Human dDigestive system

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Human dDigestive system Powered By Docstoc
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Anatomy – 1 year – 2 semester

Internal organs
The Digestive sys.
General function of digestive sys.

    1) Digestion – there are 2 kinds of digestions .
           a. Mechanical digestion – begins in oral cavity n continue till small intestine.
           b. Chemical digestion - begins inside small intestine and continues till anus.
       Digestion is important to break down food in to forms that can be absorbed and used by body cells .
    2) Absorption and secretion of chemicals



        Digestive sys has 2 parts-
             o Digestive canal
             o Alimentary canal (nourishment- alimentary)
Additional organs the digestive sys . - teeth , tongue , glands (salivary glands , liver , pancreas, gold bladder )

        These accessory digestive oragns never come to the direct contac with food.

Alimentary canal

Start- from mouth , Finish- by anus

A.C. devided into 3 parts

         * Anterior

         * Middle

         * Posterior

Anterior part of A.C.

Organs of anterior part

    -    Oral cavity- food enter
    -    pharynx- foods continue
    -    esophagus
    -    Stomach

Middle part of A.C.

Small intenstine 3parts-

         1) Duodenum – short part of small intestine
         2) jejunum
         3) illeum


posterior part of A.C.

large intestine part –

    1) cecum
    2) colon – ascending colon
                transvers colon
                descending colon
                zygmoid colon
    3) rectum- finish by anus

1st part of the A.C.

Oral cavity Generally 2 parts –

1)vestibular part- <katawahagena pimbuwahama>
2)proper oral cavity

* rima auris – fisher between the opening of the mouth.

vestibular part walls

    1) anterior – lips in front
    2) posterior- teeth
    3) lateral – cheeks

proper oral cavity – behind the teeth walls

    1)   superior- palat
    2)   inferior- floor of the oral cavity , mylo hyoid and genio hyoid M.
    3)   anterior - teeth
    4)   laterally – posterior teeth
    5)   posterior – no wall. Its an opening.



opening – isthmus faucium connects the oral cavity with pharings .

(check the picture in the note book)
soft palat- formed by M.

         1)   tensore vele palatery M . – tense
         2)   Levator vele palatery M. – elevates
         3)   Uvula M.
         4)   Palato glossal M.
         5)   Palato pharyngeal M .

Hard palat- horizontally

Soft palat – slights in vertically direction

         Vertical part is formed by 2M.

         1) tensore vele palatery M . - tense
         2) Levator vele palatery M. - elivates
        Middle part of the soft palate uvula.
        Uvula is formed by uvula M . which is coverd by mucosa .
In the lateral side up to downward 2M.

    1) palato glossal M

             starts – soft palate

             finish - from tongue

    2) palato pharingeal M. – same direction of palate glossal M . attach to the lateral wall.
                Start- soft palate
                Ends- phariynx
     behind palato glossal M is Palato pharingal M.

oral cavity , stomach and all the organs are covered by mucosa. It is a mucous membrane .

       Palato glossal arch
       Palato pharyngeal arch .

        Between these 2 arch paired palatine tonsils/ lymphatic glands.

        Palat without mucosa has 3 paired salivary glands

        1) small salivary glands- located under the mucosa of palat, cheek, lips and everywhere in the oral cavity

        2) large salivary glands- paratoid and sublingual (under the tongue) , sub mandibuler.



    1) Largest – parotid salivary gland , under the acustic metus
    2) Sub lingual gland - under the tongue. Between the tongue and the mylo hyoid M .
    3) Sub mandible gland - under the mylo hyoid M.



        Tongue

       Advantages of T ?
        1) Moves food to the oral cavity and down to the pharynx .
        2) Organ of the taste
        3) Speak

       Where the tongue is located ? in the oral cavity
       T . has 2 sufaces –
             o Superior surface / upper surface / dorsal surface-
                       Faces to the palat
             o Inferior surface –

                          faces to the mylohyoid n geniohyoid M floor of the oral cavity <oral diaphragma>

       2 lateral borders- * right *left
   T. devides in to 3 parts –
         o Anterior end / apex
         o Middle large part /body
         o Posterior part/ root/ radix ,

   In the dorsal surface of the T. hv,

         terminal line .

-   Border between the body n root . it separats the root n body of T .

      
				
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