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									   Pulsars and Gravity
           R. N. Manchester
 Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Sydney
                      Australia

               Summary
• Introduction to pulsars and pulsar timing
• Parkes pulsar surveys – the double pulsar
• Tests of gravitational theories using pulsars
• The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project
            Pulsar Origins
Pulsars are believed (by most people) to be
rotating neutron stars
Normal Pulsars:
• Formed in supernova
• Periods between 0.03 and 10 s
                                                                            (ESO – VLT)
• Relatively young (< 107 years)
                                       Millisecond Pulsars (MSPs):
• Mostly single (non-binary)
                                       • MSPs are very old (~109 years).
                                       • Mostly binary
                                       • They have been ‘recycled’ by accretion
                                       from an evolving binary companion.
                                       • This accretion spins up the neutron star to
                                       millisecond periods.
                                       • During the accretion phase the system may
                                       be detectable as an X-ray binary system.
          Spin-Powered Pulsars: A Census
• Number of known
pulsars: 1775
• Number of millisecond
pulsars: 172
• Number of binary
pulsars: 134
• Number of AXPs: 13
• Number of pulsars in
globular clusters: 99*
• Number of
extragalactic pulsars: 20


* Total known: 137 in 25 clusters
                                               Data from ATNF Pulsar Catalogue, V1.32
    (Paulo Freire’s web page)
                                    (www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/psrcat; Manchester et al. 2005)
              Pulsars as clocks
• Pulsar periods are incredibly stable and can be measured precisely,
e.g. on Jan 16, 1999, PSR J0437-4715 had a period of :

 5.757451831072007  0.000000000000008 ms
• Although pulsar periods are stable, they are not constant. Pulsars lose
energy and slow down: dP/dt is typically 10-15 for normal pulsars and
10-20 for MSPs
• Precise pulsar timing parameters are measured by comparing
observed pulse times of arrival (TOAs) with predicted TOAs based on
a model for the pulsar, then using the timing residuals - deviations
from the model - to improve the model parameters and to search for
unmodelled effects
        Sources of Pulsar Timing “Noise”
 Intrinsic noise
      • Period fluctuations, glitches
      • Pulse shape changes
 Perturbations of the pulsar’s motion
      • Gravitational wave background
      • Globular cluster accelerations
      • Orbital perturbations – planets, 1st order Doppler, relativistic effects
 Propagation effects
      • Wind from binary companion
      • Variations in interstellar dispersion
      • Scintillation effects
 Perturbations of the Earth’s motion
      • Gravitational wave background
      • Errors in the Solar-system ephemeris
 Clock errors
      • Timescale errors
      • Errors in time transfer
 Instrumental errors
      • Radio-frequency interference and receiver non-linearities
      • Digitisation artifacts or errors
      • Calibration errors and signal processing artifacts and errors
 Receiver noise
PSR B1913+16: The First Binary Pulsar

 Discovered at Arecibo Observatory
by Russell Hulse & Joe Taylor in 1975
 Pulsar period 59 ms, a recycled
pulsar
 Doppler shift in observed period
due to orbital motion
 Orbital period only 7 hr 45 min
 Maximum orbital velocity 0.1% of
velocity of light

Relativistic effects detectable!
  Post-Keplerian Parameters: PSR B1913+16
Given the Keplerian orbital parameters and assuming general relativity:
   • Periastron advance: 4.226607(7) deg/year
       M = mp + mc
   • Gravitational redshift + Transverse Doppler: 4.294(1) ms
       mc(mp + 2mc)M-4/3
   • Orbital period decay: -2.4211(14) x 10-12
       mp mc M-1/3
 First two measurements determine mp and mc. Third measurement
 checks consistency with adopted theory.
    Mp = 1.4408  0.0003 Msun
    Mc = 1.3873  0.0003 Msun
      Both neutron stars!
                                                 (Weisberg & Taylor 2005)
          PSR B1913+16 Orbit Decay

• Energy loss to gravitational
radiation
• Prediction based on measured
Keplerian parameters and Einstein’s
general relativity
• Corrected for acceleration in
gravitational field of Galaxy
 .        .
• Pb(obs)/Pb(pred) = 1.0013  0.0021


First observational evidence
for gravitational waves!
         (Weisberg & Taylor 2005)
                   PSR B1913+16
                The Hulse-Taylor Binary Pulsar




