  to G3 section, Eighth Army. Co!.              assisted by personnel from the 1st Ma-          ties necessary for field living. The men
  Charles G. Dunn now commands the              rine Division, and both primary and al-        of the 68th AAA Gun Bn. and the other
.group.                                         ternate gun positions were selected for        battalions, too, just pitched in to get
I In August and September            of 1952    the ~1r\A and LAA weapons. The i'vla-           the job done. The Marines also fur-
I plans were formulated      whereby elements   rine personnel gave invaluable assistance      nished personnel from their shore party
  of the non-divisional AAA units would         and their interest and cooperation was          battalions to assist in the construction
  move to forward positions to be em-           outstanding throughout the entire oper-         of the bunkers at this position. The per-
  ployed in their secondary mission-the         ation. Colonel Richard H. Crockett, Lt.         sonnel bunkers were constructed to ac-
  surface role. Both light and medium           Col. William S. l'IcLaughlin, Lt. Co!.          commodate twelve men and were built
  AA weapons were to be used, the me-           Henry G. Lawrence, Major Tom S.                 from 12" x 12" timbers for uprights, 6"
  dium for long range, indirect fire and        Parker, and Major James L. Jones were           x 8" timbers for stringers, and 4" x 12"
  the light for direct fire against bunkers,    always willing to devote time and ef-           timbers for roofs; then covered with
  communications        trenches, caves, and    fort on our behalf.                             from four to six feet of earth. The same
  other close in targets.                           In anticipation of the operation each       type of construction was employed in
      Additional      90mm weapons were         of the AAA battalions involved stressed         the ammunition bunkers and the FOC
  drawn from Ordnance for this purpose.          Field Artillery Techniques in the train-       bunkers.    All bunkers were provided
  The plan was to have one of the medium         ing schedules. Principles as outlined in        with Yukon type stoves and even in se-
  battalions man the medium battery in           Fi\l 6-40, FM 6-140 and ST 44-4-3 were          vere cold proved to be very comfortable.
  the forward position and to have two           followed in this training.        Battalion    All communications were installed prior
  secti<;>ns automatic weapons attached
             of                                  CPX's were conducted in order to co-            to the movement of any units to the
  to that battalion to provide AA protec-        ordinate the training of the gun crews,         forward position. Some sixty miles of
  tion to the provisional gun battery            the FO's and the FDC personnel. FDC             wire was laid, all of which was tied in
  while in position and to move to the           personnel were drawn from the opera-            with the Marine nets. All wire lines
  MSR to previously prepared positions           tions sections of the battalions; and since     were laid in duplicate with one line
  for direct fire missions. Upon approval        two missions were being conducted               being laid on an alternate route. Parallel
  by EUSAK, a ground reconnaissance              simultaneously,    the personnel worked         radio nets were established again netted
  was made in the area selected for this         long hard hours. FO Teams were also             with existing Marine nets. In addition
  firing. The ground reconnaissance party        placed on TOY with front line Marine            to the permanent or primary battery posi-

  was composed of the following persons:         units for periods up to seven days to           tion, two alternate positions were se-
  ~lajor Frank Hawthorne, Major John              receive practical training as forward ob-      lected to which one or more guns could
  W. Milke, Major Dale Watson, Major              servers.                                       be moved. Construction of these posi-
  Berkeley S. Gillespie, Jr. and Capt.               \Vhile this training was going on in        tions was completed with bulldozers

MARCH-APRIL,        1953                                                                                                                19
 since no revetments or bunkers were                     where the guns were firing into flatter         tions and 295 H&I missions.
 built there. These positions were uti-                  terrain bold corrections were used and
                                                                                                           The results obtained were:
 lized with two ideas in mind; first, to                 results were excellent.
                                                                                                              Buildings destroyed and dam-
 enable us to hit targets which could not                    A point of discussion prior to the shoot
                                                                                                                aged
 be reached from the primary position;                   was whether or not Section II of IT
                                                                                                              Automatic weapons positions
 and second, to provide fires from dif-                  90 AA-B-3 actually reflected the weap-
                                                                                                                neutralized
 ferent locations for tactical reasons.                  on's capabilities when employed in the
                                                                                                              Bunker and caves destroyed
     The positions were completed, the                  .ground role. On 24 November this
                                                                                                              Secondary Fires and Explo-
 necessary operations orders published                   question again arose when the ~larine
                                                                                                                sions
 and the first provisional gun battery with              aerial obsen'er requested a precision mis-
                                                                                                              Enemy casualties
  two A\V sections attached, moved to the                sion. Inspection of the firing chart es-
 forward positions on the night of 19                    tablished the range at 20, ISO yards.              The automatic weapons during
 November 1952, ready to fire on the                     Even though the range was beyond fir-          same period fired both direct and indi
 morning of 20 NO\'ember 1952.                           ing table capabilities it was decided to        fire. Firing across the river down d
     The first fire mission, a precision reg-            fire the mission anyway and fire was            into villages, caves and bunkers result e
 istration, was conducted at 1000 hours                  commenced. At an elevation of 811 mils          in a total of: 29 buildings destroyed a
 on 20 November 1952. During this reg-                   the obsen'er called for fire for effect.       damaged with additional claim of f
 istration several factors came to light                 Three rounds were fired resulting in one       A \V positions neutralized, nine ca\
 which pro\.ed beneficial to future firing.             over, one short and one lost. At this           and bunkers destroyed or damaged, thr~ 1
 Firing at chart ranges in mountainous                   time the mission was cancelled by higher       secondary fires and explosions.
 Korean terrain it was at times very dif-                headquarters, the reason being that, at            These results were obtained firing
 ficult to observe the burst. The registra-              this range, the fire was approaching a         total of 3378 rds of 90mm consisting 01
 tion point, a Korean hut, was located                   Corps no fire line. The S I on this fire        HE, WP and VT 97. The automatl(
 in a draw with numerous ridges and hills               mission was a plus nine mils.                   weapons fired during the same period
surrounding it. A round slightly over                       The maximum range the 90mm gun              a total of 2608 rounds of 40mm anc
would be lost as would be one which                     is supposed to shoot is 19,560 yards at         64,650 rounds of 50 caliber.
had a small deflection error. Added to                  812.6 mils elevation. The current opin-             The results obtained were highh
this was the dispersion factor which in-                ion here is that, with new guns, effec-         gratifying and the mission proved yen
creased the difficulty. It was finally                  tive nre can be delivered up to 20,000          beneficial to all concerned in proving
solved by a creeping adjustment which                   yards,                                          again the versatility of the 90mm gun
violated the Artillery School doctrine,                     During the fifteen day firing period        and the AA automatic weapons. From
"Be Bold" but which we found necessary                  the results obtained from the 90mm              a morale viewpoint it proved most satis,
in order to obtain the desired results.                 shoot and the automatic weapons fully           factory, installing in the AA artilleryman
This held true only where the terrain                   justified the mission. A summary of oper-       the knowledge that when the need arises
dictated such tactics, in subseguent fir-               ations reports for the period shows that        he can perform in either of his missions.
ings; using an air observer at ranges                   the 90mm nred seventy-three con centra-         ground or air.




                        UP FRONT WITH THE 3rd AAA
                                                        By LT. COL. O. A. MOOMAW

F   E\V are the men in the 3d Infantry
Division who do not know the mean-
                                                        or Nt 19 passing on the road, occupy-
                                                        ing a firing position on or near the
                                                                                                        squads Btry 0 are supporting the 15th
                                                                                                        Infantry Regiment and the Greek Bat.
ing of the 3AA on the front of each rv116               MLR, defending the Division Artillery,          talion in their sectors. Prepared posi-
                                                        air strip or other important installations.     tions are utilized for the weapons; dug
                                                        The firing of the quad fifties and twin         in three to four feet and sandbagged
     To the Editor:
                                                        40mm cannon have been such sweet                around three sides. Some positions have
        The operations     here in Korea are very
     similar to the operations      in World War I      music to the doughboy's ear that it has         overhead cover to provide protection
     in France where miles of trenches and bunk-        been difficult to keep from putting the         against light mortar fire and artillery
     ers were built. Here most positions ore on
     high ground. mountain      tops and ridges. The    entire battalion on the l\ILR; so great         shell fragments. Personnel live in bunk-
     engageme~ts    are more like Indion warfare        has been the requests originating with          ers constructed of logs, railroad rails,
     than anything    else I have read about.
        My present assignment      with the 3d Infan-   the infantry regiments on the line.             ties and sandbags. Gun positions are
     try Division is the best , have ever had.                                                          located on the MLR and 300 to 500
                                                           At this date, 25 February 1953, there
     There is real team work here.
     Koreo                                              is one full platoon with each regiment          yards behind the l\ILR depending upon
     25 Feb. 1953                                                                                       lhe availability of a suitable field of
                                                        on the MLR. First Platoon, Battery B
                                 O. A. Moomaw,
                                 Lt. Col., Arty.        is supporting the 65th Infantry Regi-           nre. Resupply of ammunition, food, and
                                                        ment. Four sg'uads Btry A and four              water is effected just after first darkness
20                                                                                                                   ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
!Il most cases. Some positions can be        they may be to the enemy. Control of          the antiaircraft role has not been for-
reached without coming under enemy           weapons is by wire communications as          gotten by the 3d AAA. Approximatelv
observation-these are resupplied during      primary means, radio secondary. Both          70 per cent of the battalion's weapon's
daylight hours. Emergency repair to          methods work well; wire being the eas-        are in positions to provide antiaircraft
\'ehicIes and guns is performed at the       iest to operate and affords better security   protection for the divisional zone against
position. Scheduled maintenance is per-      but more difficult to maintain on or near     low Hying enemy aircraft.
formed at the battery, battalion and ord-    the MLR.                                          The battalion operates the AAAIS
nance motor shops as the echelon of              At the present time the 3d AAA AW         OPs and a battalion OR. Within seven
maintenance requires.                        Bn (SP) has 32 M19s and 32 M16s,              days the battalion will have completed
   Personnel in general prefer direct sup-    14 armored utility vehicles M39 and          it's 3d annual service firing practice at
port missions to other type missions. The    five M3Al half track vehicles.                the 8th Army M Range near Inchon,
bonus of four constructive months serv-          Approximately 75 per cent of the bat-     Korea. Each squad has been taught air
ice for one calendar month and the           talion and battery commanders' effort         craft recognition and has on hand the
$45.00combat pay are big factors. How-       is required to maintain the tracked, half     latest charts showing the features and
ever the chief factor is the fact that the    track and wheeled vehicles. This is due      characteristics of the newest aircraft
gun crews get an opportunity to fire         chieHy to: (1) inexperienced replace-         be they friendly F94s or enemv MIG
their weapons at hostile targets and per-    ments, officers and enlisted men; (2)          15s or IL 28s..
form a visible useful duty. The casual-      shortage of parts, chieHy due to long           We have been supporting the 1st
ties sustained on this duty have been         supply line (90 to 120 days required to      ROK Inf. Div., 2nd ROK Inf. Div., 9th
relatively light considering their prox-      :fill some requisitions, six months not      ROK Inf. Div. and 3d U. S. Infantry
 iminity to the enemy and the fact that      being uncommon).         Old vehicles in      Div. since June '52 at various points
most of the ammunition contains a trac-       which the metal has crystallized due         on the West and Central Korean Front.
er which marks the position of the            to fatigue stresses and rough roads ac-      The Battalion supported operations dur-
 weapon.                                      count for a large per cent of broken         the O. P. Kelly, Little Nori, Big Nori,
    Tactics utilized are relatively simple    springs, shock absorber assemblies, sup-     T~iangle Hill, Finger Ridge and Sniper
but at the present time it is believed        port rollers, fenders and bodies.            RIdge engagements with the C.C.F.
best not to publish due to the benefit            In closing I would like to state that    (Chinese Communist Forces).




     THE VETERAN AND SOCIAL SECURITY
                                     By COL WILLIAM H. DUNHAM, JR. (RefJ

Yo     U may not realize it but every
person on active duty in the Armed
                                              tion in Korea ends this year the latter      $160.00 per month. Suppose he has a
                                              date may be further extended by Con- dependent wife and a child under eight-
Forces today is receiving wage credits        gress which at this time is making a een years of age. The widow will re-
of $160.00 per month under existing           study of Social Security Laws.               ceive $96.00 a month from Social Se-
Social Security laws. Lack of knowl-              What does this mean to the veteran?      curity each month until the child be-
edge of this fact could be expensive,         The two groups of veterans most vitally      comes eighteen years old. If the child
particularly to the dependents of young       concerned with this question are the should die or marry before reaching
personnel who die after they have be-         young married personnel with mildren         the age of eighteen years the payments
come fully covered. The purpose of this       and the older group who retire before would stop until the widow reaches age
article is to make the reader aware of        reaching the age of sixty-five years. For    sixty-five when, if she has not remarried,
an asset given service personnel which        this reason the benefits to these groups she will start receiving forty-eight dol-
if they become casualties, could greatly      will be discussed in more detail and ex- lars a month. A lump sum of approxi-
affect the future of their dependents-         amples of benefits will be cited.           mately $192.00 will be paid to the
and if they live may affect their own             First consider the young father with     widow in the example cited. Applica-
future as well.                                dependents. All veterans who have ap- tions for Social Security monthly pay-
   Social Security has been set up to          proximately eighteen months service, ments should be filed promptly as no
ease the shock life gives to some individ-     i.e., six quarters of coverage, became ful- more than six months back payments
uals because of conditions over which          ly insured under Social Security and re- may be made and applications for lump
they may have no control. Though not           main covered until they no longer have       sum payments must be made within two
designed originally to provide credit for      one-half as many quarters of coverage years of the death of the serviceman or
service in the armed forces, subsequent        (both civilian and militarv) as there        the benefit is lost.
legislation grants wage credits in the         are quarters elapsing after 1950. A per-        If the serviceman's widow and child
amount of $160.00 per month for serv-          son in the service now who dies after        are eligible for veterans' pensions they
ice after September 15, 1940, and be-          continuous service since Januarv 1, may receive up to $121.00 per month
fore January 1, 1954. Unless the situa-         1951, has an average wage credit of until the child is eighteen years old or

 MARCH-APRIL, 1953                                                                                                                21
 if it is still being educated this pension  same period of military service are deter-         Bv the end of 1957 he will be 65.
  will be continued until the child is mined to be payable by the Army. l'avy,              that time seven years, or 28 quart~
  twenty-one years of age. This pension      Air Force, Civil Sen' ice, or other Federal    will ha\'e elapsed since January 1, 195
 is based on a widow's portion of $75.00     retirement systems. \Vage credits are          Therefore. to be eligible to collect Socn.
 a month and the child"s portion of not affected by compensation or pen-                    Security benefits. he must ha\'e estal,
 $46.00 per month. If the widow dies sions payable by the Veterans' Adminis-                lished wage credits for at least 14 qUal
 or is remarried the rate of pension to tration. This means that most of the                ters. If he works steadily for the 6,
 the child will change, and the monthly      personnel who retire will be unable to         years with an earned income of $36« i(
 payments under Social Security will         count their military wage credits. They        or more per year, his total income ~ 1
 also change. The pension plus Social        can, howe\'er, establish non-military          computed to be $18,000 (count no mOlt tJ
 Security payments may provide to this       wage credits if they accept cm'ered em-        than $3600 for any year). His averagt
 widow a total of two hllndred mId seven-
 teen dollars per 11I0nth exclusive of any
                                             ployment after retirement.
                                                 Suppose a service person retires now
                                                                                                   ..                          -
                                                                                            monthlv income is determined by divid- \I
                                                                                            ing $18,000 by 84 (number of mOnths .
                                                                                                                                        .\


 benefits received from Government Life      at age sixty. He has five years to go          since January 1951). This gives $214.18
 Insurance and any income received from      before he will be sixty-five years old.        per month. His Social Security monthl~ ~
 commercial insurance.       This is a far Two and a fraction years have already            payment is computed by taking 55 pel ,
 cry from the amount the widow with          passed since Jan uary 1. 1951. There is        cent of the first $100 plus 15 per cem
 one child would have received fifteen       still ample time for him to build up           of the balance. In this case $55.00 plus
 years ago. If you need a further indi-      new wage credits for more than half            S 17.15 rounds to $72.20. His wife upon
 cation of the magnitude of these benefits   the quarters between Januarv 1, 1951,          reaching 65 would get one half that
 consider the fact that while the child      and the time he will reach ao~ sixt\'-five.    amount, $36.10 and in case of Colonel
                                                                            '"
 is under eighteen years old the total of He can also earn wage credits after he
                                                                                   .
                                                                                            Blow's death she would get $54.20 per
 pension and Social Security payments        is 65. He can do this either as an em-         month after she reaches 65.
 could amount to $44,268.00 at current       ployee or as a self employed person. A            Now here is one for the bachelors
 rates. Pension payments to the widow        self employed person can earn wage             and unmarried female members of the
 after the child is eighteen and the So- credit for four quarters in any calendar           service. If a fully insured individual
 cial Security payments she may receive     year in which he earns a net profit of          dies and does not leave a widow, wido\\'.
 after age sixty-five would greatly in- at least $400. If he lives he will be               er, or child eligible for benefits, each
 crease the total amount the Government     eligible for Social Security benefits at        natural or adoptive parent or step-parent
 has paid because of service in the Armed   age sixty-five if he has met the "num-         of such individual who was dependent
 Forces.                                    ber of quarters" requirement.         \Vhen     upon the insured for at least one-half
    Remember this-the widow will lose his wife reaches age sixty-five an addi-              of his or her support is entitled to month.
 her portion of the pension and Social      tional benefit will be paid for her. If        Iy survivor benefits upon reaching age
 Security if she remarries. She wiTI also    he dies whilc fully covered his wife will     sixty-five if not remarried since the in-
 lose her Social Security benefits for any  recei\'c Social Security benefits when         sured individual's death. If the a\'erage
 period in which she earns more than        she is sixty-five even thouoh he mav
                                                         .                  o.             monthly earnings is the $160.00 used
 seventy-five dollars a month in covered    have died before he reached sixty-five.         for computing where there has been
 employment.                                If they have a child under eighteen            continuous service in the Armed Forces,
    The preceding discussion has dealt      years old she would receive the benefits        and no other credits, the monthly pay-
with the situation of the young widow       immediately.                                   ment to a dependent parent could be
 left with a one year old child to support.     \Vhile the person used as an example       $48.00 per month.
 Now let us consider personnel with         above would not have to work in cm'ered            Remember this-the       only restriction
many years of service who retire be- employment right up to the time he                    placed on any person entitled to receive
 cause of age, length of service, or physi- will be sixty-five, it must be remembered       Social Security benefits is that such per-
cal disability. The first blow to these     that not more than $3600 mav be                son may not earn by working in covered
individuals is an immediate reduction in counted as wages in any one cal~ndar              employment       more than $75.00 per
pay. Then in case of death their de- year. The greater the number of years                 month unless he or she is over age seven-
pendents lose the benefit of the six he works the higher will be his "aver-                t\'-five at which time the limit on earned
months gratuity pay given when a serv- age" monthly earnings since December                income is removed. Earned income does
ice person dies while on active duty.       31, 1950. This will affect the benefits        not include annuity payments, dividends
If the retired person dies of a cause not   paid to him and to his wife. This per-         on stocks, interest on any kind of bonds,
resulting from a service connected dis- son would not receive the maximum                  savings accounts, etc. Now let me re-
ability, the pension to his widow will      monthly payments as he has alreadv             mind you again that all the months after
be less than the $75.00 per month maxi-     lost some of the quarters of coverag~          December 31, 1950, must be counted
mum widow's pension. \Vhat can So- since December 31, 1950. Therefore the                  in computing your average wage, and
cial Security do for this retired person?   payments to him would be less than             that vou must be covered for half the
    Before I answer this question I want    $85.00 a month and those to his wife           quarters from that date to the time of
to call attention to the fact that military would be one-half as much as his.              your claim. Remember also that if you
wage credits may not be counted toward          Colonel Joe Blow retired in December,      may ha\'e a claim, the first thing to do
Social Securitv benefits if monthly bene-   1952, at the .age of 60, and took a job        is see your local Social Security repre-
fits based in .whole or in p~rt ~n the      cm'ered by Social Security.                    sentative.
22                                                                                                       ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
                         DISTINCTIVE UNIT INSIGNIA
                                                     By CAPT. RUSSELL P. MAHON



