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					Ancient Greece
Temple of Apollo at Delphi, originally Mycenaean and honored the titan
goddess, Gaia. After the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, Greeks
transformed it into a temple for Apollo. This also marks the transformation
from matriarchal to patriarchal societies.
Detail of columns at Temple of Apollo in Delphi
Plan of the Temple of
Bill and Ted with Socrates

Plato, philosopher, no use for artists
because they are just imitating nature
that is already perfect because it is
created by God. Craftsmen are above
fine artists because at least they make
something functional

Socrates, Plato’s spokesman and
teacher – developed a new form of
teaching known as the Socratic
dialogue, a process of question and
answer through which the truth of the
argument is elicited through the

Aristotle, Plato’s most distinguished
student and tutor to Alex the Great,
known for the diversity of his interests.

Philosophy and aesthetics are very
interrelated in Ancient Greece
Geometric Style
1000-700 B.C.

Geometric Amphora

Meandering patterns,
what is this reminiscent
Orientalizing Style 700-600 B.C.
Compare figures to the boxing children
from Minoan frescos
Cyclops and Medusa

Archaic Style
600-480 B.C.
Black – figure

Achilles and Atlas playing
a board game
Exekias, amphora
showing Achilles
and Penthesilea
Late Archaic to
Classical Style
530 – 400 B.C.

Red Figure

Achilles and
Niobid Painter, kalyx krater,
Death of the Children of Niobe
Berlin Painter, bell
krater showing the
Abduction of Europa
Classical to Late Classical Style,
450 – 323 B.C.
Reed Painter, Warrior by a Grave, Funerary
vessel, shows artist’s interest in showing
forms as they appear in natural, three-
dimensional space.
The Battle of Issos, Pompeii, c. 300 B.C., Mosaic, a.k.a. the “Alexander Mosaic”
Tesserae – little tiles or opus vermiculatum – worm work (because of the circular
placement resembles the movement of a crawling worm, 106 ¾ x 201 ½ found on the
floors of houses of the wealthy
Alexander and his famous horse
Bukephalos “ox-head” – wavy hair
typical of royalty, staring at the
Persian leader Darius

Shows naturalism and
Orientalizing Style: Lions of Delos, considered a fertile island
because Apollo and his twin Artemis were born here. Because such a
sacred site, constant struggle for control, thus the lion guardians.
Archaic: New York Kouros, Attica, c. 600 B.C., Marble, 6 ft. life size, no
provenience, originally used as grave markers, earliest known life size of a
standing male from the Archaic period
Cheramyes Master, Hera of
Samos, c. 560 B.C., Marble,
6ft. 3 ½ in.

What is encaustic painting? Why
does that art term relate to this
Peplos Kore, c. 530 B.C., retains traces of
paint on her dress and in her eyes,
reminds us that Greek artists used color to
enliven white marble statues.
 Early Classical
The Kritios Boy,
Acropolis, Athens
Reflects a moment of self
awareness marked by the
change from Archaic to
Early Classical – the only
stylization left is in the hair
and curls around the head,
the flesh covers an organic
structure of bone and
   Latin: “contra” – against
      “positus” – position
 Head is turned slightly and
      the right leg, that is
 forward, bends at the knee
 so that the left leg appears
  to hold the body’s weight.
 The torso shifts so that the
  right hip and shoulder are
lowered – contrast between
rigid and relaxed elements
 allow the viewer to feel the
     inner workings of the
         human body.
found in the sea off
Cape Artemision,
dates to about 30
years after the
Kritios Boy, it
reflects the Greeks
interest in
athletics, artists
studied athletes
practicing in order
to create figures in
Lost wax Process:
Wax apple     rubber mold and    hollow cast   fire-proof mold   final bronze cast
               case in plaster   in paraffin   (clay based)      with spruing
Diskobolos – Discus Thrower
460 – 450 B.C.
Only known from marble copies
of the bronze original.
Based on a circular design with
two overlapping arcs, from the
head to the knee and from hand
to hand. The torso twists to
align with the thighs, unity
between the domed head, disc,
and round base, frozen circular
motion of a pivoting athlete
Warrior from Riace, c. 450 B.C.,
also found in the sea off the
southern coast of Italy near Raice,
eyes are inlaid with bone and glass
paste, copper eyelashes, lips and
nipples, and silver teeth create a
vivid, life-like impression, dated to
the end of Early Classical and
beginning of Classical, stylized hair
is an Early Classical element, while
the self confident, dynamic pose
and organic for are characteristic of
Classical Style. (see fig.5.25 on
page 159 for better detail)
Classical Style:
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), marble
copy of bronze original
Typical of Roman reproductions are the tree
trunk supporting the back of the right leg and the
right hand to the thigh. Bronze is stronger than
marble and does not require such supports.
Attributed to Polykleitos,
Wounded Amazon, c. 430 B.C.,
Marble copy of bronze original,
Amazons were female warriors
from the east who helped
defend Troy against the
Greeks, Visual unity is created
through the repetition of
movement in the dress and the
waves of her hair. It also
interrupts the smooth texture of
her skin.
Grave Stele of Hegeso,
c. 410-400 B.C., Marble
Has a mourning look on her
face as she looks at a
necklace pulled from a box
held by her servant.
View of the temple of Apollo at Corinth, c. 550 B.C., limestone originally faced with
stucco. Peripteral – (peristyle – open space surrounded by a collonade) temple whose
walls are created by columns, proportions and grandeur diminish because “man is the
measure of all things” – what does that mean?