• First discovery of a binary pulsar
• First accurate determinations of neutron star masses
• First observational evidence for gravitational waves
• Confirmation of General Relativity as an accurate description of
strong-field gravity

Nobel Prize for Taylor & Hulse in 1993
The Parkes radio telescope has found
more than twice as many pulsars as the
rest of the world’s telescopes put together.
           Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey
  • Covers strip along Galactic plane, -100o < l < 50o, |b| < 5o
  • Central frequency 1374 MHz, bandwidth 288 MHz, 96 channels/poln/beam
  • Sampling interval 250 s, time/pointing 35 min, 3080 pointings
  • Survey observations commenced 1997, completed 2003
  • Processed on work-station clusters at ATNF, JBO and McGill
  • 740 pulsars discovered, 1015 detected
  • At least 18 months of timing data obtained for each pulsar

Principal papers:
I: Manchester et al., MNRAS, 328, 17 (2001)
           System and survey description, 100 pulsars
II: Morris et al., MNRAS, 335, 275 (2002)
           120 pulsars, preliminary population statistics
III: Kramer et al., MNRAS, 342, 1299 (2003)
           200 pulsars, young pulsars and -ray sources
IV: Hobbs et al., MNRAS, 352, 1439 (2004)
           180 pulsars, 281 previously known pulsars
V: Faulkner et al., MNRAS, 355, 147 (2004)
           Reprocessing methods, 17 binary/MSPs
VI: Lorimer et al., MNRAS, 372, 777 (2006)
           142 pulsars, Galactic population and evolution
Parkes Multibeam
              .
Surveys: P vs P                        J1119-6127

• New sample of
young, high-B, long-
period pulsars
• Large increase in
sample of mildly
recycled binary pulsars
• Three new double-
neutron-star systems      J0737-3039
and one double pulsar!
    PSR J0730-3039A/B                                      QuickTime™ and a
                                                      YUV420 codec decompressor
                                                     are neede d to see this picture.




   The first double pulsar!
 Discovered at Parkes in 2003
 One of top ten science break-
throughs of 2004 - Science
 PA = 22 ms, PB = 2.7 s
 Orbital period 2.4 hours!
 Periastron advance 16.9 deg/yr!
                                    (Burgay et al., 2003; Lyne et al. 2004)

  Highly relativistic binary system!
  PSR J0737-3039B




                                                         Orbital period
• “Double-line binary” gives the
mass ratio for the two stars –
strong constraint on gravity
theories
         (Lyne et al., Science, 303, 1153, 2004)

                                                                          0.2 pulse periods




                                               • MSP blows away most of B
                                               magnetosphere - dramatic effect
                                               on pulse emission
                                            (Spitkovsky & Arons 2005)
     Binary pulsars and Gravity
Tests of Equivalence Principles
  Limits on Parameterised Post-Newtonian (PPN)
  parameters
   Dipolar gravitational radiation – dPb/dt
   Variation of gravitational constant G – dP/dt, dPb/dt
   Orbit ‘polarisation’ due to external field – orbit circularity

  Binary pulsars give limits comparable to or better than
  Solar-system tests, but in strong-field conditions
  (GM/Rc2 ~ 0.1 compared to 10-5 for Solar-system tests)
      PSR J1853+1303 and Nordvedt Effect
• Long-period binary MSP discovered in Parkes Multibeam Survey
• P = 4.09 ms, Pb = 115 d, Ecc = 0.00002369(9), Min Mcomp= 0.24 Msun
• White dwarf companion
• Test of Strong Equivalence Principle: Differential acceleration in
Galactic gravitational field leads to “forced” eccentricity
(Damour & Schaefer 1991)

• Bayesian analysis with 20 other
known low-mass wide binary pulsars
• |D| < 5 x 10-3 (95% confidence)
Comparable to LLR limit but in strong
field regime.
          (Stairs et al. 2005)
   Constraints on Gravitational Theories
        from PSR J0737-3039A/B
   • Mass functions: sin i < 1 for A and B
   • Mass ratio R = MA/MB Measured value: 1.0714  0.0011
       Independent of theory to 1PN order. Strong constraint!
                           .
   • Periastron advance : 16.8995  0.0007 deg/yr

Already gives masses of two stars
(assuming GR):
                                                   Mass function B