:F     OR many years various units of the
  United States Army ha,'e been wearing
                                                                        CREST                      pire, we find Caesar's leoions marchinot>
                                                                                                                              t>
                                                                                                   under the sign of the eagle, indicating
I \I'hat official parlance refers to as "dis-                                                      majestic might and ferocity in battle.
  tinctive unit insignia:' In all likelihood,                                                          As history mm'ed into the period of
  111 but a few of the readers of this article
                                                              /               TORSE                chivalry, when "knighthood         was in
  hare at one time or another in their army
  ,areers been in a unit that was author-
  IZedto wear these bits of metal.
                                                                /                                  Rower," the wearing of such svmbols
                                                                                                   continued and grew so widespre~d that
                                                                                                   mam' of the symbols were com'ention-




                                                                   ,
     To the initiated. the unit insignia is a                     :..            SHIELD            alized. Natur;lIy,, the spreadinot> use of
  !!Oldmine of information, but to the                                                             such symbols resulted in numerous
  person who is uninformed. they mean                                                              claims to the same symbol bv different
  nothing, other than as an ornament. In                                                           families, and the ri~al clai~ants to  orew
  recent years, fewer persons understand                                                           heated over the merits of their respec-
  the full meaning of the unit insignia,                                                           ti,'e claims.
  the information pictured thereon, the
                                                                          SCROLL                       To settle these claims, malw Euro-
  manner of designing, and the steps nec-                               a MOTTO                    pean countries formed boards, .or Col-
  essary before an insignia is apprm'ed for                                                        leges of Heralds, whose duties were to
  use bv the unit.                                                                                 investigate the claims of the various dis-
     In . this article, some of the more                Figure 1. Parts of a coat of arms.         putants and decide which was to be
  salient facts about insignia, a little of                                                        awarded the symbol in question. These
  their derivation and ancient history,              the history of identifying symbols and        decisions were made on the basis of pre-
  and a smattering of heraldry will be               insignia. In early historic days, ancient     vious usage and the history of the claim-
  covered in an effort to help military              man identified himself with the desir-        ants concerned. In the course of their
  personnel understand       the insignia of         able qualities of different members of        deliberations, the boards developed the
  their unit.                                        the animal kingdom and used charac-           system of heraldry into an exact science
     As a beginning, let's take a glance at          terizations of the animal he particularly     governed by a set of rules and laws as
                                                     admired, on his home, his body, and,          rigid as the criminal code.
                                                     as he started indulging in the civilized          These laws are applied at any time
      Copt.     Russell p, Mohon is presently  as-   pastime of military operations. his shield.   that a coat of arms is to be developed for
   signed     to the Deportment   of Nonresident        This practice of using identifying         an individual even today, and are fol-
   Instruction    at the AA & GM Branch, The
   Artillery School.                                 symbols continued on through the ages,        lowed as closely as possible in the design
                                                     and, in the heyday of the Roman em-           of military coats of arms ..
                                                                                                        In medieval davs, it was customarv
                                                                                                    for knights to we~r sweaters or jerseys
                                                                                                   with their personal symbols embroidered




                                                            •
                                                                                                   or woven on them. These sweaters
                                                                                                   eventually became known as coats of


                                                                                                   I   2   3
 at!!.                                                       34th. INF                                 4
         INF                      2022. C A
                                                                                                       5
                                                                                          •          6
                                                                                                   7 8 9




 '.
                                                                                                       y


                                 "J\,r,,'                                  I - DEXTER         CHIEF POINT      5- FESS POINT


 ."                             ~~
                                                                          ,2 - MIDDLE CHIEF POINT
                                                                          r3- SINISTER CHIEF POINT
                                                                           4- HONOUR POINT
                                                                                                               6 - NOM8RIL POINT
                                                                                                               7 - DEXTER BASE POINT
                                                                                                               8 - MIDDLE BASE POINT
                                    20th.INF                                              9- SINISTER      BASE POINT
     Figure 2. Combinations             of parts of the coat of arms.                 Figure 3. Named locations on the shield.

MARCH-APRIL,           1953                                                                                                               23
arms. and in time the term was corrupted        took official cognizance of the morale      the locations on the shield that             }
to mean the symbols themselves.                 value of such identifying badges and        most commonly used in military COlt c
    Badges and coats of arms were adopt-        established the Heraldic Branch of the of arms.                                          I.

ed by many units at almost the very             Office of the Quartermaster      General,       In addition to this, heraldic use sper;:
inception of our Army: however, these           Department of the Army, with duties         fies that the shield should be parr
were made up as a result of unit initia-        roughly parallel to those of the Col- tioned in certain arbitrary divisiOn;.
ti\'e and had little or no official sanction.   leges of Heralds in foreign countries.      These partitions and their names ~
The first instance in which these badges            \Vith a brief background of the his- given in figure 4.
were authorized was during the Civil            tory of military coats of arms, let us          In the science of heraldry, the col~
\Var. Some of the units started wear-           find out just what they consist of and      with which we are familiar have diffe!
ing badges to designate the corps to            how deri\'ed and designed.                  ent names. The following list shows
which they belonged, and, as command-               Heraldry is the science of portraying   comparison of our common colors wil
ers realized the morale value of these          in pictures the history of an individual    the heraldic names for these colors.
badges, the practice was sanctioned and         or unit. There are in most cases, four
                                                                                                Common name           Heraldic lIame
encouraged.                                     separate parts of a military coat of arms
                                                                                                   Red                       Gules
    The common practice at that time            with a fifth sometimes added. The fi\'e
                                                                                                   Blue                      Azure
was to de\'elop a badge for a corps and         parts are; (1) the crest, (2) the wreath
                                                                                                   Black                      Sable
have it made in different colors to iden-       or "torse," (3) the shield, (4) the scroll,
                                                                                                   Purple                  Purpure
tify the divisions within the corps.            and (5) the supporters. The illustration
                                                                                                   Maroon                 Sanguine
    1\ lany references to these badges may      of the insignia of the 11th Field Anil-
                                                                                                   Green                       Vert
be found in books covering this period,         lier)' (fig. 1) shows the parts of the
and individuals usually mention the             coat of arms. As stated before, the sup-        Two other colors commonly seen on
pride with which they wore these badges.        porters are not usually a part of military  coats of arms are considered by herald.



                                                                                                                                          I
    Notable among the badges used were          coats of arms but frequently are found      ists to be metals. These are gold, which
the 3-leafed clover of 2.d Corps, the           in personal coat of arms. The)' are fig- is called "or," and silver or white, which
plan view of a five-sided fort of 5th           ures that stand beside the shield, and      is called "argent." The most important
Corps, the acorn of 14th Corps, the             seemingly support it.                        thing to remember about the colors and
cartridge pouch with the words "Forty               Distinctive unit insignia may be a metals in heraldry, is that a color is
 Hounds" on it of 15th Corps, the broad         combination of any or all parts of the never placed on a color, nor a metal on            1
arrow of the 17th Corps, and the star of        coat of arms of the unit, and figure 2 a metal, unless they are separated by
 the 20th Corps. Many of these badges           shows some of the possible combinations     an edging, or fimbriation.
have been incorporated in the coats of           that are now in use.                           As was shown earlier, the topmosl
arms of present-day units descended                  Now, we can see why the term crest      part of the coat of arms is the crest, or
 from those organization.                       or shield is incorrect in many cases when    helme. Originally the crest was a repre-
    Some regiments         had individual        we are referring to the unit insignia. It sentation of the crests worn by knights
 badges. One is the red apple with a nu-         is safer to call them insignia.             on their helmets. Heraldic practice soon
 meral 2 on it which was the unit badge              Here are a few of the more basic corrupted this to show an entire helmet,
 of the 2d New York Infantry "Apple              heraldic rules which apply to the design    hence the heraldic name of helme. In
 Knockers." This badge has been incorpo-         of military coats of arms.                  military heraldry we have kept closely
 rated in the current coat of arms of the            To begin with, various geographical     to the original usage.
  105th Infantry.                                locations on the shield have been given         Immediately below the crest is the
    The wearing of these badges became           specific names, and these points are torse or wreath. This is supposedly a
 more widespread after the Civil \Var,           always referred to, heraldically speak- representation of the scarves given to
 and eventually the \Var Department              ing, by those names. Figure 3 shows         knights as good-luck charms by their




 rn LSJ [2] 8u 6 8 ~
 PER PALE            PER BEND      PER BEND SINISTER       PER FESS   THE CHIEF           THE FESS           THE BAR           THE BEND




 rn [8J B [lJ0 lID8 lJ
QUARTERLY         PER SAL TIRE        PER CHEVRON          GYRONNY     THE BEND
                                                                        SINISTER
                                                                                          THE PALE        THE CHEVRON          THE PILE


            Figure 4. Heraldic division of the shield.                   Figure 5. Ordinaries    commonly used in military shields.
24                                                                                                          ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
ladies. and the torse does resemble a         crescent (from the coat of arms of                 make a good motto. i\lottoes may be
cloth. In military coats of arms, the         General i\lcClellan),    a fi,'e-sided fort        in any language; French, Latin, Eng-
torse always has six folds and is usually     or a fishhook (from the shape of the               lish, Hawaiian, Indian, Greek, and Fili-
colored alternately with one of the           Union line at Gettysburg);          for the        pino have been used.
heraldic metals and the color of the          Spanish-American \Var, a ruined tower,                 In many units, particularly in the
branch of service of the unit.                a sheathed sword (if the unit did not              infantry, we find the salcire used in the
   The next lower part of the coat of         leave the United States). A Kataipunan             shield. In many cases it is used to rep-
armS is the shield. On the shield .will       sun, a bolo, a kris, or a kampilan, may            resent the crossed belts of the old-time
be found most of the history of the unit,     depict service in the Philippines during           infantryman.      Sometimes    the saltire
and in order to condense this informa-        the Philippine Insurrection and for serv-          will be in blue, sometimes in white, and,
cion we have borrowed for our use             ice in \Vorld \Var 1, a fleur-de-lis, a            in the case of those units with Civil
some heraldic devices called the ordi-        ruined steeple, a blasted bridge, or de-           \Var service, the crossed belts may be in
naries. Some of the more common of            vices from the arms of provinces of                gray. In shields which show a bend,
the ordinaries we use are shown in            France in which the unit served. Figure             that is from dexter chief point to sin-
figure 5.                                     7 shows some of the common combat                   ister base point, the bends sometimes
Two more heraldic devices used fre-           representations found on unit coats of              represent a river that has figured promi-
quently on our shields are the cross and      arms.                                               nently in the unit's history.
 the saltire. The cross is made in dif-           At the bottommost point on the coat                Designs for unit insignia are drawn
 ferent ways, some of which are shown         of arms we find the scroll. The scroll              bv the Heraldic Branch, Office of the
 in figure 6 along with the saltire.          usually has the unit motto inscribed on             Quartermaster General, based upon the
    In designing the coats of arms of mili-    it. The scroll itself may be as fancy as           history of the unit as outlined by the
 tary units, certain symbols have come        we wish and will cause no difficulty in             Historical Division, Department of the
 to represent service in a particular war.     the design of a coat of arms, but the              Army. \Vhen an appropriate design has
 Some of the more common of these are;         motto will probably cause much head                been completed, it is forwarded to the
 for the \Var of 1812, the Cross of St.        scratching before a suitable one is                unit commander for approval and, if
 George; for the Indian \Vars, Indian          adopted. As a general rule, some saying            accepted, authorization    is granted to
 arrows or tepees; for the i\lexican \Var,     that has been uttered by a member of                have the insignia manufactured       and
 a scaling ladder; for the Civil \Var, a       the unit during the heat of battle will            distributed.




         ,
         ,                   ~
                             ~
                                                                                     WAR OF
                                                       CROSS                            1812
THE CROSS OF                  CROSS                                                                        MEXICAN             CIVIL    WORLD
 ST. GEORGE                  MOLINE                  CROSSLET                                                WAR               WAR       WAR I

                                                                                             j                                    \I


                                                                                                                                 •
                                                                                      ~~                        SPAN,SH
                                                                           /~                        •          A':::   'CAN


                                                                    INDIAN          II~INF       ~                              29!hENGR
                                                                      WARS                               PHILIPPINE
                 .     ~
                                       THE SALTIRE                                                       INSURRECTION
             CROSS PATEE
             Figure 6. Types of crosses and saltire.                            Figure 7. Combat representation           on shields.




 MARCH-APRil,        1953                                                                                                                  25
           Know Your Aircraft and the Enemy's
               By CAPT. MARVIN                 D. YARBOROUGH            and MAJOR WILLIAM J. LOGAN



IN      the forty-nine years since the
\\lright brothers first left ground at Kitty
                                                   This command obtained quotas from
                                                the Central School of Aircraft Recogni-
                                                                                              ~ A small room for private consultation
                                                                                              with individual students. There were
Hawk, oyer twenty-fi\'e thousand dif-           tion, British Fighter Command, and            no training aids or equipment ayailable
ferent types of aircraft haye Hown. Of          key personnel from this brigade were          through normal Army supply channels
 those in the air today a good proportion       selected to attend. This is an excellen:      so a request was made to Headquarters,
are militarv. How many can \'ou iden-
             .              "
                                                school and our own was set up on a            United States Army Europe for train.
tify and recognize?                             similar plan, with the helpful advice         ing funds sufficient to purchase from
    In the first days of battle confusion       and aid of the British instructors, The       British military sources. Items such as
is rife. A few untrained antiaircraft           students who successfully completed the       Balopticons were improyised by build.
gunners can shoot down a friendly pilot         British course for instructors were nat-      ing homemade shadowgraphs.           Since
and thereby demoralize the air defense          urally called upon to take up the job         many training aids were necessary much
and weaken all confidence in the anti-          of planning and forming the 32nd AAA          improyisation was done by the instruc-
aircraft artillery.    Both fire discipline     Brigade School of Aircraft Recognition.       tor personnel. About eight hundred to
and the ability to distinguish friend from         A small building was made available        one thousand photographs are needed
foe are absolutely indispensable.               at the Brigade t\rtillery School Center.      to teach a three week course, The prep-
    The 32nd AAA Brigade in England             The preparation resulted in the follow-       aration takes a great deal of effort.
has recognized the need for effective           ing layout:                                      A three week course for instructors
aircraft recognition skill and made a           ~ A medium sized classroom, capable           was begun on ] 7 i\ larch ]952. There
start in producing artillerymen who will        of handling fifteen students.                 were fifteen students in the first course.
klloll' which planes are enemy and              ~ All information room containing ta-         The school has been running regularly
which are friendly,                             bles, chairs, and study material such as      since that date.
    Aircraft recognition is not such a dif-     aircraft journals,    aircraft magazines,
ficult subject to teach, but there are sev-     official publications on aircraft, wall                       Purpose
eral forms of useless instruction extant        charts, models painted with the colors           The purpose is to train instructors
in our, service. Here in England, how-          and insignia of actual planes, aircraft of    for each unit in all battalions. The new
ever, they learned well the necessity for       the day silhouette, numerous photo-           instructors are returned to their units
sharp recognition of aircraft in the Battle     graphs, and aircraft in the news.             to teach artillerymen at the battery level.
of Britain, They learned how to teach           ~ InstTllctors' swdy room.                    This is a practicable method for devel-
and train in the subject and have not           ~ Sketching room for students' practice       oping proficiency in aircraft recognition
forgotten .                                     with plenty of blackboards.                   throughout the command.


                                                                                                                                ..
                                                                                             ::::;:1 ~

                                                                                        =----

                                                                                                  .~
                                                                                                                                --
                                                                                                                                     ,   .



