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					         CRONEM
  University of Roehampton
          June 2006

          Catholic Schools in Scotland
Religious, cultural and social identifiers for a minority community



                      Stephen J. McKinney
                      Faculty of Education
                      University of Glasgow
                Introduction
   This paper presents a strand of the findings
    of Research for a PhD

   The focus of PhD research is the debate
    concerning the contemporary position and
    the continued existence of Catholic schools
    in Scotland
              Methodology

   Review of Literature

   Expert Interviews
        Review of Literature
 The stated rationale and purpose of Catholic
  schools
 The wider debate concerning Catholic schools
  and faith-based schools in England and Wales
 The inter-related histories of the Catholic
  community and Catholic schools in Scotland –
  including the issue of sectarianism.
        Expert Interviews
Sixteen experts interviewed:
 Reflecting focus of study
 Using semi-structured interviews
 Locations throughout Scotland
 All interviews full transcribed
 Now in process of being presented and
  analysed
                  Interviewees
   2 academics in Sociology
   2 academics in Theology
   1 academic in Scottish History
   1 academic in Philosophy
   2 academics in Education
   1 anonymous academic
   2 academics in Catholic Education
   2 senior Catholic clergymen
   2 Catholic Educationalists
   1 prominent Catholic layperson
                        Context
    Public and academic debate concerning faith-based schools
    in England and Wales has intensified in the last five years.
    Prompted by a number of key factors:

   Labour government support for the continuation and
    extension of faith-based schooling,
   Increase in popularity of faith-based schools
   Variety of religious groups seeking new faith-based
    schooling (including Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Greek
    Orthodox).
Faith-Based School Debate
     Labour Government Support for
        Faith-Based Schooling
 Roots in Thatcherism - part of market economy model that
  began to drive education.
 Labour government – motivated by ideologies of social
  capitol and promotion of academic excellence.
 Facilitated parental choice.
 Appeared to be successful in school league tables.
 Major change: Labour traditionally opposed to faith-based
  schooling.

    (Parker Jones et al, 2005, Gardner, 2005)
 Labour Government Support for
    Faith-Based Schooling
Contested by many, including labour back benchers.
Claims that faith-based schools are:

   selective
   divisive
   anti-rational
   antithetical to social cohesion. (Gardner, 2005)

Some opponents, question the legitimacy of state funding
for this form of ‘mission’ based schooling and call for a
truly ‘secularised’ society. (Brighouse, 2005)
        Faith-Based Schooling
Key Questions in England and Wales:

   Should the state fund faith-based schools?
   Are faith-based schools divisive?
   Are faith-based schools selective (and on grounds
    other than religion)?
   Do faith-based schools impede social cohesion?
   Do faith-based Schools preclude the growth and
    development of rational autonomy in children?
          Deeper Questions
•   In what sense is ‘selective’ being used?
•   What is meant by ‘divisive’
•   What is meant by ‘rational’?
•   How is ‘social cohesion’ perceived?
•   Why does the government fund this type of
    schooling?
•   What are the limits? (McKinney, 2006)
                       And Deeper!
   Faith based schools for some religious minorities
    (especially more recent minorities):

     Opportunity to express and celebrate cultural religious
      identity?
     Minority can be free from debilitating effects of
      prejudice?
     Key to economic and social mobility?

    (McKinney, 2006)
    Catholic Schools in Scotland
   Ultimately only form of faith-based schooling
    (Kelly, 2004)
 Origins and growth as result of Irish Catholic
  immigration in 19th century (O’Hagan, 2006)
 Impoverished Immigrants to dangerously over
  crowded industrial cities and towns (O’Tuathaigh, 1985)
 Colonial immigrants – culture of blame towards
  colonists (Foster, 1988)
    Catholic Schools in Scotland
   Immigrants to ‘Presbyterian’ country that
    identified Presbyterian Christianity as surrogate
    for lost national identity (Robbins, 2000)

   Irish Catholics an ‘affront’ to ‘self image of Scots
    as Protestant people’ (Gallagher, 1991, Robbins, 2000)

   Catholic schools established to preserve Catholic
    identity and culture. (Handley, 1945, Kenneth, 1972)
    Catholic Schools in Scotland
 Perceived to be route to social mobility
 Other routes denied due to discrimination and
  sectarianism (perceived and real?)
 Post WW II years bring enormous changes
 Multinationals; Shortage of tradesmen;
  opportunities in Higher education
    (Devine, 1999, Gallagher, 1987, Maver, 1996)


   Late 20th century dramatic fall in practice rate in
    Scottish Catholic community (Brown, 1997)
Faith-based schools/ Catholic
     schools in Scotland
 Opportunity to express      Catholic schools
  and celebrate cultural       established to preserve
  religious identity           Catholic identity and
 Minority can be free         culture.
  from debilitating           Perceived to be route to
  effects of prejudice         social mobility
 Key to economic and         Other routes denied due to
  social mobility?             discrimination and
                               sectarianism
21st Century Catholic community
   Catholic community in Scotland –three
    strand categorisation.

    1. Practicing Catholics
    2. Some residue of belief and practice
    3. Un-churched

    (adapted from Bradley, 2005)
    21st century Catholic schools
   Vast majority of Catholics in all three
    categories send their children to Catholic
    schools.
   Why and what do they hope to gain?
   Themes concerning types of Catholic
    identity emerge from Engagement with
    these questions
                    Catholic School
   Part of mission of Catholic Church
   Partnership and collaboration with parents
   Discipleship and faith formation
   Christ centred
   Christian community
   Successful school
    (Christian Education, 1965, Catholic Schools, 1977, Catechesis in our Time,
    1979)
                Group 1

 Partnership and collaboration
 Support in faith formation
 Support in identification in Christian
  community
 Successful education
                   Group 2

 Less confident in partnership
 Less confident in faith formation
 Less confident in support in identification in Christian
  community
 Look more to school to provide these three
 Other forms of Catholic identity can be more prominent
 Successful education
                 Group 3
 Interest in partnership?
 Interest in faith formation?
 Interest in Christian community?
 Look to school to provide these?
 Other forms of Catholic identity are prominent
 Do these draw them to Catholic school rather
  then other schools?
 Successful education
            Emergent Theme

   Catholic identity?

   Spectrums:
     Religious to secular
     Community to tribalism
     Catholic Christian to ‘not Protestant’
                 Catholic Identity
   Identity of alienation?
     Irish-ness?
     Immigrant?
     Outsider?
   History interpreted through these lenses
   Are these aspects of this identity of
    alienation real or perceived?
   Are they sociological or psychological?
(Bruce, 2004, McKinney, 2005)
    Catholic Identity and Catholic
                school
   Catholic school is only real focus for all
    forms of Catholic identity
   Advantages:
      Able to share religious values and vision?
      These values can counter some darker aspects
       of other forms of identity (eg sectarianism)?
    Catholic Identity and Catholic
                school
   Disadvantages:
      Catholic school sometimes struggles, and will
       further struggle, to retain religious integrity in
       face of competing Catholic identities?
      Catholic schools seen as focus and attempts to
       rationalise schools can be perceived to be attack
       on Catholic community?

				
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