  MA = 1.3381  0.0007 Msun
  MB = 1.2489  0.0007 Msun
                                                              Mass Function A
  Star B is a very low-mass NS!
          (Kramer et al. Science, 314, 97, 2006)
        Measured Post-Keplerian Parameters
             for PSR J0737-3039A/B
                            GR value Measured value         Improves as
.
 Periast. adv. (deg/yr)      -       16.8995  0.0007           T1.5

   Grav. Redshift (ms)     0.3842     0.386  0.003             T1.5
.
Pb Orbit decay         -1.248 x 10-12 (-1.252  0.017) x 10-12 T2.5
r Shapiro range (s)        6.15         6.2  0.3               T0.5
                                                  +16
s Shapiro sin i            0.99987      0.99974   -39             T0.5

    GR is OK! Consistent at the 0.05% level!
Non-radiative test - distinct from PSR B1913+16
                                                        (Kramer et al. 2006)
     PSR J0737-3039A/B Post-Keplerian Effects

 R: Mass ratio
  .
 : periastron advance
 : gravitational redshift
 r & s: Shapiro delay
  .
 Pb: orbit decay


• Six measured parameters
• Four independent tests
• Fully consistent with
general relativity (0.05%)


                                  (Kramer et al. 2006)
        Orbit Decay - PSR J0737-3039A/B
                .
   • Measured Pb = (-1.252  0.017) x 10-12 in 2.5 years
   • Will improve at least as T2.5
   • Not limited by Galactic acceleration!
                                                           .
       System is much closer to Sun - uncertainty in Pb,Gal ~ 10-16
   • Main uncertainty is in Shklovskii term due to uncertainty in
   transverse velocity and distance
       Scintillation gives Vperp = 66  15 km s-1
       Timing gives Vperp ~10 km s-1 -- correction at 0.02% level
       VLBI measurements should give improved distance

Will surpass PSR B1913+16 in ~5 years and improve rapidly!
              PSR J0737-3039:
       More Post-Keplerian Parameters!
• Relativistic orbit deformation:      er = e (1 + r)
                                       e = e (1 + )    ~ T2.5
       Should be measurable in a few years
• Spin orbit coupling:
    Geodetic precession - precession of spin axis about total
   angular momentum
       Changes in pulse profile should give misalignment angle
    Periastron precession - higher order terms
       Can give measurement of NS moment of inertia
• Aberration:                  xobs = a1 sin i = (1 +A)xint
       Will change due to geodetic precession
                                       (Damour & Deruelle 1985)
              Geodetic Precession of Spin Axis
• For J0737-3039A, precession period ~ 75 yr
(Damour & Ruffini 1974, Barker & O’Connell 1975)
                                                     Difference profiles over 1.5 years
• Expect changes in pulse profile as line-of-sight
cut moves across beam (observed in PSR
B1913+16, B1534+12, J1141-6545)
               PSR B1913+16




  (Kramer 1998,2003; Weisberg & Taylor 2002)
Not observed in PSR J0737-3039A!
 Small misalignment angle?
 Small natal kick?
 Light NS, low velocity, small eccentricity
 Different NS formation mechanism?
                   (Piran & Shaviv 2005)                       (Manchester et al. 2005)
           Detection of
        Gravitational Waves
                                                                     (NASA GSFC)
• Prediction of general relativity and other theories of gravity
• Generated by acceleration of massive object(s)
• Astrophysical sources:
    Inflation era
    Cosmic strings
    SN, BH formation in early Universe
    Binary black holes in galaxies
    Coalescing neutron-star binaries
    Compact X-ray binaries


                                          (K. Thorne, T. Carnahan, LISA Gallery)
         Detection of Gravitational Waves
  • Huge efforts over more than four decades to detect gravitational waves
  • Initial efforts used bar detectors pioneered by Weber
  • More recent efforts use laser interferometer systems, e.g., LIGO, VIRGO, LISA
            LIGO                                        LISA
• Two sites in USA                          • Orbits Sun, 20o behind the Earth
• Perpendicular 4-km arms                   • Three spacecraft in triangle
• Spectral range 10 – 500 Hz                • Arm length 5 million km
• Initial phase now operating               • Spectral range 10-4 – 10-1 Hz
• Advanced LIGO ~ 2011                      • Planned launch ~2017
         Double-Neutron-Star Binary Mergers
• Prime candidate source for ground
laser-interferometer systems
• Predicted detection rate dominated by
double pulsar!
• Around one thousand systems
similar to PSR J0737-3039A/B in
Galaxy
• Galactic merger rate between 80
and 370 per Myr (1 s)
• Detection rate for initial LIGO
between one per 8 years and one per
35 years.
• Factor of seven increase over rates
estimated from PSR B1913+16