Sgt. Edward J. W'eisenburger, Battery A, 60th AAA Bn,                  Students   scud)' plane
  instructs Neo's on the recognition of a jet silhouette.
26                                                                                                         ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
   In addressing the first class, Colonel      enough knowledge to realize, for ex-           be used only for advanced training and
~Ietticus W. May, Jr., brigade com-            ample, why some aircraft have narrow           that for the class to fully realize their
mander. stressed the importance of both        thin wings and others have thick wide          value, they must first have a grounding
aircraft recognition and fire discipline.     wings.                                          in the aircraft concerned. Synthetics
                                                  An instructor should use a Balopticon.      referred to here are such things as games.
          Training Methods                    The chief purpose of this instrument            training films, flash trainer, etc.
    There is much more to recognition          is to project photographs with which
 instruction than a knowledge of a num-        to illustrate talks or to give spotting                  Planning A Schedule
ber of shapes. The instructor must             tests. Photographs should be carefully           When planning a schedule it must
possess that extra information and per-       collected and include shots of interest        be decided wherein to include back-
sonal interest that enables him to an-         as well as of recognition value. Spotting     ground knowledge talks. The first step
swer awkward questions. This knowl-           shots should be divided into three             is to be sure that the class is familiar
 edge wiII also add to the color and inter-   groups:                                        with aircraft description. This wiII avoid
 est that can be put into what otherwise                     ~ Elementary                   much confusion and misunderstanding.
may be a flat silhouette. Once the in-                       ~ Intermediate                 Periods used largely for recognition
 terest of the class has been aroused, the                   ~ Difficult                    should be interspersed with other types
 aircraft then becomes real and recogni-          Distance is not the only deCiding fac-    of classes to prevent the monotony of
tion will follow more easily.                 tor in separating photographs into these       one continuous type of training.
    Although a good background knowl-         three groups. Clarity, viewpoint, and             The official training list designates
 edge is essential, the instructor need not   background must also be considered.           what aircraft to teach. The first aircraft
be a super-spotter. In fact if he is not,     Trouble is often experienced when pu-         to cover are those to be seen locanv.
he may more readily appreciate the be-        pils develop "Photograph Recognition"         This should apply both in peace a~d
 ginner's point of view and his instruc-      that is to say, a "shot" will be identified   war, and enables the pupil to put
 tion may be considerably more effective.     by a mark or blot on the photograph,          into practice without delay what he has
    The art of recognition has been prac-     not by the aircraft itself. The ideal solu-   learned in the classroom.
 ticed in all walks of life throughout his-    tion to this is to have so great a number        Bear in mind that although an rec-
 tory. One lesson stands out above all        of photographs that they need never           ognition is the subconscious comparison
others; there is no short cut to efficient    be repeated. Since this is impossible, it     of different shapes, the instructor must
recognition. When you see an aircraft         is recommended that instructors trv al-       not be too comparison conscious. To the
flash through the sky either you know         tering photographs. One easy way -'isto       beginner, comparisons may be very con-
 what kind it is, or you do not. Ask any      shade in the photographs with colored         fusing. Psychologically it is better at
really good spotter how long he has           pencil, or to cut out the aircraft and        the earlier stages to concentrate on the
been interested in recognition and his        paste it on a new background. Such            differences rather than on the similari-
answer will provide effective proof that      alterations are surprisingly effective.       ties of aircraft. Teach the beginner
good recognition requires long and con-           It is essential that the subject mat-     about a dozen aircraft that cannot be
tinued study.                                 ter be presented in a logical manner.         confused. Once he knows these thor-
    Methods used ten years ago included       The chart below conveys the idea of           oughly a few confusable types may be
the code word "WEFT" (Wings, En-              teaching easy things first and gradually      introduced. More than two aircraft
gines, Fuselage, Tail). While useful to       building up to the more difficult items.      should never be compared at anyone
remind the pupil to check all parts of an         Let us assume that twelve aircraft        time.
aircraft's silhouette in the classroom, it    are to be taught to a certain group and
never was practicable for spotting actual     they have been sorted out into six groups                         Testing
aircraft. Today with the high speeds          of two aircraft each. This means that            Repeated spotting practice is an es-
achieved by small aircraft 'WEFT" is          in an hour's lecture, after a pair of air-    sential part of recognition training but
literally an impossibility. The observer      craft has been taught, twenty minutes         it must be carried out properly if full
cannot methodically go through the rec-       will remain for spotting practice of these    value is to be obtained. The pupils
ognition features. He must be capable of      two aircraft, and of others previously        should be placed so that they can all
instantly recognizing the whole bulk of       taught.                                       see the screen easily and are not at such
an aircraft. To sum up, the aim of air-           The chart shows that at all times         an angle that distortion of the picture
craft recognition training is Instantane-     during the program, emphasis is placed        will occur. For obvious reasons the class
ous Bulk Recognition.                         on review, while variety is added with        members should not be too close to each
                                              synthetics. Note the synthetics are to        other. If the period is to be of any train-
     Background Knowledge
   This is valuable for th~ instructor        Recognition     Aircraft     Silhouette work         Test Photographs       Synthetics
and student alike.                            Period No.       Group       (Basic teaching)        (fA"    uB"    tte"
   It is given to the student bv means             1              1                 1                1
of organized interest lectures ~n such              2             2               2                  2      1
subjects as Principles of Flight, High              3             3               3                 3       2
Speed Flight, History of Aviation, and              4_            4               4                 4       3      2           1
so on. Once again, the aim is to in-                5             5               5                 5       4      3           2
terest the pupil in aircraft and give him           6             6               6                 6       5      4           3
MARCH-APRil, 1953                                                                                                                      27
ing value the test must be reshown at           • Anv deficiencies in the success of the    phrase in aircraft recognition "I knowr
the same time as the answers are given          trainhtg so that efforts can be made        the aircraft, but just can't rememhtt
enabling the individual to learn by his         toward correction.                          the name."
errors.                                         • Any new training aids and ways of             At the bottom it is well to write the
    SJ.X>Uing ractice should not be con-
               p                                injecting variety into the training so      span and length. This will be of interest
fused with testing in the examination           that others in the command may benefit.     to the class and will give them an idea
sense. In spotting practices variety is                                                     of the size of the aircraft concerned.
of value and almost any method within                                                           Also at the bottom is a space &.
reason may be used. For examination             IT is suggested that a lecture on a an abbreviated "layout" of the aircraft.
pUfJ.X>ses here results must be com-
             w                                  single aircraft be presented in from This is primarily to act as a reminder
pared, the instructor should use the            fifteen to twenty minutes, as follows:      in the student's notebook. The sug-
Balopticon only. Copies of examinations            a. Introduction (approximately three gested sequence to be followed is: En..
 and of results must be kept by the in-         minutes). A few interesting facts about gines, Wing position, Unusual features,
structor to aid him in planning future          the construction and performance of the and Number of Fins and Rudders. An
 tests and in determining the progress of       aircraft, to arouse interest.               example, using the Venom, would be
 the class. These points plus the neces-           b. Silhouette study (eight minutes).      lJ/MWM/TB/2FR             (One Jet/Mid
 sity at times of several classes being         This is a detailed study of the large three Wing Monoplane/Twin            booms/Twv
given the same test on different occa-          places silhouette having as much class Fins and Rudders).
 sions show that the Balopticon must be         participation as possible.                      Silhouette study. During this period
used for examinations.                             c. Balopticon work (four minutes).        the class must thoroughly learn the air-
    It is said that variety is the spice of     This is a brief study of photographs to craft's shape from the silhouette. This
 life. It is certainly the secret of an in-     show the aircraft as it really appears, shows it as it really is, unaffected by
 terested recognition class. Below are          including angle shots to show the ef- perspective. Questions will play a big
 some of the ways of injecting it into the      fects of perspective. It is suggested that part in this if carried out properly. The
 training.                                      five photographs to be used here would pupils will remain alert with their minds
 ~ Organize an information room and             include: one head on view, one side focused on the silhouette for the entire
 assemble a reference library on old and        view, one plan view, one interest shot eight minutes.
 new aircraft.                                  and one three quarter view.                     In using this method it is necessary
 ~ Arrange visits to local airfields and            d. Recognition features (five min- for the class to look at the silhouette
 aircraft factories.                            utes). This is a review by short descrip- as a whole rather than at head on, plan,
 ~ Encourage sketching and model mak-           tions of the recognition features that       and side views. When a student is de-
 ing.                                            have already been covered. This is brok- scribing the wings, fuselage, or the tail
 ~ Arrange for outside lecturers to talk         en down into three main parts: wings, he must cover all three in his comments.
 not only on recognition but also on gen-        fuselage, and tail.                            During this period the instructor
  eral aviation subjects.                           e. A suggested blackboard layout is should use a pointer to run lightly over
 ~ Keep an Aircraft of the Day board.            shown in Figure 1. Stress clarity and the parts being described.
 ~ Build up a healthy competitive spirit         neatness, plus the added advantages of         After parts of the aircraft have been
 by running spotting competitions with-          standardization and uniformity.             described the shape will be impressed
  in the unit and with other units. Also            The name of the aircraft to be studied more firmly upon the mind of the stu-
 by playing recognition games, such as           must be written in large letters at the dent if a sketch is made. The black-
  Bingo, Twenty Questions, One Minute            top of the blackboard. This will help board sketch may be simple and without
  Please, etc.                                   the students to associate the name of detail but it will convey much more
  ~ Have a small recognition bulletin            the aircraft with silhouette. This will than words. This sketch or sketches
  board in a conspicuous place displaying        also help eliminate the well known           should be made by the instructor dur-
  recent articles from newspapers and
  magazines, of aircraft in the news.
     Finally in the teaching of aircraft rec-                          VENOM
  ognition there are four things that
  should be remembered.
     No short cuts.
     Bulk recognition.
     Progressive training.
     Variety in training.

       Testing and Inspecting
    As imJ.X>rtantas any other phase of
 recognition training is the testing and                                                                    SPAN:   41'9"
 inspecting of all units of the command.
                                                                                                            lENGTH: 31'
 In this brigade each battalion is in-               LAYOUT: I J/MWM/TB/ZFR
 spected and tested quarterly to discover:                                          igure I.
 • Training progress.
 28                                                                                                      ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
ing the time that the students describe                   During the projection of the conven-              student will look like a broom handle to
the different parts of the aircraft. It is             tional views and the interest shots, the             another, and perhaps even a carrot to a
necessary for him to direct the descrip-               instructor's commentary should serve to              third.
tion and at the same time make the                     remind the class of the main points of                  The three features should be arranged
sketch.                                                the aircraft to be seen in each view.                so that one covers the wings (including
   Baloptiwn work: Before proceeding to                During the projection of the three quar-             the engines in multi-engined types), and
this section the silhouette should be                  ter angle photograph he should remain                one covers the fuselage, and one the
turned face to the board and the sketches              silent, permitting the class time to de-             tail unit.
removed. The reason for this will be ob-               cide for themselves the three brief rec-                The features are intended to be a
vious.                                                 ognition features.                                   reminder of the aircraft's shape and so
   Basically, four photographs of the air-                Summary of recognition features: This             should be brief and clear. One sentence
craft being studied should be used in the              is the review and memory testing part                per feature is normally sufficient.
baloptican. In addition one interest shot              of the lecture. Again class questioning                 The final phase of the lecture is given
is advisable, making a total of five photo-            comes into play. The three recognition               by once again facing the silhouette to-
graphs . .An interest shot may be the                  features of the aircraft must be obtained            wards the class and running over the
aircraft combat loaded or shots emphasiz-              and written on the blackboard. This is               features written on the blackboard. This
ing unusual features. The illustrations                why the sketch was removed and the                   can be followed by the usual request for
must be carefully selected and must in-                silhouette reversed earlier in the lecture.          any questions.
clude one head on view, one plan, one                      During this period it will be neces-                The 35th AAA Brigade has rounded
side, and when possible, one interest                  sary for the instructor to guide the class           out an effective aircraft recognition
shot, and one three quarter view. The                  in understanding the descriptions that               training program, by establishing its
first three need not be taken in the order             he is teaching. Be sure to guide, not                school for instructors in which Army
mentioned so long as they clearly show                 bully the class. Each member of the                  training methods were utilized and
the recognition features to be seen from               class must be made to feel that he has               taught and by periodic inspection of
those angles. The interest shot should                 a part to play during the entire lecture,            all units to check on the progress of the
be shown just before the three quarter.                and that his ideas and opinions can be               program as it was being carried out by
It must be remembered that the three                   voiced and heard. Such phrases as "egg               the school trained instructors.       The
quarter view must be selected to show                  shaped," "cigar shaped," "carrot shaped,"            training has been successful in teaching
if possible all major recognition features             etc., should be avoided. Experience will             instantaneous recognition of aircraft Hy-
of the aircraft.                                       show that what resembles a cigar to one              ing over defended areas.




      *******************                                                                                                                         **
                                    HONOR                                                  ROLL                                                     *
         (Continued from inside front cover)   726th AAA Gun Bn                 951st AAA Gun Bn                     327th AAA Opns. Del.           *
         7051h AAA Gun Bn
         Lt. Col. F. O. Roever
                                               Lt. Cal. C. F. Arnold, N. Mex.
                                               764th AAA Gun Bn
                                               Lt. Col. E. D. Winslead
                                                                                Lt. Col. W. G. Bobbitt
                                                                                30th AAA Lt. Btry
                                                                                Capt. W. A. Brant
                                                                                                                     Mo;. F. W. Smith
                                                                                                                     SOOth AAA Opns. Del.
                                                                                                                     Maj. C. D. May, Jr.            *
         7081h AAA Gun Bn
         Lt. Col. P. l. Gelsinger
         71 Olh AAA Gun Bn.
                                               768th AAA Gun Bn.
                                               Lt. Col. T. H. Kuyper
                                               773rd AAA Gun Bn
                                                                                Blry A, 37th AAA Gun Bn
                                                                                Lt. A. B. Whitesides
                                                                                                                     502nd   AAA Opns. Det.
                                                                                                                     Capt. J. R. Myers
                                                                                                                     506th AAA Opns. Del.           *
                                                                                                                                                    *
         Capl. T. T. Chisman                   Lt. CoL G. F. Slavin
                                                                                Operations Detachments
         7121h AAA Gun Bn                      804th AAA AW Bn 1M}              131s1 AAA    Opns. Det.              509th AAA Opns. Det.
         Ll. Col. R. W. Harnett                Maj. S. N. Caudill, N. Mex.      Maj. J. l. Welling, S. C.            Maj. J. P. Bodkin
         7161h AAA Gun Bn
         Lt. Col. Joe R. Stewart, N. Mex.
         717th AAA Gun Bn
                                               867th AAA AW Bn
                                               Lt. Col. W. R. Parr
                                               903rd AAA AW Bn
                                                                                142nd AAA Opns. Det.
                                                                                Maj. B. D. Boyett, Ala.
                                                                                177th AAA Opns. Det.
                                                                                                                     SlOth AAA Opns. Del.
                                                                                                                     Maj. R. H. Moser
                                                                                                                     511th   AAA   Opns.   Det.     *
         Lt. Col. E. D. Pelzer, N. Mex.
         720th AAA Gun Bn.
         Lt. Col. G. A. Duke, Calif.
                                               Lt. CoL F. J. Petrilli
                                               933rd   AAA AW Bn
                                               Lt. CoL R. G. Meguiar
                                                                                Capt. J. J. Niehoff
                                                                                286th AAA Opns. Det.
                                                                                Copt. J. B. Stopyro, Dela.
                                                                                                                     Maj. G. J. Burke
                                                                                                                     515th AAA Opns. Det.
                                                                                                                     Copt. P. C. Hubble             *
         724th   AAA Gun Bn
         Lt. CoL E. H. Hahn
                                               950th   AAA AW Bn
                                               U. Col. J. P. Wallis, Go.
                                                                                302nd AAA     Opns. Det.
                                                                                Maj. N. L Funke
                                                                                                                     517th AAA Opns. Det.
                                                                                                                     Lt. R. A. Durkins
                                                                                                                                                    *
                                                                                                                                                    *
                                                                                                                                                  ¥ ¥
MARCH-APRIL, 1953                                                                                                                                  29
                         METEOROLOGY FOR AAA
Ii'\ the first issue of the ]ol'mal of the
United States Artillery, January, 1892,
                                               tention and more help to the meteoro-
                                               logical section in their work following
                                                                                            observed raw data. This can be dOUt
                                                                                            by another met section, or by the same
 the lead article bv 1st Lieut. John W.        the prescribed standard procedures.          section after shifting the key personnel
  Ruckman, the first editor, bore the             The first obvious need in each unit is    in the section. This procedure has
 title: 'The Effect Of The 'Vind On            for a well trained officer to direct and     sUIX:rbtraining value.
 The 1\lotion Of A Projectile."                supervise this work. Whereas such well          The officer can get a good general
     Comparing our problem Editor Ruck-        trained officers are not available. Each     idea of the accuracy by observing the
 man stated: 'The engineer can allow           officer so selected will probably have to    work and by study of the work sheets.
 sufficient strength in his struc~re to        train himself by working with the sec-       The tabulation of the speeds and direc-
 withstand the maximum effect which            tion and by study of TM 20-240 and           tions of the zone winds gives a good
 the wind may produce upon it :(-:(-:(-and     T1\I 20-241.                                 indication.
 always allow a sufficient margin of
 strength, even when wholly ignorant
 of the laws of the wind's action. :(-:(-:(-
 With the artillerist, however, it is dif-
                                               EVENTUALLY             it is hoped to have
                                               warrant officers trained to bear the brunt
                                                                                            F    OR a quick and accurate check of
                                                                                            the wind data Major H. R. Jackson, me-
 ferent. He is required to send his pro-       of the supervision of met sections, but in   teorological instructor in the School at
 jectiles direct to the point, and can         the usual case now, make no mistake          Fort Bliss, and his assistant Pfc. J. G. To-
 allow himself no margin, one way or           about it, an officer is required. He         rian get a splendid check on the wind by
 the other, the shot must fall neither         should have a good background in             computing for each standard altitude
 short nor beyond, neither to the right        mathematics and artillery. Electronics       the average wind speed and direction to
 nor to the left. Such rigid conditions        is also helpful.                             the point at 83.3% of the standard alti-
 require a perfect knowledge of the laws                                                    tude. For theory and discussion of this
-of the wind's action and the methods of
 computing its deviating effects."
    Due in large part to the efforts of
                                               T    HE most important part of the su-
                                               pervision is to check the care and accu-
                                                                                            solution see Simplified Wind Determi-
                                                                                            nation in Nov.-Dec., 1952 ANTIAIRCRAFT
                                                                                            JOURNAL. They interpolate between
 Ruckman, Whistler, and other artillery        racy of the operation, and particularly      minute readings to get the elevation and
writers in the early years of this JOUR-       the accuracy of the met message.             azimuth of this point. The wind azimuth
NAL, the Ordnance Department fur-                 Under the standard procedure the          is indicated by computing the back azi-
 nishes to us now in the firing tables         plotting and computations may involve        muth in hundred mils from the observed
 accurate and convenient data on wind          about one hundred key operations for         reading in degrees and tenths. They
effects and our directors are designed         one met message. Each such operation         use the standard slide rule to compute
 to compute automatically and apply the        is a possible source of error. There         the wind speed, applying the formula:
.corrections for such effects.                 should be a regular method of checking          Wind speed in M.P.R. =
    We still have with us, however, the        the message, but unfortunately none                        .0341 H cot E
 practical problem of determining the          is provided. The banker, the account-                            r
 ballistic wind as well as the ballistic       ant, and the engineer in like cases have     Where H = altitude of balloon in
 density and temperature. And while            a checking method. Likewise we need          yards; E = elevation angle of balloon;
we have made progress in this field,           it and we can get it here. And that is       and t is the time in minutes since release
 too, we have not yet arrived at the point     the officer's job.                           of balloon.
 where the AAA brigades and groups can            In WWII Major General F. Q. C.               This method works well for someone
.easily turn out satisfactory meteorological   Gardner used to visit his met station        who is thoroughly familiar with stand-
 data. It is simply a problem which re-        in the San Francisco area and check or       ard slide rule operation.
 quires more attention and better atten-       have the Aide check the accuracy of             Another method of checking is to use
 tion than we have been giving.                the message. He used data tables then        a wind speed computer as described in
    For that reason we have seized every       provided for a simplified solution. We       Beter Wind Data in Nov-Dee 1951
.occasion during the past two years to         hardly need to add that these checks had     ANTIAIRCRAFT     JOURNAL.This provides
 publish articles on meteorology for AAA.      wholesome results. We will add, how-         a rather direct and simple operation
 We have emphasized the need for a             ever, that such accuracy checks now are      with a computer designed for the spe-
procedure which would be more prac-            almost unheard-of. And this is because       cific purpose. However, it is necessary
 ticable in the field and we have pre-         there is no easy, ready to order method      first to construct the Wind Speed Com-
 sented a simplified solution for ballistic    of doing it.                                 puter.
wind determination.         Here, however,        The most convincing accuracy check           For each met section the officer in
 we wish to stress the present need in all     can be made by having the met message        charge needs a ready method of checking
 AM brigades and groups for more at-           computed independently from the same         the met message.


