PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

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					PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS

DR. ARRA
PSY 202
Psychological Disorders

Psychopathology – refers to patterns of
  thought, feeling, or behavior that disrupt
  a person’s sense of well-being or social
  or occupational functioning

 What is ‘normal’???
 DSM - IV
Psychological Disorders

Identifying Abnormal Behavior
 Statistical Infrequency
 Disability or Dysfunction
 Personal Distress
 Violation of Societal Norms
Psychological Disorders

Insanity – legal term applied when people
  cannot be held responsible for their
  actions or allowed to manage their own
  affairs because of mental illness
Psychological Disorders

  THEORIES
 Diathesis-stress model – people with an
  underlying predisposition (genetic) may become
  symptomatic under stressful circumstances
 Systems approach – attempt to explain a
  person’s behavior in the context of the social
  group (family, couple, larger social system)
Psychological Disorders

 Family Systems Model – suggests that
  symptoms of an individual are really
  symptoms of dysfunction in a family
Psychological Disorders

DSM – IV
 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
  Mental Disorders-IV
 Published by the American Psychiatric
  Association
 Basis for descriptive diagnosis
Psychological Disorders

 Axis I – clinical disorders
 Axis II – personality disorders and MR
 Axis III – relevant medical conditions
 Axis IV – psychosocial and
  environmental problems
 Axis V – Global assessment of
  functioning
            0-100
Psychological Disorders

How diagnosis occurs
 Differential Diagnosis
 Exclusionary Model
Psychological Disorders

What assessment tools/techniques are used?
 Clinical Interviews
 Observations
 Standardized Tests, Checklists, Questionnaires
 Projectives/ Subjective Assessments
 Medical history
 School/Work history
 Family history
Psychological Disorders

SOME CLINICAL DISORDERS (Axis – I)
 ADHD
 Schizophrenia
  individuals loose touch with reality
  + symptoms = hallucinations, delusions
  - symptoms = flat affect, poor social
  skills
  highly genetic brain disease
Psychological Disorders

AXIS – I
 Dysthymic Disorder
 Major Depression
 Bipolar
 Phobias
 OCD
Psychological Disorders

AXIS II
MR
Personality Disorders
 Chronic and severe disturbances that
  inhibit the capacity to love and work
 Enduring pattern of inner experience and
  behavior that deviates markedly from the
  expectations of the individuals culture; is
  pervasive and inflexible
Psychological Disorders

 Paranoid Personality Disorder: a pattern of
  distrust and suspiciousness such that others’
  motives are interpreted as malevolent
 Schizoid Personality Disorder: a pattern of
  detachment from social relationships and a
  restricted range of emotional expression
 Schizotypal Personality Disorder: a pattern of
  acute discomfort in close relationships,
  cognitive or perceptual distortions, and
  eccentricities in behavior
Psychological Disorders

 Antisocial Personality Disorder: a pattern
  of disregard for, and violation of, the
  rights of others
 Borderline Personality Disorder: a
  pattern of instability in interpersonal
  relationships, self-image, affects, and
  marked impulsivity
 Histrionic Personality Disorder: a pattern
  of excessive emotionality and attention
  seeking
Psychological Disorders

 Narcissistic Personality Disorder: a pattern of
  grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of
  empathy
 Avoidant Personality Disorder: a pattern of
  social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and
  hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
 Dependent Personality Disorder: a pattern of
  submissive and clinging behavior related to an
  excessive need to be taken care of
Psychological Disorders

 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality
 Disorder: a pattern of preoccupation with
 orderliness, perfectionism, and control
Psychological Disorders

Axis III – General Medical Conditions
Axis IV – Psychosocial and environmental
  problems
Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning
  (GAF)
1-100
Psychological Disorders

Dissociative Disorders
 Characterized by disruptions in
  consciousness, memory, sense of
  identity, or perception of the environment
 DID
 Dissociative Fugue
Psychological Disorders

Eating Disorders
 Anorexia Nervosa – distorted body
  image; efforts to lose weight that lead to
  dangerously low body weight
 Bulimia – characterized by a binge-purge
  syndrome
Psychological Disorders

Disorders usually diagnosed in childhood
  or adolescence
 ADHD
 ODD
 CD
 Anxiety Disorders

				
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