            (Kalogera et al. 2004)
    Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars
• Observed pulse periods affected by presence of gravitational waves in Galaxy
• With observations of <10 pulsars, can only put limit on strength of stochastic GW
background
• Best limits are obtained for GW frequencies ~ 1/T where T is length of data span
• Analysis of 8-year sequence of Arecibo observations of PSR B1855+09 gives
Wg = rGW/rc < 10-7 (Kaspi et al. 1994, McHugh et al.1996)
• Extended 17-year data set gives better limit, but non-uniformity makes
quantitative analysis difficult (Lommen 2001, Damour & Vilenkin 2004)

                             Timing residuals for PSR B1855+09
            A Pulsar Timing Array
• With observations of many pulsars widely distributed on the sky
can in principle detect a stochastic gravitational wave background
• Gravitational waves passing over the pulsars are uncorrelated
• Gravitational waves passing over Earth produce a correlated signal
in the TOA residuals for all pulsars
• Requires observations of ~20 MSPs over 5 – 10 years; could give
the first direct detection of gravitational waves!
• A timing array can detect instabilities in terrestrial time standards
– establish a pulsar timescale
• Can improve knowledge of Solar system properties, e.g. masses
and orbits of outer planets and asteroids
           Idea first discussed by Hellings & Downs (1983),
              Romani (1989) and Foster & Backer (1990)
 Clock errors
   All pulsars have the same TOA variations:
   monopole signature

 Solar-System ephemeris errors
   Dipole signature

 Gravitational waves
   Quadrupole signature


 Can separate these effects provided there is a
sufficient number of widely distributed pulsars
     Detecting a Stochastic GW Background




Simulation using Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) pulsars with
GW background from binary black holes in galaxies
                                                (Hobbs et al., 2008)
   The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array Project
Collaborators:
  Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Sydney
     Dick Manchester, George Hobbs, David Champion, John Sarkissian, John Reynolds,
     Mike Kesteven, Grant Hampson, Andrew Brown, David Smith, Jonathan Khoo,
     (Russell Edwards)
  Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne
     Matthew Bailes, Ramesh Bhat, Willem van Straten, Joris Verbiest, Sarah Burke,
     Andrew Jameson
  University of Texas, Brownsville
     Rick Jenet
  University of Sydney, Sydney
     Daniel Yardley
  National Observatories of China, Beijing
     Johnny Wen
  Peking University, Beijing
     Kejia Lee
 Southwest University, Chongqing
     Xiaopeng You
 Curtin University, Perth
     Aidan Hotan
           The PPTA Project: Goals
 To detect gravitational waves of astrophysical origin
 To establish a pulsar-based timescale and to investigate
irregularities in terrestrial timescales
 To improve on the Solar System ephemeris used for barycentric
correction
To achieve these goals we need ~weekly observations of
~20 MSPs over at least five years with TOA precisions of
      ~100 ns for ~10 pulsars and < 1 s for rest
• Modelling and detection algorithms for GW signals
• Measurement and correction for interstellar and Solar System
propagation effects
• Implementation of radio-frequency interference mitigation techniques
Sky Distribution of Millisecond Pulsars
    P < 20 ms and not in globular clusters
      PPTA Pulsars:
  Recent Results using PDFB2
• 20 MSPs - all in Galactic disk except
J1824-2452 (B1821-24) in M28
• ~200 days of timing data at 2 -3 week
intervals at 10cm and 20cm
• Uncorrected for DM variations
• Two pulsars with rms timing
residuals < 100 ns, seven < 500 ns,
eleven < 1 s, all < 2.6 s
• Best results on J0437-4715 (52 ns)
and J1909-3744 (97 ns)
 Highest precision timing
  results ever obtained!
   Still not quite good
    enough though!!
                   A Pulsar Timescale
• Terrestrial time defined by a weighted average of
caesium clocks at time centres around the world
• Comparison of TAI with TT(BIPM03) shows
variations of amplitude ~1 s even after trend
removed
• Revisions of TT(BIPM) show variations of ~50 ns
• Pulsar timescale is not absolute, but can reveal
irregularities in TAI and other terrestrial           (Petit 2004)
timescales
• Current best pulsars give a 10-year stability
(sz) comparable to TT(NIST) - TT(PTB)
• Full PPTA will define a pulsar timescale with
precision of ~50 ns or better at 2-weekly
intervals and model long-term trends to 5 ns or
better
              Current and Future Limits on the
                Stochastic GW Background
• Arecibo data for PSR B1855+09
(Kaspi et al. 1994) and recent PPTA data                  Timing Residuals
• Monte Carlo methods used to determine
detection limit for stochastic background
described by hc = A(f/1yr)
(where  = -2/3 for SMBH, ~ -1 for relic radiation,   ~
-7/6 for cosmic strings)
                                                           10 s
 Current limit: Wgw(1/8 yr) ~ 2         10-8
 For full PPTA (100ns, 5 yr): ~ 10-10
• Currently consistent with all SMBH
evolutionary models (e.g., Jaffe & Backer
2003; Wyithe & Loeb 2003, Enoki et al. 2004)
• If no detection with full PPTA, all current
models ruled out
• Already limiting EOS of matter in epoch
of inflation (w = p/ > -1.3) and tension in
cosmic strings (Grishchuk 2005; Damour &
Vilenkin 2005)                                                               (Jenet et al. 2006)
                          Future Prospects
        Single source detection
                                             Stochastic GW Background
             PPTA
                           SKA              5 years, 100 ns