:30                                                                                                      ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
          Electronics Training For The Artillery
                                                 By LT. COL HENRY P. MORSE

ITROUBLESHOOTI~G                   which is      troubleshooting of the particular circuit.      Here are Some Questions and
 not founded on a sound grasp of theory,         With the student's back turned, the in-                   Answers:
 plus an intimate knowledge of circuit           structor injects a trouble into the cir-         QUESTION: \Vh)" is it necessary to
 hookup, is nothing more than tinker-            cuit. This can take any number of forms,       giye an officer as much technical train-
 ing."                                           such as substituting a bad tube for a          ing as an enlisted man?
     Those words came from a radar officer       good one, switching two wires around
                                                                                                   ANSVI1ER:The Department feels that
 in Korea. And we certainly agree here           on a terminal board, shorting across a
                                                                                                in the case of highly complicated elec-
 in the Department of Electronics of the         resistor, etc. The student is then required
                                                                                                tronic equipment, proper supervision
 Antiaircraft and Guided Missile Branch           to make a step-by-step analysis of what
                                                                                                can be accomplished only by knowing
 of The Artillery School.                         is causing the trouble, where the cause
                                                                                                as much as the men under you,
     The Department of Electronics is re-        is located, aDd correcting it.
                                                                                                    QUESTION:Your course of fourteen
 sponsible for the technical training of all        At the present time, four different
                                                                                                weeks in basic electronics is comparable
 radar and fire control equipment repair-        courses are being conducted in the Fire
                                                                                                to the amount a student would receive
  men for the artillery. It will have the        Control Equipment Section. The first
                                                                                                in four years of college. Is that much
  same responsibility for guided missile fire    of these is a combination of two former
                                                                                                knowledge of electronics necessary?
 control equipment repairmen.                    courses. It is on the SCR 584 and the
                                                                                                    ANSWER:Yes, that can be illustrated
      The schooling problem is approached        M9 director. This course is sixteen weeks
                                                                                                in several ways. Take the training of
  in this manner. An incoming student is         in length. The second one is on the
                                                                                                an automobile mechanic. Before he
  sent first to the Basic Electronics Sec-       AAFCS 1\133 and takes twenty-three
                                                                                                learns how to change a carburetor or
  tion of the Department. Here, the stu-         weeks. The third course covers the
                                                                                                reseat a valve he learns the principles of
  dent spends fourteen weeks studying the        AAFCS T38 (the fire control system             operation of gasoline motors. From this
  principles of electricity, radio circuits      for the new 75mm Skysweeper), and is           knowledge of the principles he learns
  and finally basic radar circuits. All in-      twenty weeks long. Fourthly is the             how to diagnose malfunctions. The De-
  coming students who have not previ-            course on the AN/MPQ-lO, the new               partment endeavors to do the same thing
  ously had a course in basic electronics
                                                 countermortar radar, and it is of ten          with electronic technicians. However,
  are given an identical course. No at-
                                                 weeks duration. Included with the first         the complexity of a radar as compared
  tempt is made to give any of the circuits
                                                  three courses is also a short course on        to a gasoline engine is on the order of
  of a particular piece of equipment. The
                                                  the AN/TPS-1D. Adding to the above.            10 to 1. Ergo, it takes ten times longer
  student spends three hours daily receiv-
                                                  times, the fourteen weeks spent on basic       to teach the principles of electronics than
  ing conference type instruction, and
  four hours in a laboratory.                     electronics, it will be seen that these re-    it does to teach the principles of a com-
      Upon completion of basic electronics        pairmen courses run from twenty-four           bustion engine.
   the student moves to the Fire Control          to thirtv-seven weeks.                             When a malfunction occurs in a gaso-
   Equipment Section of the Department.              If a person has had a previous course       line engine, the cause is generally lo-
   At this point he is channeled into a           on radar or schooling in electronics, he       cated in the same place that the mal-
   course built around the specific piece of      is eligible to take what is known as a         function manifests itself. This is not true
   equipment on which he is to be trained.        transition course. This course elimi-          of electronics equipment. At least 50%
   His school day is similar to that which        nates the fourteen weeks of basic elec-         of the time the cause of an electronic
   he had in Basic Electronics. First, he         tronics and starts the student out on the       malfunction is located in an entirelv dif-
                                                                                                                                       "
                                                                                                  ferent place than where it evidences it-
   attends a three-hour conference on a           equipment portion outlined in the pre-
   particular circuit of a particular piece of                                                    self. To locate the cause of electronic
                                                  vious paragraph. At present this type of
   equipment. The theoretical operation of                                                        troubles requires a knowledge of the
                                                  course is being conducted on the M33
   the circuit is gone over thoroughly, to                                                        characteristics of electronic components
                                                  and T38.
   include possible malfunctions          and                                                     and their effect on one another.
                                                     There has recently been started a re-           Over the past eight years the Depart-
   known points of troubles, their causes
                                                  vised officers course of thirty-two weeks       ment has compiled a list of over 350
   and how to detect them. Then he spends
   four hours working on the particular           duration. This is a course which is a           trouhles that have occurred to the
   circuit on the actual equipment. These         combination of all the newer equipment.         SCR-584 in the field. In time a similar
   four hours are divided into two parts.         The officer receives instruction in basic       list will be built up for the newer radars
   First he performs a number of experi-          electronics, the M33 and T38 fire con-          and computers. It would be entirely pos-
   ments designed to illustrate that the          trol systems, and the AN;TPS-1D and             sible to teach a repairman how to recog-
    circuit works in the manner described         AN/MPQ-lO radars. Essentially he re-            nize and correct these troubles without
   in his previous conference. The second,        ceives the same instruction as an enlisted      a knowledge of electronics. He would
    and largest part, is devoted to actual        man but at an accelerated pace.                  then be working by rote, and if an

 MARCH-APRIL,       1953                                                                                                                 31
unknown trouble occurred he would be          of selective service personnel. If total mo-      QUESTION: Aren't you teaching a l~
stumped. The Department feels that it         bilization came tomorrow this backlog of       of maintenance that is properly a re.
is much more satisfactory to give a man       maintenance men would normally be              sponsibility of a Technical Service?
a good background of basic principles         immediately frozen in the army, so there          ANSWER: That is an important ques-
and a complete knowledge of circuitry.        would be no immediate increased need           tion, and it is debatable. Going strictly
He is then capable of diagnosing almost       for this type personneL The rate of            by regulations, the organizational main-
any trouble. It takes a little longer in      output of the Department, \\"'ith no           tenance man is authorized to perfDrnl
time but the end product is far superior      change in size, could produce as many          maintenance within the limits of the
in quality.                                   repairmen as sets of fire control equip-       tools and spare parts authorized for i$-
   QuESTION:    Some of your courses are      ment produced by industry to equip             sue to the unit. However, the ability 10
nine months long. If total mobilization       newlv activitated units. From this it can      use a soldering iron, wrench or screw.
should come, would they be cut down?          be seen that there would be no need            driver on one particular part is perfectly
   ANSWER: The Department is con-             to shorten the courses to meet any im-         transferable to any other part that Ie-
tinuously striving to reduce the length       mediate need for trained maintenance           quires the use of such a tooL By the same
of the courses. With the advent of the        men.                                           token, the ability to trace a trouble In
new M33 integrated fire control system           QUESTION: You have set very high
                                                                                             a part which is authorized to be replaced,
it was decided to teach the complete          standards for admission to your courses.       is also usable to trace a trouble to any
system to one man. Formerly, one man          Is this necessary and does it not make it
                                                                                             other part.
learned the radar and another the com-        difficult to get enough students?
                                                                                                Actually the Department does not ill-
puter. This took six and five months each        ANSWER: The high standards are nec-
                                                                                             tempt to draw a line based on a list of
respectively. Each man had to go through      essary. The Department           has gone
                                                                                             tools and spare parts issued with the
basic electronics first. By combining the     through its records and calculated that,
                                                                                             piece of equipment. The guiding prin-
courses, two man months were saved.           of the personnel who entered the courses
                                              without the required prerequisites, about
                                                                                             ciple has been the training of a mainte-
   Actually the Department is making
considerable strides in reducing the          50% fail to finish. That is too expensive      nance man capable of keeping the equir-
length of the courses. The M33 system         in terms of money and energy wasted.           ment in operation in the field without
comprises two radars and a computer,          Actually, since the start of the Korean        dependence on the Technical Service.
yet the course is only two weeks longer       war, the Department has had no dif-            The Department feels that there will be
than the former SCR 584/M9 course.            ficulty in obtaining students. It draws        times under combat conditions when
With present plant and equipment, full        directly from the RTC at Fort Bliss, and       technictil service support is not tlllailable.
strength T ID and all present student         units in general have managed to find          When such conditions exist, the unit
quotas filled, the Department can turn        a fair number of qualified personnel to        commander should htllle tlllailable a
out sufficient maintenance men annually       send. Our present flow of graduates will       trained man capable of doing the maxi-
for present requirements. This rate was       meet the needs of the antiaircraft units       mum amount of maintenance if all types
set up because of the one year availability   in the present troop basis.                    of spare parts are issued to him.




     VERSATILITY OF RADIO SET AN I GRC-9
                                               By 1sf LT. ARTHUR B. NASH
                                              Radar Officer, 89th AAA Gun Battalion

ALTHOUGH             the rated maximum        headquarters, in the Baltimore area, and       windstorms. The terrain was moder-
range of the AN/GRC-9 is stated in            batteries of the battalion, which were         ately favorable in that it was generally
TM 11-263 as 25 miles when used in            rotating to Bethany Beach, Delaware,           flat with no serious intervening features.
stationary position, the 89th AM Gun          for service practice. Faced with the re-       Normal operating frequency being be-
Battalion recently used this set success-     quirement for an administrative com-           tween 6000 and 7000 kilocycles, or ap-
fully and consistently over a distance        munications net without incurring ex-          proximately the center of the set's fre-
of approximately 125 miles, for a period      cessive telephone bills, the battalion         quency range (two to twelve mega-
of almost a month. Communication              commander, Lieut. Col. Thomas H.               cycles), it was decided to continue the
was continuous and satisfactory for that      Barfield, directed the author to experi-       experIment at the usual frequency, even
entire period, and contact was made not       ment with various antennae, in order           though recognizing its characteristics of
only with the net control station but         possibly to establish the necessary cir-       short daytime and medium nighttime
with other stations in the net as well.       cuits. How this was done is described          range. It is interesting to note, in retro-
This unusual and gratifying perform-          in the following paragraphs.                   spect, that the frequency was particu-
ance of the AN/GRC-9 came about as               The tests were conducted during av-         larly appropriate as time of day appeared
the result of a requirement for reliable      erage mid-Atlantic seaboard winter             to have little if any effect on the success
communications between the battalion          weather, with good weather, rain, and          of the experiment.
32                                                                                                         ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
      ~Iany types of antenna were e:-.-peri-    found that a change of six inches in         to be the most satisfactorv. It was found
   lDented with and greatly varying ef-         any portion of the doublet assembly re-      that when usin!! the hand oenerator
I fectS were obtained.    Finally, after sev-   duced power output sharply. although
                                                                                                                ~             ""
                                                                                             several seconds should elapse between
I eral preliminary tests were made, it was      reception was only moderately affected.      the time the load indicator olows and
I decided    that a doublet type antenna        This limitation, particularly as it re-                                      '"
                                                                                             actual voice transmission begins, other-
'lI'Ould provide the optimum results.           lates to lead-in wires, was found to be      wise a "flutter" will be heard at the re-
   The lead-ins and radiators were cut to       a critical factor in determining the loca-   cei,'ing station. Also, steady operation
   exact lengths required for one-half wave     tion of the radio station itself. In this    of the hand cranks is particularly neces-
   radiators and lead-ins as given in Tl\l      particular instance, the aerial was sus-     sary to prevent fading and the conse-
   11-263. The entire assembly was made         pended about fifteen feet above the          quent need to repeat messages .
 • of field wire \V-IIOB. To avoid splices      ground, the radiators were terminated            Initial contact O\'er extreme range is
   the entire length of one radiator and        on insulators, and cord was used to fasten   hard to establish and patience and great
   lead-in was measured from one piece of       insulators to antenna supports. In an        care are needed. It was found advisable
   wire; the wire was then carefully sepa-      effort to make an exhaustive research of
                                                                                             to set aside a certain hour for makino
   rated to a point where the lead-in began,    the effectiveness of various types of'
                                                                                             initial contact, thus assuring the full   '"
I  and that point was taped to prevent
,further separation of wire. Thus the
                                                antennae, other types were tested, par-
                                                ticularly the long wire and whip types.
                                                                                             attention of operators at each station and
                                                                                             eliminating delay and confusion. Once
   tWO separated   pieces served as radiators   No contact, either transmission or re-
                                                                                             communication ~as been established it
   and the remaining twisted portion as a       ception, was possible when the whip
                                                                                             was maintained in routine fashion.
   lead-in. Copper wire, made into a more       was tested. \Veak and intermittent con-
                                                 tact was possible with a long wire an-          In evaluating this experiment, and
   permanent unit, may be used if obtain-
   able, or the antenna supplied with the        tenna, but only during late afternoon        the successful operation of the ANI
 , AN/GRC-9 can be used, provided the            hours. Because of the directive effect       GRC-9 over extreme distances, it is con-
   proper length of radiator and lead-in         of the doublet, local interference was       cluded that such range is feasible and
   can be obtained for the frequency uti-        reduced with this antenna, whereas           readily attainable     if the directional
    lized. It is important to note that no       with a whip or longwire assembly local       qualities occasioned by the arrangement
    subsequent changes in length of lead-in      coast guard and amateur stations could       described herein are acceptable to the
   or radiator should be made if satisfac-       be heard.                                    using unit. Such use indeed confirms
    tory results are to be expected. It was         Hand generator operation was found        the versatility of the "ANGRY-9."




                    Winterization of the AN ITPS-ID
                                            By CAPT. DUNCAN S. BOUGHNER
                                                    Radar Officer, 8th AAA A W Bn .

•
  DUE        to severe winter conditions        an MI8 four-wheel, two-ton generator         corners and both sides. The rafter to
  here at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., some         trailer. This trailer has outside jacks      left front is omitted to allow for the
4 method had to be found to winterize           on rear for stabilization and an excel-      pedestral unit. The door is in the cen-
  the AN(fPS-ID.       The tent supplied as     lent bracing dolly wheel in front. The       ter rear. The walls can be lined with
  a component part is not suitable for the      platform on the drawbar can be used          celotex or any other insulation for more
  extreme cold weather here. In trying          for mounting the PU-I04. We put a            comfort.
  out several methods of installation two       floor of I inch by 4 inch with 2 inch by        The units are stacked and facing as
  solutions became apparent, one of which       4 inch props in the trailer. The fly         follows: The antenna base and receiver-
  also presented an answer for a more           portion of shelter S-68(fPS-I D is used      transmitter, left front corner facing to
  mobile setup. Both solutions satisfy all      as a roof and held on by strapping           rear; the power supply and signal com-
  requirements without impairing the ef-        around the top of the framework. The         parator in right front corner facing to
  ficiency of the unit.                         walls are made of ~-inch plywood with        rear; the indicator and modulator are
     The first, which for lack of a better      2 inch by 2 inch frame. The roof has a       halfway toward the' rear on right side
  name we shall call the "Mobile i\'leth-       lengthwise beam, 2 inch by 2 inch with       facing left. The leveling jacks of the
  od," is constructed as follows: A five-       either 2 inch by 2 inch or I inch by 2       radar are only under the receiver-trans-
  foot-high removable cab was built around      inch rafters to right front, both real       mitter and antenna base units. The

    MARCH-APRil,    1953                                                                                                              33
antenna sections are carried in trucks        top of the \'estibule were removed and        but at right angles to the stack. T ~
with gas drums.                               2 inch by 6 inch bracing put under the        sliding curtains can be hung, screeni~
   Tests show that this arrangement pro-      vestibule    floor.  The   regular  tent,     the operator from light entering tht
vided maximum mobility. \ \lith wooden        S-68tTPS-l D. bracing cables and fly          windows. A work bench is installed or
bases with bolts holding the other two        were installed as normally prescribed.        one side of hut. The sto\'e is in tht
stacks. no difficulty was encountered as to   The tent falls on the sides of vestibule      opposite end of the hut from the radar I
stability either on good or bad roads, or     and is lashed there with rope. The fly        For fire protection a CO:? and a stand-
across rough terrain. The stacks did not      gives added weather protection and is         ard foam extinguisher must be aVai\.
sway or slide nor did it affect adjust-       held down on hut side by placing one          able, The CO:? extinguisher is for the
ments made before move other than to          of the six inch hut securing bands in its     radar; it will not damage the parts.
check level. The a\'erage time for            normal place with edge of fly under it.
                                                                                               This provides necessary winterizatiOll
getting on air from move was 25 min-          Remm'al of units is simplified in this
                                                                                            for the radar. \Ve have used a standard
utes. The unit itself, when on air, fur-      manner by removing fly, tent, antenna,
                                                                                            CP tent with curtains rolled up to
nishes enough heat to be comfortable          and the canvas end of vestibule onto a
                                                                                            house the generators whose exhaust ex.
even when it is zero degrees outside.         2Y.!-ton truck.
                                                                                            tensions are suspended out the windol\'.
   The second method employed docs               Inside the \'estibule the stack faces
not give the mobility of the method                                                         This allows sufficient protection for
                                              inward which simplifies cabling. The
described above but it does provide a         transmitter just clears the top of door.      maintenance and servicing without be- \
much more suitable place for operation        The servo amplifier unit in the antenna       ing e:\"}Josedto elements or danger from
and maintenance crews while on shift.         base unit can also be removed if neces-       exhaust fumes. Gasoline drums are On
   An M48, four section hut (James-           sary by removing the screen in ventila-       an open platform with a sheltering roof
way) was set up. In the vestibule the         tor above the door thus making all            outside of tent. A foam extinguisher is
stack was set up less the indicator and       units immediately available. The mod-         used in this tent.
modulator units, facing the inside of the     ulator and indicator units are set on a         These solutions offer a possible interim
hut. The inner door and the canvas            wooden platform just inside the door          or permanent utilization.




