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					     SIBER: Sustained Indian Ocean
Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research
      - The Indian National Programme

               supported by

       Ministry of Earth Sciences
         Government of India
               New Delhi
SIBER Planning
Two international workshops convened at National Institute of
Oceanography, Goa
October 3-6, 2006:
Attended by 200 participants; 44 invited speakers; reviewed state
of knowledge of the biogeochemical and ecological dynamics of the
Indian Ocean and identified prominent gaps; generated roadmap
for producing a science plan; Articles published in IMBER
Newsletter and EOS and an AGU monograph
October 27-30, 2007:
Attended by 30 participants; 29 synthesis/overview presentations;
synthesized information presented at the 2006 workshop;
developed the major research themes and regional foci of the
SIBER Science Plan and its implementation components
SIBER Science Plan Finalized
Consists of six themes:
 1. Boundary current dynamics,interactions and impacts
    on biogeochemistry and ecology
 2. Dynamical variability of the equatorial zone,
    southern tropics and Indonesian Throughflow and
    their impacts on ecological processes and
    biogeochemical cycles
 3. Controls and fate of phytoplankton and benthic
    production in the Indian Ocean
 4. Physical, biogeochemical and ecological contrasts
    between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal
 5. Climate and anthropogenic impacts on the Indian
    Ocean and its marginal seas
 6. Role of higher trophic levels in ecological processes
    and biogeochemical cycles
        Evolution of SIBER in India

MoES entrusted NIO to organize a national workshop
at Goa on 13-14 April, 2009, to plan the SIBER-India
Project. Participating institutions were:
National Institute of Oceanography, Goa
Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi
CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling & Computer
  Simulation, Bangalore
National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad
Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune
Centre for Marine Living Resources & Ecology, Kochi
Indian National Centre for Oceanographic Information
  and Services, Hyderabad
Goa University, Cochin University, Calcutta University
Andhra University, Annamalai University
SIBER-India Planning (contd.)

Based on the proposals made and discussed during the
workshop, a comprehensive consolidated 5-year proposal
(2010-2015) was submitted to MoES in August 2009.
After peer-review, the revised proposal was submitted
in October 2009.
The proposed investigations are clustered separately
for the open ocean and coastal zone
Open Ocean cluster – 6 projects
Estuaries & Coasts cluster – 8 projects
(NIO, CMLRE, Goa university, Cochin University,
Calcutta University, Andhra University, Annamalai
Projects proposed under Open Ocean cluster:

 S           Project Leader
                                                                 Project title                           (Million
No.       (Institute/University)
1     Dr. S.W.A. Naqvi, National           Long-term monitoring of oceanographic, biogeochemical         130.5
      Institute of Oceanography, Goa.      and ecological processes in the North Indian Ocean
                                           through establishment of open-ocean time series stations in
                                           the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
2     Dr. N. Ramaiah, National Institute   Elucidation of long-term changes in microbial                 13.5
      of Oceanography, Goa.                communities in intensely denitrifying and oligotrophic
                                           environs through metagenomic analyses.
3     Dr. Sujitha Thomas, Central Marine   Flow of matter through trophic levels and biogeochemical      8.9
      Fisheries Research Institute,        cycles in marine and estuarine ecosystems.
4     Dr. R. Rengarajan, Physical          Particulate organic carbon export flux from upper Arabian     7.2
      Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad.      Sea and Bay of Bengal using 234Th as a tracer.
5     Prof. R. Ramesh, Physical            The role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in         5.6
      Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad.      nitrogen-loss from the Arabian Sea.
6     Dr. M.K. Sharada, C-MMACS,           Modelling of marine biogeochemical cycles in the Indian       6.5
      Bangalore.                           Ocean.
      TOTAL                                                                                              172.2
    Projects proposed under Estuaries and Coasts cluster:

 S              Project Leader
                                                                        Project title                              (Million
No.          (Institute/University)
1     Dr. SWA Naqvi, National Institute of    Dynamics of selected biogenic elements in Indian estuaries – A     61.94
      Oceanography Dona Paula-Goa             case study of the Mandovi – Zuari estuarine system.
2     Prof. C Annapurna, Department of        Assessing macro and meiobenthic diversity off Goa Coast with       5.52
      Zoology, Andhra University,             special emphasis on OMZ
3     Dr. Vishnu Murty Matta, Department of   Atmospheric deposition and its influence on nutrients in coastal   4.94
      Marine Sciences, Goa University         waters of Goa- West coast of India
4     Dr. B.R. Manjunatha, Department of      Assessing the Anthropogenic Impact on South-West Coast of India    8.17
      Marine Geology, Mangalore University
5     Dr. A.A. Mohamed Hatha, School of       Role of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Cyanobacteria in the Nitrogen   4.43
      Marine Sciences,                        Cycle in the Cochin estuary and coastal waters with Special
      Cochin University of Science and        Reference to Nitrification, Denitrification and Nitrogen Fixing
      Technology,                             capabilities
6     Dr. V.N. Sanjeevan, Centre for Marine   Time-Series studies on the Biogeochemical aspects in the           50.93
      Living Resources and Ecology, Kochi     estuarine and coastal waters of Kochi, southwest coast of India
7     Dr. T. Balasubramanian, Centre of       Hydro – Biological studies of Vellar – Coleroon estuarine system   22.83
      Advanced Study in Marine Biology,
      Annamalai University, Parangipettai,
8     Dr. S. K. Mukhopadhyay, Department of   Biogeochemical dynamics of the Hooghly-                            13.33
      Marine Science,                         Matla estuarine systems along the northeast
      University of Calcutta                  coast of the Bay of Bengal, India.

      TOTAL                                                                                                      172.09
 Major Objectives of SIBER-India
Establishment of long-term, multi-disciplinary, time-series at fixed
sites in the open ocean (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal) to:
- Investigate variations in the physico-chemical environment and
ecology and to understand the underlying forcings;
- Investigate biogeochemical and ecological processes arising
from special attributes of the North Indian Ocean region
(monsoonal upwelling, river runoff, oxygen minimum zones,
anthropogenic impact)
Major Objectives of SIBER (cont.)
Understanding/quantification of fates and
fluxes of carbon and nutrients, including     Arabian Sea Time Series site
                                              located within the core of the
trophic transfers, in estuarine and coastal
                                              denitrifying zones (contours
environments through focussed time series     show nitrite distribution)
and process studies in/off/around Goa,
Kochi, Sunderbans and Vellar Estuary).
Special attention will be paid to:
- Eutrophication (due to riverine and
atmospheric nutrient loading) and
associated hypoxia/anoxia and its impact
on biogeochemistry and ecosystems
(biodiversity, fisheries, harmful algal
blooms, etc.)
- Development of biogeochemical and
                                              Coastal time series off Goa
ecosystem models                              maintained since 1997
SIBER – Project Deliverables

 Long-term data sets from fixed sites essential for
discerning human-induced environmental/climate-
change variability from natural cycles

 Improved understanding of key biogeochemical
and ecological processes and their linkages that
distinguish the North Indian Ocean basins

 Prognostic models of future
biogeochemical/ecological changes

 Capacity building

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