                                            Range of predicted amplitudes
Predicted merger rates for 5 x   108   M    (Jaffe & Backer 2003; Wyithe & Loeb 2003)
binaries (Wen & Jenet 2008)
                                            Difficult to get sufficient observations
    PPTA can’t detect individual binary     with PPTA alone - international
    systems - but SKA will!                 collaborations important!
The Gravitational Wave Spectrum
                        Summary
 Pulsars are extraordinarily good clocks and provide highly sensitive probes of
a range of gravitational effects
 Parkes multibeam pulsar surveys have been extremely successful, more than
doubling the number of known pulsars
 First-known double-pulsar system detected! Makes possible additional
independent tests of relativistic gravity
Direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) is a major goal of current
astrophysics - it will open a new window on the Universe
 A pulsar timing array can detect GW from astrophysical sources (or rule out
most current models)
 Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) timing 20 MSPs since mid-2004. Goal is
~100 ns rms residuals on at least half of sample; currently have two with rms
residuals < 100 ns and seven less 500 ns
 A pulsar-based timescale will have better long-term stability than current best
terrestrial timescales
 SKA will herald a new era in the study of gravitation using pulsars!
                          Pulsar Model
• Rotating neutron star
• Light cylinder RLC = c/W
        = 5 x 104 P(s) km          
• Charge flow along open
field lines
• Radio beam from magnetic
pole (in most cases)
• High-energy emission from
outer magnetosphere
• Rotation braked by reaction to
magnetic-dipole radiation
          .
and/or charge acceleration:
          W = -K W-3
                              .
• Characteristic age: c = P/(2P)
• Surface dipole magnetic field:
             .
Bs ~ (PP)1/2
                                         (Bennet Link)
                    Neutron Stars
• Formed in Type II supernova explosion -
core collapse of massive star
• Diameter 20 - 30 km
• Mass ~ 1.4 Msun

                                                            (MT77)




                        (Stairs 2004)       (Lattimer & Prakash 2004)
    Geodetic Precession in PSR J1141-6545
• Relatively young 394-ms pulsar in 4.7-h binary orbit (Kaspi et al. 2000)
• From timing, companion mass 0.99 +/- 0.02 Msun: white dwarf (Bailes et al. 2003)
• Relativistic precession of periastron observed
• Expected rate of geodetic precession 1.36 deg/yr - precession period 265 yr
• Dramatic evolution of pulse profile observed! (7-yr data span)




                                                              (Manchester et al. (2007)
PSR J1141-6545 Geodetic Precession:
 Polarisation evolution and beam model
 Model timing
  residuals