                         31st AAA Brigade Activities
   On 29 January 1953, I-Iq and Hq            noncommissioned       officers set. Other     Brigade until May.
Btry, 31st AAA Brigade, under com-            married personnel have had no diffi-             The grapevine has indicated that
mand of Brigadier General Eugene F.           culty finding adequate housing within         Colonel John C. Steele, Commanding
Cardwell,    moved from Fort Lewis,           six miles of the Base in the communi-         Officer Sth AAA Group, and Colonel
\Vashington    to McChord       Air Force     ties of Lakcwood and South Tacoma.            Henry D. Lind, Commanding Officer
Base, \Vashington. McChord Air Force          Hcadquarters     Battery is housed and        26th AM Group, will be leaving the
Base is the home of the 2Sth Air Divi-        messed in the "Castle," a large brick         command this summer for school. Colo-
sion, commanded by Brigadier General          barracks.                                     nel Steele to the National War College
T. Allen Bennett. Its mission is the              General Cardwell reports that Gen-        and Colonel Lind to the Army \Var
air defense of the Northwest Sector.          eral Bennett and all of the Air Force         College. Colonel H. G. Haskell has
Thus, the Army and Air Force head-            people at McChord have gone all out to        been ordered to the Sth AAA Group to
quarters responsible for the air and          make the 31st Brigade personnel com-          succeed Colonel Steele in command.
antiaircraft defense in the Northwest         fortable and welcome.                            Lt. Colonel Grant S. Green, former
are now located on the same reserva-              General Cardwell was on extended          Commanding Officer of the S13th AAA
tion. This close proximity will result in     TOY at Headquarters \Vestern Army             Gun Bn recently departed for overseas
improved coordination of planning and         AA Command in February and I\-larch           shipment.
operations.                                   between the departure of Brigadier Gen-          Lt. Colonels Charles F. Ottinger,
   McChord Air Force Base converted           cral Berry and the arrival of Brigadier       Arvid P. Dahl, and Arthur E. Holt
two adjacent 63-man barracks into com-        General i\kGaw.        The S2, Captain        have recently joined the Brigade. They
pletely adequate office space for the         vVilliam D. Knapp, and the 54, Captain        have been assigned as commanding
Brigade Headquarters.    By cross service     Kenneth V. Frankenfield, have been            officers of the 20th, 83rd, and Sl9th
agreement, finance, medical, post supply,     ordered overseas. Captain Frankenfield        Battalions respectively.
and communication      seI\'ices are fur-     has been replaced by Captain Joseph E.           i\'iajor Donn M. i\IcCann, executive
nished.                                       i\ larkee. The Brigade Radar Officer,         officer, 5th AAA Group, and Major
   From the small number of quarters          l\Iajor Floyd I-I. Bjorklund, is taking the   Leonard T. l-lansen, executive officer
available on the base, the Brigade has        short course at the Command and Gen-          518th AAA Gun Bn, have recently
been allocated one officers set and one       eral Staff College and will be lost to the    joined.
34                                                                                                       ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
                             ARMY PRIMARY PROGRAMS
                                                      By   LT. COL. WILLIAM L. THOR KELSON



,T   HE Army Primary Programs, some
fifteen in number, consist of a grouping
                                                           programs in no different sense than any
                                                           one of the Army Primary Programs. In
                                                                                                         ficer corps have received familiarization
                                                                                                         training in it at the schools. It was given
of practically all of the activities of the                fact the basic guidance for all unit train-   great impetus in the Department of the
:\rmy. These activities are so grouped                     ing directives, programs, and schedules       Army by Lieutenant General r.laxwell
into the Primary Programs that they can                    is Army Primary Program No.6, T rain-         D. Taylor, who placed much emphasis
be readily administered because each                       ing.                                          upon the Primary Programs in the ex-
program consists of related activities for                     The only really new thing about the       ecution of his responsibilities as Deputy
which specific objectives can be set. The                  Army Primary Programs is that they            Chief of Staff for Operations and Ad-
program system is a vehicle for better                     represent the first attempt to encompass      ministration. Last year the system was
management in the Army. The Primary                        practically all of the Army activities        adopted in the Fourth and Sixth Army
Programs and their subdivisions called                     within a single framework. \Vhile spe-        areas. It is being studied in certain o,'er-
activities are used by many individuals                    cific Army activities such as construc-       seas areas, and in the very near future
throughout the Army. Planners use                          tion of buildings have been programmed        will be adopted in all of the continental
them as a means of laying out future                       for many years, no single set of related      Armies.
courses of action in fair detail. Budg-                    documents stated and correlated most             The need for an all-encompassing
eteers use them as a means of justifying                   all Army activities. The program system       programming system was demonstrated
budget requests for future years. Gen-                     represents our long-standing concepts 01      by a number of things. Among these
eral Staff divisions follow them in carry-                 planning, of looking to the future, em-       were the findings        in 1949 of the
ing out their activities. Soon army com-                   bodied into a formalized framework en-        Commission on Organization          of the
manders and some overseas commanders                       compassing most of the activities of the      Executive Branch of the Government
will use them as basic guidance for their                  Army, and executed on a scheduled             generally known as the Hoover Com-
op~rations. Finally, program directors,                    basis. Also, the Programming System is        mission. The Commission recommended
the deputy chiefs of staff, and the Chief                  related to the JCS planning cycles, and       that the whole budgetary concept of the
of Staff, use them as a means of meas-                     is geared to the budget cycle of the Fed-     Federal Government be refashioned by
uring accomplishments       against objec-                 eral Government.                              the adoption of a budget based upon
tives. In other words, the Primary Pro-                        Program Management is now being           functions, activities, and projects which
grams of the Army are gradually be-                         taught in the Army 'Var College, and         they termed the "performance budget."
coming the basic guidance for most                          in time will become a subject of instruc-    The Primary Programs, since they are
Army activities.                                            tion at other general service schools.       functional groupings of activities and
   To understand       the Army Primary                     Some senior officers feel it will never be   can be related to the Performance Budg-
Program System or Program Manage-                           entirely effective until more of the of-     et structure prescribed by the Hoover
ment one must first approach the prob-
lem with a knowledge that there is no
great mystery involved. 'Vhile the Army
Program System is sometimes discussed                                                    DEPARTMENT OF ARMY
as a new innovation, there is really noth-                                                PRIMARY PROGRAMS
ing new about it at all. The Army has                                     Program                                               Director
always had programs. However, these                           Troop                                                         Gl
programs have been related to specific                        Command and Management                                        Gl
                                                              Military Personnel                                            Gl
fields of endeavor. For example, each
                                                              Civilian Personnel                                            Director, Civilian
one of us is familiar with training di-                                                                                        Personnel, OCS
rectives, training programs and training                      Intelligence                                           "      G2
schedules for all size units. These are                       Research and Development                                      Chief, R&D, OCS
                                                              Industrial Mobilization                                       G4
                                                              Materiel                                                      G4
                                                              Supply Distribution and Maintenonce                           G4
     Lt. Col. Thorkelson    first appeared      in the
                                                              Services                                                      G4
  March-April    1949 issue of the JOURNAL as
  author of "Activities    of the IX Air Defense              Installations                                                 G4
  Command"      in World War II. In 1946 he                   Construction                                                  G4
  served   with General     Cloy's    secretariat    in       Training                                                      G3
  Berlin and is now the G3 member               of the
                                                              Joint Projects                                                Appropriate   G's
  Junior Program Advisory Committee,           Deport-
  ment of the Army.                                           Notional Guard                                                Chief of NG Bureau


MARCH-APRIL,            1953                                                                                                                      3S
Commission, were a natural develop-            National      Security Act of 1947 as         activities. A forecast of the Anny man
ment from the findings of this group.          amended, and the experience gained in         power requirements for the year unde
                                               World War II which resulted in the            consideration to include the number II
                                               adoption of the Primary Program Sys-          individuals to be called each month
BUT          the findings of the Hoover        tion. In September 1949 a Planning            through the selective service system is
Commission, directed as they were to-          Manual entitled the Department of the         contained in this program.
ward better management, were not the           Army Planning System, FM 101-51, was             The Intelligence Program provides a
only impelling reason for the adoption         published. This was the first of four         statement of the intelligence activities
of a program system by the Army. The           field manuals covering planning and           of the Army, as does the Research and
unification hearings which started im-         program management at the Department          Development Program of the research
mediately after the end of World War           of Army level. In the summer of 1950,         and development activities. The Indus-
II and resulted in adoption of the Na-         a manual on the Program Management            trial Mobilization Program furnishes
tional Security Act of 1947, were di-          System, FM 101-54, was published.             guidance for the establishment and
rected at economy in the military serv-        This manual has been followed by a            maintenance of the Army's reserve pIant
ices. There were other reasons for the         number of Special Regulations which           capacity and industrial preparedness
passage of the Unification Bill, but cer-      delineate in greater detail the contents      measures in the event of a total war. The
tainly economy was one of the high-            of the Army Primary Programs and the          Training Program is the bible for all
lights of much of the debate on this           operations of the Primary Program Sys-        training activities.
measure.                                       tem. These are constantly being revised          The most important of the Primary
    In 1949 the Act was amended to give        and new regulations published as ex-          Programs, dollarwise, is the Materiel Pro-
the Secretary of Defense much more             perience is gained in programming.            gram. This program provides objectives
direct control over the budgets of the             The scope of activities included in       for the procurement of such major items
three Services. The budget became a            the Primary Programs can be seen from         of equipment as artiIIery, tanks, and ve-
basic tool of the Defense Secretary in         briefly looking at the contents of each       hicles, and small arms. Other items such
unifying and controlling the activities        of the fifteen Programs. The Troop            as bridging materiel, heavy materials
of the services. While it cannot be said       Program contains a statement of the           handling equipment, radios, guided
that these changes in the authority of         force structure of the Army. A tabula-        missiles, ammunition, special training
the Secretary of Defense alone were in-        tion indicates major units, that is, divi-    equipment and a multitude of other
strumental in the adoption of the Army         sions, regimental combat teams, and           items are also included.
Program System, still they had a very          separate battalions; it shows where the          Because of its importance, and be-
significant influence. The influence           units are to be deployed in the fiscal         cause it is iIIustrative of a program docu-
came in the realization by the Army            year under consideration, states the          ment, let us examine the Materiel Pro-
that through a sound program~ing sys-          composition of the General Reserve, and       gram in greater detail. The contents
tem it would be better able to defend          includes certain detail on the Reserve        of this very important document can
its requests for funds both before the         Forces Program. Basic recommendations         possibly best be iIIustrated by an ex-
Secretary of Defense and the Congress.         on force structure and organization of         ample, the M-47 tank. The requirement
    Another factor was the experience          units are made by G3, although Gl is          portion of the FY 1952 Materiel Pro-
gained in World War II which dra-              the director of this program.                  gram showed the number of tanks re-
matically illustrated the importance of            The second program is one entitled         quired for the active Army, for combat
"lead-time" in both training men and           the Command and Management Pro-                consumption in Korea, for peacetime
procuring materiel. Adequate programs          gram. This program consists of an ac-          consumption elsewhere, for the civilian
were required to balance the require-          cumulation of misceIlaneous activities         components, and for the Mobilization
ments of lead-time, both in personnel          which do not properly belong in tl].e          Reserve. These figures G4 computes
and in equipment, to produce a fighting        other Primary Programs. For example,           from the statement of units in the Troop
force capable of taking a given objective      it contains a statement of war and mo-         Program. The sum of these represented
at a specific time. All of this required       bilization planning, the military mis-         the total requirement. Next were indi-
detailed long range planning. Without          sions, budget responsibilities, statistics,    cated the quantity of M-47 tanks or-
such planning and programming of               legislative activities, and other miscel-      dered in FY 51 and the number of other
requirements, the necessary goods and          laneous activities. Gl is the director of      tanks on hand which were considered
materials, the tools of war, were not          the Command and Management Pro-                a satisfactory substitute item for the 1\1-
available to our fighting men when             gram while each of these segments is           47. The difference between this total
needed. This led to the development             the responsibility of the Assistant Chief     and the requirement total was the pro-
of a programming system which encom-           of Staff within whose purview the ac-          curement requirement for FY 1952.
passed more than the specific Army ac-          tivity largely falls.                            So far the figures were largely a mat-
 tivities related to a theater or operation;                                                  ter of computation. The next one, which
it led to the development of the Primary                                                      was the number of tanks to be procured
Program System which brought into              THE        Military Personnel Program          in FY 1952, represented the essence of
balance the many complex facets of our         provides for the management of military        programming. This was the program
modem military operations.                     personnel as individuals. It furnishes         objective for tanks and could be equal
    It is a combination of these factors;      guidance for assignment, promotion,            to or less than the tank requirement.
the Hoover Commission findings, the            separation, awards, and other personnel        Establishment of this objective required
36                                                                                                         ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
, balancing of requirements with the                         was changed, if necessary, to conform                                trial College of the Armed Forces.
,railable appropriations      and national                   to the number of dollars available for                                   Having examined the scope of the fif-
producti\'e capacity. This is the area in                    their purchase.                                                      teen Primary Programs in a brief fash-
which compromise and good judgment                              Other programs are the Supply Dis-                                ion, let us turn to the three phases of
are most essential. \Vhile G4 made the                       tribution and l\laintenance Program, the                             Program l\lanagement.      Program l'-.lan-
initial recommendation as to how many                        Services Program which contains the                                  agement is not a complex concept; it is
ranks should be included in this pro-                        requirements for the housekeeping and                                the exercise of command through pro-
<,ram. mam' other individuals could                          administrative support of the Army, and                              grams. Primary Programs are the basic
~odify this' decision.                                       the Installations Program which pro-                                 ingredients of Program Management.
   The most influential of these were the                    vides for the management of the fixed                                The three phases of Program l\lanage-
Chief of Staff, the Secretary of Defense,                    plant of the Army. Requirements for                                  ment are: the development of the Pri-
representatives of the Bureau of the                         new installations and for new structures                             mary Programs, the execution of these
Budget, the President, Congressional                         on existing installations are included in                            programs, and finally the review and
committees and finally the Congress.                         the Construction Program. Finally, the                               analysis of the execution of the pro-
Some changes were made by most of                            National Guard Program contains the                                  grams. (See chart)
rhese individuals. However, major modi-                      requirements of the National Guard,                                      The development of Primary Pro-
fication of the l'-.lateriel Program to in-                  and the Joint Projects Program provides                              grams, which consists generally of es-
clude all the items in support of these                      for those joint tasks in which the Army                              tablishing objectives and goals for each
tanks was not made until funds were                          participates. It furnishes guidance for                              program and the activities thereof, is
appropriated by the Congress. At that                        the Army participation in the Armed                                  accomplished in the Department of the
time the exact quantity of tanks and                         Forces Special \Veapons Project, the                                 Army long before the programs are to
other items in the l\lateriel Program                        National \Var College, and the Indus-                                be executed. In fact, the program ob-
                                                                                                                                  jectives and the programs themselves
                                                                                                                                   are prepared in advance of the prepara-
  PHASES                  OF PROGRAM                                     MANAGEMENT                                                tion of the budget for the same fiscal




                                                       , ,
 FOR FISCAL YEAR                                1955 (JULY 1954-JUNE                           1955)                              year. By this means the programs be-
    AUG - DEC 1952               JAN - FEB 1953                MAR -     De:: 1953                 JAN-J\JN    1954               come the basis for the Army's budget_
                                                                                                                                   request, and the request is defended
      PROGRAM                     PIIOGRAN                           AIINV                          APPROIIIA-



                        t
     08JECTIVES                   OOCUNENTS                         8UOGn                           nONS    ACT                    before the Congress in terms of the con-
                                                                         $                               $                         tent of the programs. The programs, like
                                         liS)                       FV   1655                        PU8LIC    L.w
                                                                                                                                   the budget, are prepared for a single
                                                                                                                                   fiscal year. To illustrate the lead-time
                                                               DOlLARS          PROVIDED       BY     APPROPRIATI                  required in the preparation of programs,
    DEYE lOPIl ENT                                                  .-                      AC~                                    it is interesting to note that in the fall
                                  TRAINING              NATEIlIEL                     MILITARY                    OTHEII
                                                                                                                                   and early winter of 1952-1953, the pro-
    JUNE   1954   PROGRAMS
                                  PR06lIAN              PR06lIAN                     PER5a'l1Cl.                PROgRAMS           grams for fiscal year 1955 were being
                                                                                      PlloeRAN
    REVISED   TO FIT OOL1.ARS                                                                                                      prepared.
                                                                                                                                      Following the preparation of the pro-
                                                                                                                                   grams, the budget which will provide
                                                                                                                                   the funds to support and carry out the
                                                                                                                                   programs is prepared and defended be-
                                                                                                                                   fore the Congress.       When Congress
                                                                                 II DAILY H£WS III
                                                                                                                                   passes the Public Law known as the
                       SCHOOLS    ~
                                                                                  40,000 NEN
                                                                                                                                   Annual Appropriations Act, money is
    EXECUTION                                                                     CALLED UP                   (JULY 1954-
                                                                                  THIS MOIffiI                 JUNE 1955)
                                                                                                                                   available for the Army to carry out its
                                                                                 ~~€g                                              programs. Frequently,      the appropria-
                     EXERCISES     ,',
                                                                                 ----
                                                                                 ----                                              tions are somewhat less than required
                                                                                                                                   to execute the programs as originally
                                                                                                                                   prepared. Therefore, on the appropria-
                                                                                                                                   tion of the funds the programs are re-
                                                                                                                                   vised so that they are in keeping with

