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Charles Dickens (PowerPoint download)

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					Charles Dickens
         Born 1812 – most
         popular novelist of his
         time
         Dickens was very
         passionate about the
         poor
         Novels reflect the
         condition of England
         Christmas Carol was
         published in 1843. It
         sold out in six days.
                Dickens' Difficult Life
Charity was needed during the severe economic
depression of the 1840s.
Dickens suffered difficulties and poverty during his
childhood
          Father arrested at 12, sent to prison
          All but Charles moved into the prison; he
          worked posting labels on wine bottles
The Cratchits' house is modelled on the small four-room
house at 16 Bayham Street in Camden Town where
Dickens lived in London
The six Cratchit children correspond to the Dickens
children of that time, the character of Tiny Tim being
echoed in Charles's youngest, sickly brother who was
known as "Tiny Fred"
            Victorian Era
Reigned 1837 – 1901

She is the longest
reigning monarch in
British history

Britain was at its
wealthiest under her
reign, but citizens
suffered
       Victorian Era - a time of many contradictions
Many social movements (including women's rights and
  unionisation) to do with morals and society clashed
  with a class system that permitted harsh living
  conditions for many.

There was great contradiction between the an outward
  appearance of dignity and restraint and the occurrence
  of prostitution and child labour.

The number of people living in Britain more than doubled
  from 16 to 37 million, raising demand for food, clothing
  and housing.
Victorian ‘Posh’ People
• Upper class families
  were very rich
• Their homes & land
  were looked after
  by servants
• Their food was
  prepared by cooks
• Children were
  looked after by
  nannies
          Victorian Poor People

• Four or five families
  lived in one house
• Toilets were outside
  & shared by several
  houses
• The old and orphans
  had to live in
  workhouses
The Child's Life
• Until 1891 children
  had to pay to go to
  school
• Schools for the poor
  were called ‘Ragged
  Schools’
    Typical work for children

   Picking up stones
   Factory work
   Opening doors in coal
    mines
   Chimney sweeping
Child Labour      Children were forced
                   to work as soon as
                   they could unless
                   they were from a
                   rich family.
                  The Factory Act
                   (1843) required
                   working days for
                   children aged 8-13 to
                   be 6.5 hours or less
                  How does it compare
                   to today's living
                   standard?
                     The Poor Law
   In 1833 Earl Grey, the Prime Minister, set up a Poor Law Commission to examine the
    working of the poor Law system in Britain. In their report published in 1834, the
    Commission made several recommendations to Parliament. As a result, the Poor
    Law Amendment Act was passed. The act stated that:
    (a) no able-bodied person was to receive money or other help from the Poor Law
    authorities except in a workhouse;
    (b) conditions in workhouses were to be made very harsh to discourage people from
    wanting to receive help;
    (c) workhouses were to be built in every parish or, if parishes were too small, in
    unions of parishes;
    (d) ratepayers in each parish or union had to elect a Board of Guardians to
    supervise the workhouse, to collect the Poor Rate and to send reports to the
    Central Poor Law Commission;
    (e) the three man Central Poor Law Commission would be appointed by the
    government and would be responsible for supervising the Amendment Act
    throughout the country.

				
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