• Period:
        DP = 5 x 10-16 s
• dP/dt:    .
           DP = 4 x 10-23
• Position:
        D = 1 mas
• Proper motion:
       D = 5 mas/yr
• Parallax:
        Dp = 10 mas
       MSPs and Gravity:
                  Maximum Spin Frequency
• In LMXB systems, long evolution time allows spin-up to > 1 kHz
• Most neutron-star EOSs allow spin at > 1 kHz
• X-ray observations and recent radio
observations have little or no
observational selection against sub-ms
pulsars
• But, maximum observed spin
frequency ~ 700 Hz
 Mass asymmetry due to accretion
(DI/I ~ 10-7) results in GW emission
(e.g., Bildsten 1998)
 r-mode instability in NS leads to
viscous damping & GW emission (e.g.,
Ho & Lai 2000)                                          (Arras 2004)
   Neutron-star masses: PSR 1913+16


   • Periastron advance
   • Grav. Redshift
   • Orbit decay


Mp = 1.4408  0.0003 Msun
Mc = 1.3873  0.0003 Msun
 Both neutron stars!


                                (Diagram from C.M. Will, 2001)
     (Weisberg & Taylor 2005)
       Measured Shapiro delay
       implies i = 87o.8 +/- 1o.2
                     (Kramer et al. 2005)


Correlated scintillation in A and B:
implies i = 90o.26 +/- 0o.13
                     (Coles et al. 2005)
         Inconsistent!?
      Geodetic Precession - PSR J0737-3039A
• Precession period ~ 75 yr
• Expect changes in pulse profile as line-of-   Difference profiles over 1.5 years
sight cut moves across beam (observed in
PSR B1913+16, B1534+12, J1141-6545)
              PSR B1913+16




  (Kramer 1998,2003; Weisberg & Taylor 2002)
Not observed in PSR J0737-3039A!
 Small misalignment angle?
 Small natal kick?
 Light NS, low velocity, small eccentricity
 Different NS formation mechanism?
                   (Piran & Shaviv 2005)                  (Manchester et al. 2005)
       Orbital Modulation of PSR J0737-3039B
Secular changes
are observed!
 Mechanism for
orbital modulation not
fully understood
 Can’t separate
effects of periastron
precession and
geodetic precession




                   (Burgay et al. 2005)
   Measurement of pulsar periods
• Start observation at known time and average 1000 or more
pulses to get mean pulse profile.
• Cross-correlate this with a standard template to give the arrival
time at the telescope of a fiducial point on profile, usually the
pulse peak – the pulse time-of-arrival (TOA).
• Measure a series of TOAs over days – weeks – months – years.
• Compare observed TOAs with predicted values from a model
for pulsar using TEMPO - differences are called timing residuals.
• Fit the observed residuals with functions representing errors in
the model parameters (pulsar position, period, binary period etc.).
• Remaining residuals may be noise – or may be science!
  Periastron Precession - higher order terms
                                           Spin A                 Spin B




                 1PN           2PN     Geometry             NS Structure
• If geometry can be understood, measurement of variation 1PN: 16.9 o/yr
in rate of periastron precession can be used to estimate NS
moment of inertia (Damour & Schaefer 1988)                  2PN: 0.0004 o/yr
                                        S/N ~ T1.5        Spin: 0.0002 o/yr
                                                          Current: 0.0007 o/yr
                                      • Since mass known, strong limit
                                      on EOS!
                                      (Morrison et al. 2004; Lattimer & Schutz 2005)

                                                        Not Easy!
            The PPTA Project: Methods
• Using the Parkes 64-m telescope at three frequencies (680, 1400 and
3100 MHz)
• Digital filterbank system, 256 MHz bandwidth (1 GHz early 2007),
8-bit sampling, polyphase filter
• CPSR2 baseband system 2 x 64 MHz bandwidth, 2-bit sampling,
coherent de-dispersion
• Developing APSR with 512 MHz bandwidth and 8-bit sampling
• Implementing real-time RFI mitigation for 50-cm band
• TEMPO2: New timing analysis program, systematic errors in TOA
corrections < 1 ns, graphical interfaces, predictions and simulations
(Hobbs et al. 2006, Edwards et al. 2006)
• Observing 20 MSPs at 2 - 3 week intervals since mid-2004
• International collaboration and co-operation to obtain improved data
sampling including pulsars at northern declinations
          Dispersion Measure Variations
• DDM from 10/50cm or 20/50cm
observation pairs
• Variations observed in most of PPTA
pulsars
• DDM typically a few x 10-3 cm-3 pc
• Weak correlation of d(DM)/dt with DM,
closer to linear rather than DM1/2
• Effect of Solar wind observed in pulsars
with low ecliptic latitude
                       (You et al., in prep.)

								
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