                         tttt ,
                                                                                            PROGRAN

                                                     IIEPORTS FIlON                                                                the money available for their execution.
        INSPECTIONS                                  SUBORDINATE
                                                      CONNANDS                                                                     This revision includes processing of
                                                                                                                                   what are known as change orders to the
                                                                                            DIRECTOR
                                                                                                                                   Primary Programs, and preparing more
    REVIEW AND ANALYSIS                                                                                        PROGRESS            detailed changes to the schedules which
    JULY 1954 - JUNE /955                                                                              30       REPORTS
                                                                                 (PREPARED                    e>e.J£CTlVf-r        are developed from the programs.
                                                   Deots                          QUARTERLY            20       .-?-.
                             Cots                  OPNS a                         BY THE
                                                                                  COMPTROUfRI
                                                                                                             ~
                                                                                                        10 /ACGONPL' ..... ENTS
                                                                                                                                      During the fiscal year in which the
                                                   ADMIN                                                                           programs are in effect quarterly reviews
                                                                                                         o     '
                                                                                                              ,JIlL AUG SEP        of progress achieved are made. At this
                                                                                                                                   time each program director reports on
MARCH-APRil,           1953                                                                                                                                               37
the progress made during that quarter                                                         concept of balance. This is a term u
toward the achie\'ement of the objec-                                                          a great deal at the Department of A!lIf
tives established in his particular pro-                                                      le\'el and can mean a number of ~
gram. This is a most important step in                                                         ferent things. Generally, when balall<'t
Program i\lanagement, for it is at these                                                      is spoken of in regard to programmillt
quarterly redews that the Army top                                                            it means the status of equilibrium br.
management has an opportunity to see                                                           tween the fifteen primary programs
how well not just one, but all activities                                                      insure correlation of the combined OUl-
of the Army are proceeding in relation                                                        put of these programs. For example, tJ.
to the program which was established                                                          material procured under the 1\lateri
for these activities. The Comptroller                                                         Program must be adequate to suppoq I
of the Army has the responsibility for                                                        the forces contained in the Troop Pro-
presenting these quarterly reviews, and                                                       gram.
for formulating conclusions as to the                                                             Another expression of balance is bal-
relative accomplishment of all of the pro-                                                    ance within a particular program. For
                                               Lieut. General Lyman L. Lemnitzer              example, in the Construction Program,
grams.
    Having discussed the phases of Pro-                                                       the acquisition of land, the preparation '
gram Management, let us turn now to           G3, and G4 together with the Special            of necessary underground utilities, and
                                              Assistant to the Chief of Staff for Civil-      the proper locating of new construction
the responsibilities of certain senior of-
                                              ian Component Affairs.                          on a given installation, must all be car-
ficers in the Department of Army for
                                                 An unofficial group known as the             ried out on a definite time schedule.
programming.      The Deputy Chief of
Staff for Plans and Research, Lieut.          Junior Program Advisory Committee has           Imbalance would result when either fa.
Gen. L. L. Lemnitzer, has the responsi-       been organized at the Department of             cilities are constructed without regard
bility for preparing the program objec-       Army level to do much of the prelimi-           to the station master plan, or facilities
tives and for the initial development of      nary work for the Program Advisory              are built at an installation which does
the programs. This is his responsibility      Committee, The Junior Program Ad-               not require them to the extent that some
because he is in charge of over-all Army      visory Committee consists of action of-         other installation does.
planning, and" the programs in their          ficers representing each of the members             There are other meanings to this word
development phase are planning docu-         of the senior committee. The Program             "balance." Balance is sometimes inter-
ments. The Comptroller of the Army,          Advisory Committee is particularly ac-           preted to mean the proper equilibrium
Lieut. Gen. George H. Decker, takes           tive in the development phase of pro-           between active forces and mobilization
the programs and from them prepares          gramming. It also has certain functions          capabilities. This requires the Army to
the annual budget. Once the funds are        in regard to reprogramming after the             keep on an active status adequate troops
appropriated by Congress for the fiscal      Congress appropriates funds.                     to carry out its present requirements and
year for which the programs were de-             For each of the fifteen Primary Pro-        commitments, but not keep so many
vised, the Deputy Chief of Staff for         grams a program director is designated.          that money required to develop mobili-
Operations    and Administration,     now     (Chart 2) These program directors are          zation capabilities is spent fo; active
Lieut. Gen. Anthony C. McAuliffe, uses       with a few exceptions the chiefs of gen-         forces.
the programs as a management tool in         eral staff sections. G4 is the program              One of the big ad\'antages of an all-
determining the effectiveness of over-all    director for the largest number of Pri-         inclusive programming system is that it
Army operations. It is to him that the       mary Programs. Program directors are            brings together all of the operations of
quarterly review and analysis of Depart-     responsible for submitting drafts of pro-       the Army so that the question of bal-
ment of the Army programs is made.           gram objectives to the Program Advisory         ance is brought more clearly into focus.
                                             Committee, and on approval of the Pro-          \Vithout a programming system there
                                             gram Directive by the Chief of Staff,           is a natural tendency to consider balance

As      in any large organization, there
are a number of working groups in the
                                             the program directors prepare the de-
                                             tailed program documents. These in-
                                                                                             in the immediate problem at hand,
                                                                                             whether it be materiel, mobilization,
                                             dividuals then are responsible for the          force structure Of the general reserve, or
lower echelons who perform many of
                                             execution of the programs in the fiscal         any other pressing problem. Program-
the detailed operations and who sub-
                                                                                             ming, because of its all-inclusive nature,
mit plans to senior officers for approval.   year for which they are designed. This
                                                                                             brings to light the many different aspects
The Program Advisory Committee is            requires them to produce detailed sched-
                                                                                             of the problem of balance.
such a working committee. Its function       ules of snecific portions of the proorams
                                                       -                          b      '       The concept of balance then has par-
is to review and make recommendations        to make necessary modifications in the
                                                                                             ticular application in the preparation of
to the Chief of Staff on program ob-         programs, and to report quarterly on the        programs for future fiscal years. It is
jectives and programs. This committee        execution of their program during the           in the planning stage that the programs
is composed of General Lemnitzer's As-       fiscal year. In other words, the program        are so drawn up that the proper balance
sistant for Planning Coordination, Brig.     directors are the individuals carrvinob the
                                                                               •             between them, within each program,
Gen, Barksdale Hamlett, the Chief of         major responsibility for programming.           and between immediate requirements
the Budget Division, 1\laj. Gen. Geo.            An interesting and much discussed           and mobilization capabilities is estab-
Honnen and the Deputies of Gl, G2,           aspect of Program 1\lanagement is the           lished. After these Primary Programs
38                                                                                                        ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
                                                of the Army is still in its infancy. How-
                                                ever, since 1951 when the first real
                                                efforts to make it work commenced.
                                                there ha\'e been a number of significant
                                                achievements. In the fall of 1951 a set
                                                of abbreviated Army Program Docu-
                                                ments was prepared and used for fiscal
                                                year 1952 which of course is the period
                                                from July 1951 to July 1952. In early
                                                 1952, sets of program objectives were
                                                developed for both fiscal years 1953
                                                and 1954. The objecti\Oes for fiscal year
                                                 1953 were used in preparation of the
                                                budget estimates for the year, and the
                                                Army is today operating under the FY
                                                 1953 programs. As soon as funds are ap-
                                                propriated this spring for FY 1954, the
                                                programs for that year will be changed,            Lieut. Gen. George H. Decker
    Lieut. Gen. Anthony    C. McAuliffe
                                                if necessary. and become the operating
  are in the execution phase, balance is        documents for FY 1954 starting on 1            accomplished quite intelligently        once
  constantly checked both within and be-         July 1953.                                    the assumptions upon which the alter-
  tween programs by the program direc-               At the present time, the detailed pro-    nate objectives are developed have been
  tors and through the quarterly progress        grams for FY 1955 are in preparation.         accepted, because then a dollar figure
  reports. In this way there is a continu-       These will be available for preparation       can be placed on individual programs.
  ous check on such things as the con-           of the FY 1955 budget. It will be the         This is a most important consideration
  struction of barracks at the optimum           first time that not only the program ob-      in view of the express political trend
  time before they are required by the           jectives, but also the detailed program       towards cutting military expenditures.
  personnel enumerated in the l\lilitary         documents have been available for budg-       This requires that the Army must max-
~ Personnel Program. Also, programs are          et preparation.                               imize the funds it obtains from the
  a way of helping the program directors             For the past year quarterly progress      Congress. Consideration of alternative
  to do first things first. Since balance is     reports on the execution of Primary Pro-      objectives is one way of doing just this
  such a general term, when it is being          grams have been made to the Deputy            thing.
  discussed it is well to find out exactly       Chief of Staff for Operations and Ad-             Another major achievement in the
  which of the many aspects of balance            ministration, who in turn has made a re-      past year has been the statement of risks
  the speaker is describing.                     port to the Chief of Staff. This is a very     which has been prepared for use of the
     In terms of time sequence, the pro-         significant achievement, and one which         Secretary of the Army and the Chief
  gramming documents are firmly geared            has brought programming into focus at         of Staff in their budget justifications be-
  to the Federal budget cycle.      Programs      the Department of Army level more             fore the Congress. The risks are a state-
  are de\'eloped for each fiscal year, and        than any other programming activity to        ment of what effect a given budget has
  as stated earlier, are prepared approxi-        date. These progress reports are a very       on the combat readiness of the Army
  mately a year to a year and a half before       effective tool for top management, and        and its capability to perform its assigned
  the fiscal year to enable the budgeteers        Generals Taylor and McAuliffe have            mission. This information can be used
  to use the programs to develop the nec-         used them in exactly that sense. Fol-         by the Secretary or Chief of Staff with
  essary budgets and justification for them.      lowing each of these quarterly reports        a salutary effect when legislators are
  However, the Federal budget is not the          in which the accomplishments of the           bent on making across the board cuts.
  only planning document to which pro-            program against the objectives estab-            The Secretary of the Army, and his
  grams are related. Programs are closely         lished for it are reported, the Operations    assistants who occasionallv sit in as non-
  related to mobilization and war plans,          Deputy has taken corrective action if         participants at Program Advisory Com-
  both of the Army and of the joint staff.        it has not already been taken bv the          mittee meetings have found the program
  Recent efforts have been made to closely        program directors.                            system of the Army to be of major as-
  correlate the joint and service planning                                                      sistance to them in correlating the many
  with budget preparation.        The Army
  Program System is correlated very care-
  fully with this effort. It is in the devel-
                                                 IN     the past year the directors used
                                                 factors which have been developed and
                                                                                                different facets of Army operations. In
                                                                                                fact, recently ~Ir. Pace made the state-
                                                                                                ment that he thought the program man-
  opment phase of programming that the           refined both by the budget officer and         agement system of the Army was one
  greatest reference is made to these other      the G4 to make a flash cost estimate of        of the great forward steps taken in gov-
  basic planning documents.         However,     the program objecti\'es. This has en-          ernment in recent \'ears.
  changes in any of them would of course         abled the Program Advisory Committee              E\'en the failures and shortcomings
  necessitate reprogramming and program          in their consideration of program objec-       of programming have been an area of
  changes.                                       tives for a future year to also consider       achievement.     Because, where the pro-
     Program ~Ianagement in the Depart-          alternate sets of objectives. This can be      gram system was inadequate or where

  MARCH-APRIL,      1953                                                                                                                39
it became too much of an academic ex-            this method of controlling the armies'       program director. the control of the
ercise, changes ha\'e been made to im-           non-tactical operations. Programs also       ecution phase of the system has
proye program management. The system             need to be made more Hexible, and capa-      greatly imprO\'ed.
is constantly under study by the Gen-            ble of change and modification. Such             Programming will continue to p
eral Staff. During the past summer the           a step was made in October 1952 when         \'ide better management in the Armv
entire format of Army programs was re-           SR 11-10-3 was published prodding for        Effective programming will mean t'
viewed, simplified, and reduced in bulk.         schedule changes. Previously there was       Army will get more for its defense
   A great deal remains to be done to            no orderly provision for reHecting oper-     lar, largely through better balance of i
make program management        effective.        ating changes in the program schedules.      many acti\'ities. Finally, programmin
For one thing. the system will have to           Considerable confusion resulted. \Vith       forces people at all echelons to think
be extended throughout the army areas            the procedure now adopted for making         farther to the future. This in turn re-
and certain overseas commands in order           schedule changes according to prescribed     sults in more realistic development of
to achieve the maximum benefit from              criteria and with the appro\'al of the       future programs and budgets.




                        A FORMULA FOR SUCCESS.
              Delivered    as the Commencement          Address      to the Class of 1952 at the U. S. Naval    Academy.


                                 By ADMIRAL           WILLIAM M. FECHTELER, U.S. Navy
                                                       Chief   of   Naval Operations




I   SUPPOSE that from time immemo-
rial it has been the aim of those who
                                                 acquired the basic ingredients for full,
                                                 happy, and useful careers. \Vhat you
                                                                                             ever high may be your professional at-
                                                                                             tainments, without integrity you will
address classes of graduates to make an          have learned and absorbed here will re-     certainly fail of greatness.
attempt at presenting them with a formu-         main with you throughout life. Your
la for success.                                  attainments, however, must be wisely                          Industry
   It has been my observation, I regret          employed and constantly developed if           It may seem a little old-fashioned, but
to say, that such attempts to chart the          they are to serve you and your country      I shall remind you that you must work
path of the future for young feet to fol-        well. The use and development of your       hard. Industry is, I think, the second
low usually meet with something less             talents are now in your hands. From         ingredient of success.
than complete accomplishment.                    this day you become the responsible            Industry may be defined as the ap-
   There are probably many reasons why           party.                                      plication of one's efforts to a task or busi-
this is so. Only one reason is necessary                                                     ness. It was once the established pattern
to explain it, however. The reason is                               Integrity                of our society. I hear that hard work is
that the graduates are almost certainly             The essentials for your success con-     no longer regarded as the virtue which
thinking of other things. The entire             sist not alone of techniques, skills, and   it was once considered to be.
future of the young men lies before              knowledge.                                     Of this I can assure you, however: it
them; and already the plans for its en-             The first and the priceless ingredient   is still a virtue in the Navy and in the
joyment are being formulated in their            of success is integrity.                    other Services as well, and you will
minds.                                              Integrity is that quality of mind and    never reach such exalted rank that you
   It is inevitable that this be so.             spirit which we associate with honesty      can dispense with the business of hard
   I have a deep abiding interest in the         and good faith either in public or in       work.
progress and future happiness of the             private life. It implies a moral state of      All of the world's benefactors, the
members of the Class of 1952. Indeed             mind in which high principle and good       truly great men and women of all time,
the whole naval service shares my inter-         character are inherent.                     have been consecrated to their work. I
est. I am glad, therefore, to have this             Preserve your integrity. Do not lose     know of none who was not diligent and
opportunity of speaking to you on one of         your sense of decency.                      persevering.
the most important days of your life.               \Vithout these things you cannot serve
   You who are graduating today have             your country well; you cannot even live                        Thrift
                                                 a happy personal life.                         The third essential to success is thrift.
  *Reprinted with permission from the October
1952 issue, U. S. Naval Imlilllle Proceeding!.      However brilliant vou may be, how-          Like integrity and industry, it, too, is
40                                                                                                         ANT/AIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
an old-fashioned word.                             One's whole life may well be a prep--       The Service of your Country is a stern
   Thrift can be defined as the \vise use       aration for a brilliant success which, so taskmaster. It will make many demands
of human and material resources. It is          far as the world knows, was earned with- upon you and may be less than tolerant
ill1portant to all of you in your personal      in the scope of a few days or a few hours. of serious shortcomings. Remember that
affairs and it is important to your Gov-                                                    you are entering active service at a crucial
ernment that you do not \vaste its money                          Service                   time in your Country's history. You are
or its resources.                                  Integrity, industry, thrift, and profes- to be depended upon and you cannot
   The essence of thrift is to spend less       sional competence. These with one other afford to make mistakes.
than we receive. "If you know how to            attribute are the essentials of your suc-      Although the Service is rigorous, in it
spend less than you get," said Franklin,        cess.                                       you will find a life of satisfaction-a life
"you have the philosopher's stone."                The remaining attribute, and the most so attractive that those who leave it will
   Thrift requires the determination to         important ingredient of all, is the con- carry with them, more often than not,
hold to purposes and to keep first things       cept of service-a deep and selfless de- an abiding nostalgia for the Service and
first. It requires foresight and self-denial.   votion to your country.                     its ways.
                                                   You must approach your work with            Whatever you do, whatever happens
     Professional Competence                    the zeal and earnestness of a clergyman.    to you, there is always one thing over
   Your attendance at the Naval Acade-          Yours is a service and a responsibility which you will have absolute control.
my has put you well on the road to pro-         which requires dedication.                  It is that you can always do your best.
fessional competence. This competence              It is not merely a job-or even a posi- Usually your best will be good enough.
I regard as the fourth essential to success.    tion. It is a status.                          What I mean to say may be stated
   Never overlook an opportunity to in-            You must regard your career as an thus:
crease and exercise your professional           opportunity to serve. It is not a question     'Whether a man accepts from Fortune
skills. This is preparation for ultimate        of "What does the Service have to offer her spade and looks downward and digs
usefulness.                                     me?" But rather it is a question of or from Aspiration her axe and cord and
   It may well be true that the achieve-        "What have I to offer the Service?"         looks upward to scale the ice, the one
ment of extraordinary success with con-            As the years pass, you will find the and only success which it is his to com-
sequent advancement is largely a matter         path of duty complicated not only by mand is to bring to his work a mighty
of opportunity.                                 heavy responsibilities but also by con- heart."
   No man can make his opportunity.             flicting advice, and sometimes by heavy
He can only make use of such opportuni-         pressures from men who earnestly be-                       Conclusion
ties as occur. Many persons retire after        lieve themselves to be right.                  To you, young gentlemen of the class
years of solid achievement without hav-            Let me urge that throughout your of 1952, and to all of you who are gath-
ing had any great opportunity to dis-           careers in the Service, you adhere stead- ered here, let me affirm my unwavering
tinguish themselves.                            fastly to the simple virtues which have faith in the glorious future of our Coun-
   However, so far as I know, no one            given character to the lives of our great try. You are privileged to playa part
has ever distinguished himself in high          leaders.                                    in it.
places without long and faithful prepara-          I commend to you as guidance the            To you who are graduating today and
tion. Even should opportunity come to           words of Theodore Roosevelt when he who are about to take the oath of high
the man who is unprepared, he will be           said:                                       and honorable office, let me remind you
unable to take advantage of it.                    "Let us see to it that we neither do again that America looks to you for lead-
   Although no one can make his own             wrong nor shrink from doing right be- ership in a troubled time.
opportunities, success is not an accident.      cause the right is difficult; that on the      I have every faith that in peace and
   The surest way of rising to the top of       one hand we inflict no injury, and that in war you will serve your Nation un-
one's profession is by thoroughly master-       on the other we have a due regard for selfishly, faithfully, courageously, and
ing the details of each _duty as it is          the honor and interest of our mighty well; and that you will set an example
reached. When a man does that, fame,            Nation; and that we keep unsullied the to every American in the responsibilities
if it comes to him, is but an episode.          renown of the Flag which beyond all of citizenship.
His mind is fixed solely upon the full          others of the present time or of the ages      My congratulations and good wishes
development of his powers and the ef-           of the past stands for confident faith in go with you as you leave your alma
fective performance of his appropriate          the future welfare and greatness of man- mater.
work.                                           kind."                                         May God bless you every one.




MARCH-APRIL, 1953                                                                                                                    41
     1o'tt Bliss               flews

               AA OCS-A                                   PROGRESSREPORT
                                       By LT. eOL. GEORGE J. BAYERLE, JR.
                                                 Assistl1lzt Director   OCS Dezlt.

                                                                                                                                   I
THE       success of any school can be
measured only in the effectiveness of
                                            his commISSIOn after successfully com-
                                            pleting the rigorous course.
                                                                                           e\'a]uating the leadership potential or I
                                                                                           officer candidates. Not mentioned hol\. \
its product. Since the product of an           Class Number Tweh'c graduated on            c\'er, was the extra efforts made within I
officer candidate school is theoretically    19 i\larch 1953. With thc graduation          the comparatively short training period
an officer capable of effectively leading   of this class almost one thousand artil-       to give each candidate a broader insight
others in combat or in garrison, the        Icn' officers havc bcen commissioned via       into the full responsibilities and obliga-
yardstick for measuring the success of      candidate training at Fort Bliss. How          tions of an officer. ]n connection with
the Fort Bliss product rests with Anti-     are thcse officers performing? To answer       this, the school has solicited and ob- I
aircraft unit commanders throughout         this question a survey team of three of-       tained the fullest support from citizen •
thc world with whom our graduatcs           ficers visited individualh'     antiaircraft   groups in EI Paso, from interested De-
are serving. All wc at AA OCS can           units throughout       the United States.      partment of the Army and Army Field
do is to hopc that wc have given our        Unit commanders were interviewed in            Forcc rcsearch units, and from groups
graduates thc equipmcnt they need to        great detail concerning the progress of        of expcrienced educators. All of these
copc with the great responsibilities they   OCS graduates. The answers received            extra activities are pursued with only
are encountering in the field. \Vhilc       were completely reassuring. It was fur-        one objective in mind, that of produc-
wc may not yet have final and positive      ther ascertained that many are filling         ing the best possible junior oHlcer for
knowledge as to how our graduates will      positions of responsibility far beyond         our antiaircraft units.
measurc UD when faced with the on-the-      those for which they are trained at Fort           Few; iF any matters are overlooked.
job responsibilities of a 2nd Lieutenant,   Bliss.                                         Concerncd about the inadequate kno\\'l-
thcre isn't one officer on the staff and       Previous editions of the ANTIAlH-           cdgc the average young officer has of
faculty of the school who does not feel     CRAFT JOURNAL have carried articles            things financial, responsible EI Paso
a real glow of satisfaction as he sees      which covered such matters as the pro-         citizens were approached and requested
each candidate stcp forward to receive      gram of instruction and methods of             to provide qualified civilians to lecture




Reviewing officers and graduating class (Class No. 11) at graduation parade. Left to right: Maj. Gen. Haydon L. Boatner,
Deputy Commander Fourth Army; Co!. Kenneth R. Kenerick, Director, OCS; Captain James P. Anderson, Senior Tactical
      Officer, Class No. 11; Candidate Max D. Kitterman, Honor Graduate, Class No. 11 and the graduating class.
42                                                                                                     ANTIAIRCRAFT     JOURNAL
                                                                                                 1\ leyer (retired); Brigadier General Cle-
                                                                                                 sen Tenney (retired),       Dean at New
                                                                                                 i\lexico A & i\1 College; Dr. \\T. H. El-
                                                                                                 kins. President of Texas \\'estern Col-
                                                                                                 lege: ~Ir. Chris P. Fox; and many other
                                                                                                 noteworthy personages.
                                                                                                     Rather than feeling any smugness in
                                                                                                 the methods and practices employed in
                                                                                                 the de\'elopment of candidates at Fort
                                                                                                 Bliss, the school has had searching anal-
                                                                                                 ..
                                                                                                 \'ses made of these methods b\' dis-
                                                                                                 tinguished civilian educators and army
                                                                                                 psychological research units. Their find-
                                                                                                 ings ha\'e. without exception, placed a
                                                                                                 stamp of appro\'al on the policies, pro-
                                                                                                 cedures and operation of the school;
                                                                                                 their recommended changes have in each
                                                                                                 case co\'ered only minor matters and
                                                                                                 have where possible, been incorporated
                                                                                                 into the svstem. The officer candidate
                                                                             u.s.   Armv Photo   school however, will ne\'er be satisfied
  Distinguished Graduates of a.es. Class 12 are congratulated by Colonel k. R.
• Kenerick, a.es. Commandant.      Left to right: Jack H. Thomas, Kenneth WI.                     that the system cannot be improved. As
  Leaver, Colonel Kenerick; Robert H. Ketchum, honor graduate; Richard B. Sulley,                 time and experience dictate, progressive
                   Thomas e Nelson, and Robert L. Schrodetski.                                   changes will be made in order to con-
                                                                                                  tinue providing antiaircraft      artillery
 candidates on savings, investments, in-       while at Officer Candidate School. The             units with the finest officers possible.
 surance and legal matters. The response       book is comparable to the best annuals               The school is always interested in the
 was typical of El Paso. Through the           and yearbooks published in the univer-
                                                                                                 comments of field commanders concern-
 good offices of i\ Ir. Chris P. Fox, Vice     sities. Yet this must be done in the
                                                                                                 ing any aspect of OCS operations. Simi-
 President of the State National Bank.         candidate's free time.
                                                                                                 larly, the school is extremely interested
 these experienced civilians were pro-             Intensive efforts are continuallv made        in the role commanders play in the rec-
 I'ided and each candidate class receives      to provide the candidate with every tool          ommendation and selection of enlisted
 a thorough orientation on subjects which      he'll need to make a success of his com-          applicants for OCS. It is imperative
 are so necessary to the young officer in      missioned career. Guest lecturers are             that enlisted men under consideration
 handling his personal affairs and in          presented whenever it is believed the             for any OCS are sincere and earnest in
 guiding and assisting the men in his          speaker has something worthwhile to               their desire to become an officer; that
 unit.                                         offer the potential officer. All these ac-        they have been adequately oriented in
    Realizing the importance the distaff       ti\'i~ies culminate in the impressive grad-       the nature of the training they will re-
 side has on the career of an olllcer, the     uation ceremonies which take place each           ceive-training  which will prepare them
 wives of officer candidates are given a       month.       Here again, the graduation           for the responsibilities of an officer-
 thorough briefing in "Customs and             speaker is chosen with great care. Among          training of 22 weeks duration which is
 Courtesies of the Service." In these brief-   those who have aCldressed graduating              exacting and demanding-training          in
 ings matters affecting army protocol and      classes arc Congressman Ken Regan, lo-            which they will undergo constant super-
 proper dress arc discussed. The interest      cal representative to the United States           \'ision and e\'aluation.   It's a diffIcult
 shown by the young wives in these dis-        Congress; Honorable Robert E. Thoma-               way to ge: a commission but a wav
 cu"sions has been gratifying.                 son, Federal District Judge and onetime            which will pay di\'idends for life.
    If you don't know how to dance,            United S~ates Congressman, father of
 come to Antiaircraft Officer Candidate        the well remembered Thomason Act;
 School. \Veekly dancing classes are pro-       Lieutenant      General   \Villiam   I-loge,
 I'ided for those candidates whose terpsi-     Commander of the Seventh Army; i\la-                     As we go to press, information
 chorean abilit\, is on the weak side.         jor General Haydon Boatner, Deputy                    has been received that the AAA
 Remember, all this must be sandwiched          Commander of the Fourth Army and                     OCS at Fort Bliss will phase O1lt
 in with the regular technical and lead-        famous for subduing communist rioters                with the gradl/ation of tile last
 ership training, and constitutes only a       in Koje Prison; ~Iajor General Terry                  class in JIIly. After that, AAA
 part of the candidate's extracurricular       Allen (retired)      famed wartime com-               OCS stl/dents will train at Fort
 activity. Each class prepares a class book     mander of the 1st and 104th Infantr\'                Sill.-ED.
 delineating the activities of that class       Di\'isions; ~ lajor General G. Ralph




 MARCH-APRIL,      1953                                                                                                                    43
                                                    Bliss Unit Gets Streamers                 Bliss, was recently re-assigned to the ~
                                                   The 531st AAA A\V Battalion recent-        East Command, where he is assigned as
                                                ly received battle streamers for its \Vorld   chief of staff, Ryukyus Command <-.
                                                \Var II sen'ice, in a ceremony held on        Okinawa.
       Movie Makers at Bliss                    Noel Field, Fort Bliss.                          He has been succeeded by Colonel
    Shooting of the l\letro-Goldwyn-i\lay-         Distincti\'ely a Fort Bliss unit, the      Arthur A. Adams who was formerly O!l
er picture, "Take The High Ground,"                                                           duty in the G3 Section, at Center Head-
                                                53lst was activated in July 1942 and
opened at Fort Bliss on February 5.                                                           quarters.
                                                reactivated here in July 1952 where it
    The post is cooperating in filming          is again .undergoing training.
the picture which has been appro\'ed                                                             Lt. Col. Gay E. Miller has assumed
by the Department of the Army.                                                                command of the 495th AAA Battalion,
    'Take The High Ground" will be a                                                          replacing Lt. Col. James E. i\loore who
full-length rough-comedy feature.         Its                                                 has been assigned as Assistant G3 at
title is derived from a famous infantry                                                       Center Headquarters.
command spoken throughout           history,
'Take the high ground and hold it."                                                              New executive officer of the 6th AAA
                                                                                              Group is Lt. Col. Gordan G. Walters. \
        Addresses      Graduates                                                              He has been succeeded by Lt. Col. Phil- '
   Dr. Wilson H. Elkins, president of                                                         lip J. GunOlach as CO of the 531st AAA
Texas "'estern     College at El Paso,                                                        Battalion.
Texas, delivered the commencement ad-
dress at graduation ceremonies for Class                                                              More New Buildings
No. 10, Antiaircraft Artillery Officer                                                           Ground-breaking ceremonies for three
Candidate School at Fort Bliss, January                                                       more new permanent-type         buildings-
22.                                                                                           part of the huge expansion program now
   Following Dr. Elkin's address, l\lajor                                                     under way at a cost of $291,112.
General S. R. 1\ lickelsen, Commanding                                                           The three structures include a field
General of Fort Bliss, presented diplo-                                                       printing plant and two shop and labora.
mas to 47 graduates, who were sworn             Coat of arms of the S31st AAA A \'\1Bn.       tory buildings. The latter are to be used
in as second lieutenants in the Organ-          The gold lion on the black shield of its      by the Gunnery and Electronics Depart-
                                                blazonry recalls that the unit was cited      ments of the School.
ized Reserve Corps.
                                                by the Belgian Army and received the              The symbolic "first shovelful" of earth
                                                Fourragere for action in Belgium and
         ROK Officers Study                                                                   for the new construction was turned by
                                                in the Ardennes. The fleurs-de-lis sym-
   Two Republic of Korea Army officers          bolize the battalion's campaigns in Nor-      l\lajor General Stanley R. Mickelsen.
are among the Allied officers currently         mandy and Northern France and the                 Other military officials present in-
enrolled as students in the Antiaircraft        battle-axe is used to represent its par-      cluded: Brig. Gen. Hobart I-Iewett, As-
and Guided Missiles Branch of The               ticipation in the Rhineland and Central       sistant Commandant of the School; Col.
                                                European Campaign. The Latin motto
Artillery School at Fort Bliss.                                                               Peter Shunk, head of the Electronics
                                                       Means "\X'e speak with tire."
   Brig. Gen. Kim Kai Won and Col.                                                            Department; Col. T. H. \Vatkins, direc.
Lee Hi Tai are students in the Artillery               To Far East Command                    tor of the Nonresident Instruction De-
Officers Advanced Course, studying U.              Colonel \Villiam J. \Vuest, command-       partment; and Col. Joy 1'. \Vrean, head
S. antiaircraft artillery tactics, techniques   ing officer of the 6th AAA Group since        of the Gunnery and Materiel Depart-
and materiel.                                   its reactivation in February, 1952, at Fort   ment.




  This giant German V-2 rocket tinds its ultimate duty in              Major General S. R. Mickelsen breaks ground for one of a
  welcoming visitors as they approach Center Headquarters.                     group of new buildings for the School.
44                                                                                                          ANTIAIRCRAFT      JOURNAL
                                                                                                well's personal papers, first opened in
                                                                                                i\ la\' 1950.
, [_B_O_O_K_R_E_V                                           _IE_W_S                        II       This volume traces the origins of the
                                                                                                prewar program of the U. S. for equip-
                                                                                                ping the Chinese Army, de\'elops the
   YOUR WAR FOR PEACE by Frank L.                and both are competent historians. They        unusually complicated command situa-
   Howley. Henry Holt & Company. 166             did not collaborate.     Dr. i\ lacDonald      tion that developed in the CBI Theater
   pages.    $2.75.                              wrote the stories of Arnaville and Sch-        and concludes with Stilwell's decision
                                                 midt, Dr. i\lathews wrote of Altuzzo.          reached in October 1943, "I have about
        Brio. Gen. Hawlev writes this book
           "               .                     The latter had the unusual opportunity         reached the limit of what I can do." As
   III  his usual forthright style after a re-
                                                 of going over the battlefield a few days       General Orlando War, Chief of Mili-
  ":fnt trip to Europe. It is just about
                                                 after the engagement in company with           tary History, states in the Foreword
    IIhat you would expect from the tough
                                                 many of the surviving combatants. In           "Reading the history of the China-Bur-
    minded first military governor of Berlin.
                                                 all three articles the stage is set by an      ma-India Theater will be an eye opener
    Hisbook is just as dynamic and positive
                                                 explanation of the general plan followed       and a lesson to those who, in the future,
    .IS were his activities in Berlin through
                                                 by the instructions which were given to        have to deal with allies in far distant
    [heair lift days.
                                                 the small units e>..-pected to execute         lands about whom so much should be
        How refreshing and natural. 'They
                                                 them. Every detail of each action is           known and so little is."
   areout to get us and we had better get
                                                 then described, down to the movements              To make it easier for the reader, each
    them first. ... The greatest vulnerability
                                                 of privates with a significant role. The       chapter ends with a clearly written sum-
   of the Russians in economic, political,
                                                 picture is as complete as the available        mary. In short, this volume sets a high
   military, and psychological fields is their
                                                 e\'idence permits.                             standard that we trust will continue
   mability to change ....        We should
                                                                                                throughout this series.-\V.C.F.
 'leep them so busy worrying about what
                                                 WINCHESTER by Harold        F. William-
   wewill do next in Berlin that they will                                                         Received      and   Noted    Briefly
                                                 son.  494 pages,   8 by 11. Combat
   not have time to carry out a plan in
                                                 Forces Press. Price $10.00.                    THE APPROACH TO THE PHILIPPINES.
   Shanghai....        \Ve should withdraw
                                                                                                By Robert R. Smith. (United States
   the respectability of recognition which          The advent of the repeating riRe and        Army in World War II; The War in
   the present criminal organization in the      the winning of the \Vest. This is more
                                                                                                the Pacific.!   The Supt. of Documents,
   Kremlin enjoys. \Ve should put an end         than history of the conquest of a con-
                                                                                                Washington,      D. C., 600 pages, $5.50.
   to the farce of joyously bowing to them       tinent, it is also a saga of the growth
   at social functions, while they stimulate     of an important segment of American               It deals principally with the amphibi-
   warfare which is killing our people ....      industry. It shows the development of          ous and ground operations along the
   We must substitute actions for words,         a small gunsmith's shop in the early           New Guinea Coast in 1944. It is of
   and determination for timidity."-C.S.H.       decades of the 19th Century and the            interest to the military student and to
                                                 inRuence it had as it expanded on the          those who engaged in these or like
  UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD                    nation in war and peace.                       operations.
  WAR II. THREE BATTLES: ARNAVILLE,
                                                                                                THE CAMPAIGN         ON NEW BRITAIN.
  ALTUZZO AND SCHMIDT. By Charles                STILWELL'S MISSION TO CHINA.             By
                                                                                                By Lt. Col. Frank O. Hough,      USMCR,
  B. MacDonald     and Sidney    T. Math-        Charles   F. Romanus      and Riley Sund-
                                                                                                and Major John A. Crown,         USMCR.
  ews. U. S. Government      Printing  Of-       erland.  (United States Army. in World
                                                                                                220 pages,    $3.75.
  fice. 460 pages.    Maps and iIIustra-         War II; China-Burma-India         Theater)
                                                                                                THE MARINES IN THE CENTRAL SOL-
F. lions.   Price $4.00.                         Washington,     Superintendent    of Docu-
                                                                                                OMONS.      By Major    John   N. Rentz,
                                                 ments 1953.     Pp. xix, 441. $5.00.
    The Historical Section, in this vol-                                                        USMCR.     186 pages,   $2.75.
 ume, undertakes a new line of attack               The first of a three-volume subseries
                                                                                                   These two books are part of a series
 on the problem of presenting American           on the history of the U. S. Army in
                                                                                                being prepared by the Historical Branch,
 participation in the late war to contem-        China in \Vorld \Var II, this volume
                                                                                                Headquarters U.S.M.C.     Both are pub-
 porary students. The three battles were         relates in a most interesting manner the
                                                                                                lished and sold by the Supt. of Docu-
 not selected because they are important         intricate problems that confronted Gen-
                                                                                                ments, U.S. GPO, \Vashington, D. C.
 ones, but partl}: because they are typical      eral Joseph \\T. Stilwell in his efforts to
                                                                                                They deal with the Marine landing
 of many other actions and partly be-            carry out the order of General George
                                                                                                and ground action in the New Georgia
 cause data are reasonably abundant. In          C. i\ larshall to improve the combat ef-
                                                                                                Islands and on New Britain as the
 a way, therefore, the celebrated studies        ficiency of the Chinese Army and to
                                                                                                allies set out from Guadalcanal to neu-
 of Ardant du Picq are now repeated              increase the effectiveness of U. S. aid
                                                                                                tralize Rabaul.
 after seventy-five years: this book tells       to China. Compiled in the Office of the
                                                                                                   Thev are of interest to the casual
 what really happens to human beings             Chief of Military History, Department
                                                                                                milita~' reader and to the veterans who
 in action. It also explains to a present-       of the Army, as one of the volumes in
                                                                                                participated in like campaigns.
 day company commander how important             the Army's History of \Vorld \Var II,
 training in fundamentals is to later suc-       it is well arranged, thoroughly docu-          CAN RUSSIA SURVIVE?        By F. B. Czar-
 cess in battle.                                 mented and carefully indexed. Its value        nomski.   Philosophical     Library.  126
    The authors both served in the Army          is enhanced by the use of General Stil-        pages.  $2.75.

 MARCH-APRIL,         1953                                                                                                                45
                                                                  Gen. Armstrong    bids farewell to Col. \X'illiam A. Cauthen
                                                                                        at Camp Stewart.

              Maj. Gen. Aaron Bradshaw                                             Gen. Armstrong         Retires

          Former JOURNAL           Editor Retires
                                                                  BRIGADIER          GENERAL CLARE H. AR1\ISTRONC
                                                                  retired March the 31 st for physical disability at \Valter
MAJOR          GENERAL AARON BRADSHAW,                JR., re-    Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D. C.
tired January the 31st for physical disability in Heidelburg,         General Armstrong graduated at \Vest Point in 1917 and
Germany, after more than 35 years of service.                     served in the Infantry until 1921 when he transferred to the
   Graduating from the l'vlilitary Academy in 1917, he served     Coast Artillery.
with antiaircraft in France in \V\"/1. An aggressive AAA              In 1943 he took command of the 50th AAA Brigade,
leader ever since, he served as the editor of this JOURNAL        serving with it a short while in England. Landing with the
from 1936 to 1940. (Sce article beginning on page 2.)             First Army in Normandy, his Brigade later served with the 1
   In 1942 Gcneral Bradshaw servcd with antiaircraft in           Third Army in its movement across France.
North Africa. I-Ic thcn commandcd the 34th AAA Brigade                Late in 1944 General Armstrong organized the "Antwerp
wi:h thc Scvcnth Army through the Sicilian campaign.              X" command for the antiaircraft defense of that vital port
   In 1943 he commandcd thc 35th AAA Brigade with the             against the German V bombs. The 56th U.S. Brigade and
VI Corps in Southern Italy nnd moved on in 1944 to                the 80th British Brigade were attached to the 50th Brigade.
command the antiaircraft defenses of Anzio. After that            The defense continued under his command till April, 1945
he took ovcr the Antiaircraft Command of the Fifth Army           when the V bomb attacks ceased. During that time his
to participate in all the Italian campaigns.                      antiaircraft gunners brought down 2281 German V bombs.
   His last assignment was as G4 of USAREUR.            Upon      The port continued to function every day during the siege
his retirement Generali\ [anton Eddy, Commander-in-Chief          and General Armstrong achievcd his reputation among the
in his praise emphasized that, "General Bradshaw's planning,      citizens of that city as the "Saviour of Antwerp."
foresight, and drive and energy in getting monumental tasks          War Decorations: DS1\'[, BSM (OLC), CR.
accomplished have contributed greatly to the present degree          After the \Var he served as the Military Attache at Brus.
of readiness of this command."                                    sels, Belgium, until 1950 when he returned to take com.
   War Decorations: DSM, SS, Li\[ (OLC), BSM, CR.                 mand of Camp Stewart, Ga., whcre he promptly organized
   General and i\ Irs. Bradshaw now reside at 6606 Barnabv        that active AAA Training Center.        He relinquished his
St., N.W., Washington, D. C.                                  .   command at Camp Stewart on February the 20th to Colonel
                        ".    ".   ".
                                                                  William A. Cauthen, his Chief of Staff.
   Brigadier Genera[ Robert \V. Berry, formerly Command-             Brigadier General Richard \V. l\Iayo, rccently promoted
ing General of the \Vestern Army AA Command at Hamil.             after his outstanding service with the 5th F.A Group in
ton Air Force Base, California, departed in February for          Korea, has now arrived to take the command.
the United States European Command Headquarters to take                                   ".   ".    ".


over his duties there as Dircctor J I.                                         General Officer Assignments
   Brigadier General Edward J. i\ IcGaw relieved General             l\lajor General Walter L. \Veible, formerly Chief of the
Berry as the Commander in the \Vestern Army AA Com-               Logis;ics Division, SHAPE, recently reported for duty at
mand. His last assignment was as the artillery commander          Headquarters, Fifth Army to become the Deputy Command-
of the VI Corps at Camp Atterbury, Indiana.                       ing General.
46
                                                                                                    ANTIAIRCRAFT    JOURNAL
                                                                                            National    Guard Exam for USMA

 --                                                                                                         1954-55

                                                                                               Enlisted members of the Armv and
                  ?2ews and Comment                                                         Air National Guard with one fuil year
                                                                                            of military service may apply for' the
                                                                                            annual competitive examination for en-
                                                                                            trance to the United States i\lilitarv
                                                                                            Academy.                                 '
                                             31st after more than 41 "ears of service.         Age limits are from 17 to 22 vears
       The JOURNAL          Merger
                                             He has served during th~ past two years        on July I, 1954. Minimum educational
   In the merger proposal ballot, which
                                             as Chief of the Career Record Analysis         requirements call for a high school di-
 dosed on i\larch the 2nd, the members
                                             Branch in the Adjutant General's Office.       ploma or the equivalent.
 voted to authorize the Executive Coun-
                                             Colonel and i\ Irs. Haw plan to make              Application should be made through
 cil to effect a merger with The Associa-
                                             their home in California.                      the respective state Adjutant Generals
 lion of the U. S. Army and to merge
                                                                                            to the Adjutant General, Department of
 this JOURNALwith the Combat Forces
                                                Colonel Lawrence C. i\litcheli retired      the Army for authorization to take the
 Journal. Accordingly,       the Council
                                             for physical disability in \Vashinoton '       annual \Vest Point designation examina-
 promptly began negotiations to make                                             0
                                                    ~                  J



                                             D. G, February the 28th after more             tion. Those making the highest scores
 final arrangements for and to effect the
                                             than 35 years o'f service. For the past        will be appointed cadet candidates and
 merger.
                                             few years Colonel Mitchell has also            will be eligible to take the regular com-
    It has been found impracticable, how-
                                             served in the Career Records Analysis          petitive entrance examination in i\ larch
vrer, to complete the necessary arrange-
                                             Branch, TAGO. Colonel and Mrs. ~Iit-            1954 for entrance in July.                '
 ments satisfactorily by the original tar-
 get date of May the 1st, as was once        chell reside in Falls Church, Virginia.
                                                            ".    ".       ".                  R. I. Guard Unit \Vins Trophy
 anticipated. TIle Council intends to
                                                Colonel Edward B. i\IcCarthy retired                     Five Times
 work out all the arrangements involved
 in the merger in a thorough and busi-       for physical disability at Fort' Devens,
                                                                                               Award of the Eisenhower Trophy for
 nesslike manner and is devotinoo its ef-    i\lass., on February the 28th after more
                                                                                            the fifth consecutive year was made to
 forts toward that end. \\Then those         than 35 years of service. I-lis last assign-
                                                                                            Battery C, 243rd AAA Gun Battalion '
                                                                                                  ,
 arrangements     are agreed upon, the       ment was as the Post Executiye. Colonel
                                             and Mrs. McCarthy are residing in              commanded by Capt. Cortland Clarke,
 merger date will be fixed and an-
                                             \Vellesley, Mass.                              Rhode Island National Guard.       The
 nounced.
    i\leanwhile we continue to publish
                                                            ..    ".       ".               unit, in Bristol, R. I., has been rec-
 the ANTIAIRCRAFTJOURNAL and carry              Colonel Volney \V. \Vortman will re-        ognized as outstanding every year since
 on other Association operations in our      tire for age in Washington, D. C., on          the award's inception in 1948.
                                                                                                                       ".
 normal procedure until the arrange-         April the 30th after more than 35 years                       ".    ".



 ments are completed.                        of service. He has also served for the            The Chief of the National Guard Bu-
                                             past two years in the Career Records           reau has recently announced the follow-
                                             Analysis Branch, T AGO.
                                                            ..    ".       ".
                                                                                            ing trophy winners:
                                                                                               202nd AAA Detachment       (RCAT)
                                                Colonel Carl B. Wahle retired for           won both the Pershing Trophy in the
                                             physical disability at Walter Reed Army        First Army area and also the State of
                                             Hospital on February the 28th after 32
                                                                                            i\hssachusetts National Guard Trophy.
                                             years of service. His "last assignment was
                                                                                               Battery C, 265th AAA AW Battal-
                                             in Charleston as the Senior Military In-
                                             tructor with the \Vest Virginia' Na-           ion was awarded the State of Florida
                                             tional Guard.                                  National Guard Trophy.
                                                Colonel Fred J. \\Toods retired for            Battery A, 204th AAA AW Battalion
                                             physical disability on i\ larch 31 at Let-     was awarded the State of i\lississippi
                                             terman General Hospital in San Fran-           Guard Trophy.
                                             cisco after thirty years of service.              Hq & I-Iq Battery, 120th AAA Gun
                                                                                            Battalion was awarded the State of
                                                        New 10th Group          CO          New i'lexico Guard Trophy.
      Col. Hennessy at Nuernberg                                                               Hq & Hq Battery, 236th AAA Group
    Colonel Harold P. Hennessv is now          Colonel Charles G. Dunn has as-
                                                                                            was awarded the State of \Vashington
 Deputy Commander of the N'uernberg          sumed command of the 10th AAA
                                             Group in Korea, relieving Colonel              Guard Trophy.
 ~lilitarY District in Germany.
          ,                   ,                                                                 Battery C, 945th AAA Bn., Delaware,
                                             George R. Carey, who is now Deputy
              Retirements                    G3 at Eighth Army Headquarters. Co!.           Eisenhower Trophy.
   Colonel Joseph C. Haw retired for         Dunn was previously the deputy post                Battery 0, 113th AAA Bn., Iowa,
 age in \Vashington, D. C., i\laI;ch the     commander at Fort Bliss.                        Eisenhower Trophy.
 MARCH-APRIL,     1953                                                                                                               47
     SKYSWEEPER UNVEILED AT FORT MYER




                                                                                                                                   l




                                              Antiaircraft's   latest automatic weapon




DEi\'IONSTRATED               For the First   the gun is an auxiliary sight which the      human hands.
time in the vVashington, D. C. area, the      operator can use to direct the gun to a          Rate of fire is 45 rounds a minute. A
AntiaircraFt Artillery's newest answer to     more critical target or to one in an area    half-minute supply of ammunition is on
low-Hying enemy planes was on public          where the radar is not currently scan-       the carriage.
display recently at Fort Myer, Va.            nmg.                                            The 300-pound magazines can be in.
   The new 7Smm AA piece loads, aims,            \Vith the information from the radar,     serted by a trained crew in less than
tracks and fires automatically. Only Four     the computer directs the aiming of the       IS seconds. With enough loaders and
operations are required of the gunner.        gun. This occurs when a "deadman"            the ammo properly distributed, the gun
The first is to load the gun. Two 11-         foot pedal is depressed, stopping scan-      can fire for as long as necessary.        f
round magazines carry the load. The           ning by the radar and starting it' track-       The service tests of the Skysweeper
shell weighs I2~ pounds, carries a prox-      ing. This is the third step that the         were done by Army Field Forces Board
imity fuse.                                   gunner must take.                            No. 4 at Fort Bliss where MA bat-
   Second step is to start the radar scan-       vVhen the gun is set to track, the        talions are undergoing training in the I
ner, an integral part of the gun. The         computer takes the inFormation From the      complex details of operating and main- ~
radar set, on the left front of the mount,    tracking radar and transmits directions      taining the new weapon. Skysweeper
sweeps the sky once every 40 seconds          to the servo-motors which move the bar-      fire control and gunnery courses are be-
to a IS-mile radius. InFormation that         re!. The computer automatically figures      ing conducted at the AAA and Guided
returns to the dish antenna mounted           speed, range and the course of the target.   Missile Branch, The Artillery Schoo!.
on the top of the radar console feeds to      It also figures the necessary "lead" so         There is also a 37-week course in
the computer mounted on its own con-          that a shell will arrive at the correct      maintenance at the Aberdeen Proving
sole on the right front of the mount, and     point in the target's path.                  Grounds.
to scopes on the radar control panel             The gunner then presses the firing           Auxiliary equipment includes the 1\18
where it can be monitored.                    button. vVith this fourth step, the gun      Army cargo tractor and motor-dri\'en hy-
   One scope is used while the radar is       fires automatically.  It is Fed, rammed      draulic jacks used to emplace the gun
scanning, another while tracking. Off         and the cases removed, untouched by          for firing,




48                                                                                                      ANTIAIRCRAFT     JOURNAL
                                                                         ANNUAL         FINANCIAL    REPORT
                                                                            ANTIAIRCRAFT       JOURNAL
                                                                   BALANCE SHEET-DECEMBER                   31, 1952
THE ORA VISUAL
                                                                                         ASSETS

                  EASEL                                   CURRENT ASSETS:
                                                            Cash on deposit                                            $ 5,732.88
                                                            Office cash fund                                                25.00
                                                            Accounts receivable:
                                                              Merchandise    accounts                     $2,754.65
                                                              Subscriptions                                  810.00
                                                                                                          $3,564.65
                                                                 Less reserve for bad debts                  567.17      2,997.48
                                                              Inventory of books, held for sale                             79.87

                                 rUE/PEAL                 TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS
                                                          FIXED ASSETS:
                                                                                                                       $ 8,835.23


                           rKA/NINu AID                     Office furniture and equipment
                                                              Less reserve for depreciation
                                                          DEFERREDCHARGES AND OTHER ASSETS:
                                                                                                $8,320.34
                                                                                                 8,200.17                  120.17

                                  fOR ALL                   Inventory of office supplies                  $1,521.65
                                                            Deposit with U. S. Government      Printing
                             MILITARY                         Office                                          34.27       1,555.92
                                                          TOTAL ASSETS                                                 $1 0,511.32
                           INSTRUCTION
                                                                           LIABILITIESAND NET WORTH

                                                          CURRENT LIABILITIES:
                                                            Accounts payable                                   $    66.82
                                                            District of Columbia sales tax                   .        1.27
                                                          TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES                            $    68.09
ALL ALUMINUM.      Not a splinter of wood to warp,
                                                          DEFERRED INCOME:
wear or tear.
                                                            Unexpired subscriptions                            $11,012.75
LIGHT AS A FEATHER-almost.             Only eight         DEFICIT:
pounds if you want to be technical.                         Balance, December 31, 1951              $ 801.18
RUGGED as the Rock of Gibraltar. It will take the             Less: Net profit for the year ended
meanest abuse.                                                    December 31, 1952, per Exhibit Boo 231.66
PORT ABLE because it folds flat as a pancake. lY2"          Deficit, balance December 31, 1952                     569.52
thick by 38%" high by 28%" wide.                          TOTAL LIABILITIESAND NET WORTH                       $10,511.32
INST ANT ANEOUS. You can unfold it and set it
up in ; seconds flat unless you are all thumbs.
WRITING PAD feature eliminates need for messy
blackboard.                                                 THE UNITED STATES ANTIAIRCRAFT                   ASSOCIATION
CHART HOLDERS of improved design. \Vill ac-.                       BALANCE SHEET-DECEMBER                   31, 1952
commodate many charts at several heights, even if
they are as big as the side of a barn.                                                   ASSETS

    $49.00-Special       Discount To Subscribers          Cash in bank                                                 $ 1,007.69
                                                          Investments: Schedule 1
                                                            U. S. Government bonds                    $64,135.63
      for full details write-                               Common Stock                                  160.00        64,295.63
                                                          TOTAL ASSETS                                                 $65,303.32


                                                                                    NET WORTH

                                                            Add:
                                                          SURPLUS 8ALANCE, December 31, 1951                           $64,805.40
631 .Pennsylvania Ave., N.\X'.    \X'ashington 4, D. C.       Excess of recipts over disbursements for the year
                                                                 ended December 31, 1952, for Exhibit B                    497.92
                                                          SURPLUS BALANCE, December 31, 1952                           $65,303.32
 n   LITTLE BU LL"



                                                                      Patent Applied for


                                             Successfully ill use by:- TIle Pe1l1lsylvallUzRailroad-TIle Met-
                                             ropolitan Police, District of Columbia-and         U. S. Military
*Ideal For The Range Officer                 illstallatiolls-

*Command     Control in Garrison   or
   Field

*An Aid to the Instructor

*Voice Control at Formations

*Useful at Athletic Events



                                             L
                                        •    INSTANT TRIGGER ACTION
                                             Press the Switch and Talk No Warm-Up Required
                                        •    RANGE
                                             Effective Up to 1/4 Mile
                                        •    WEIGHT
                                             Only 51/2 Ibs. Complete
                                        •    POWER SUPPLY
                                             6 Standard Flashlight "D" Batteries Only-Inexpensive
                                             -Available    Everywhere
                                        •    DIMENSIONS
                                             Horn - 91f2 in. diameter
                                             Unit Complete - 11 in. high
                                        •    BATTERY LIFE
                                             Intermittent Operation ... 8 hrs. per day for (3) Three
                                             Weeks. Approximately 120 to 150 Hrs.
                                        •    LIST PRICE - $124.00



                                            ORDER FROM


                             Antiaircraft Journal
631 Pennsylvania     Avenue. N. W.                                           WASHINGTON 4. D. C.

				
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