                     1            2    3               4                      5      7


                         Plan of the temple of Apollo at Corinth
1.Opisthodomos (back porch) 2. hallway seperated from naos by a solid wall 3. base of cult statue
    4. naos (inner sanctuary) 5. Pronaos (front porch) 6. Solid wall 7. column of peristyle
           8. steps
Columns do not have a base, the rise out of the edge of the step. The
capitals are reminiscent of Minoan columns from the Palace of
Knossos, why? What kind of construction is this?
Reconstruction of the façade of
the Siphnian Treasury in the
sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi,
Archaic Style, Ionic order,
housed inside, notice the
decorative borders, egg and
dart, leaf and dart
Seated gods from the ionic frieze of the Siphnian treasury, Aphrodite,
Artemis and Apollo argue over who won the war.

What is the period style? How can you tell?
Early Classical Style: Head of Zeus and Enthroned Zeus, Obverse and
reverse of a coin minted by Hadrian to celebrate the 228th Olympiad, they
used this coin to recreate the colossal statue of Zeus in the temple of Zeus
at Olympia because the statue was destroyed many years before.
The temple of Zeus at Olympia, 465-457 B.C., showing the cult statue seen from the
façade, colossal statue originally 40 feet high, made of chryselephantine (“chrusos” –
gold; “elephantos” – ivory) attached to a wooden frame
West façade of Zeus’ temple at Olympia
West pediment of Zeus’ temple,
Apollo in the middle with a calm
solid, stance. With a raised right arm
to subdue the centaurs from
attacking the Lapith people
Centaur from west
The east pediment of Zeus’ temple, Zeus is in the middle with
Oinomaos and Pelops
Metopes showing the 12 labors of Herakles
Athena, Herakles and
Atlas, the Golden
Apples of the
Hesperides, from the
east side of the temple
Dorian – western mainland
Ionian – east coast from Athens,
         across Aegean Sea to western Turkey
View of the Acropolis, Athens
Plan of the Acropolis
Parthenon, designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates,
artistic direction from Phidias, made of marble,
cut and fit without the use of mortar, primarily
doric with the exception of four columns inside
the treasury and a continuous ionic frieze that
runs along the inside of the colonnade, shows
the Athenian interest in harmonizing east and
west Greece.
East pediment of the Parthenon, various gods and goddesses,
arranged to fit logically in the triangular shape of the pediment
Doric on the outer colonnade and ionic on the inner colonnade
Continuous Ionic frieze, Phidias
adopted the convention of
isocephaly – all the heads are
about the same level, shown are
the equestrian group of the north

                                    Metope from Doric frieze, shown
                                    is Lapith and Centaur, high –
                                    relief sculpture, single combat
What it hypothetically looked like.
Athena, cult statue ,name
sake of Athens,
reconstruction of Phidia’s
originial, found in the naos of
the Parthenon.

parthenos – virgin, comes
from parthenogenesis
meaning virgin birth

Athena sprung from Zeus’
forehead and was not
actually born in a human
sense. Thus the virgin birth.
She is the goddess of war
and wisdom

Shown wearing Medusa’s
head, holding a statue of
The Temple of Athena Nike from the east of
the Acropolis.
Temple of Athena Nike, Nike Adjusting Her
Sandal, from the balustrade of the temple at
Athena Nike. Sheer, almost transparent drapery
(wet drapery) appears to cling to the body,
elegant repeated folds, graceful curved torso
with diagonal planes
The Erechtheum, west side of the
Acropolis, built for the celebrated king
who was worshipped with Athena and
various other gods, caryatid porch
Theater at Epidauros, c. 350 B.C., diameter 373 ft., curved rows of stone,
formed a conical shape, Skene – (scene) stage
Shows were performed in honor of the wine god, Dionysos
Late Classical

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 350.B.C.
Marble Roman copy,
Praxiteles was the leading Athenian
sculptor of Late Classical style. Gentle “S”
shape called the “Praxitelean curve” is
outlines the stance of most of his statues.
Aphrodite was commissioned by Kos but
was rejected because of her nudity. She
was then accepted by Knidos. It was with
this piece that female entered the canon of
beauty in Greek art, which was previously
restricted to males only. The positioning of
her hand shows both modesty yet draws
attention to her nudity.

How has the figure changed to classify it
as Late Classical rather then Classical?
How has the Greek “ideal” of female nude
beauty changed to present day “ideal”?
Lysippos, Apoxyomenos
(athlete with a strigil [an
instrument used to scrap
moisture from the skin after
bathing or exercising])
literally means “one
scraping himself”
Canon is distinguished
from Polykleitos’s
Doryphoros, Polykleitos’
figures were idealized
youths. Lysippos prefered
thinner bodies, smaller
heads, more detailed hair
and an increase in surface
movement. The result was
a taller, lighter appearance
and livelier stance.
Same artist, very
different emotions and
actions, what do you
Attic grave stele, from near
Athens, c. 350 – 330 B.C.,

Shows man in the three
stages of his life, from young
boy weeping on the steps, to
strong confident, heroic man,
to old contemplative man. It is
believed this stele marked the
grave of a young man who
died in the prime of his life.
(he is the most prominent
figure) The old man is a
grieving father and the boy
and dog added pathos
(element of pity) that became
typical of Greek art.
Hellenistic Style:
Extended from the death of Alexander
the Great (323 B.C.) to the beginning
of the Roman Empire under Augustus
Refers to the spread of Greek
influence beyond Greece especially
to the east as a result of Alexander’s
conquests. During the influx of power
the is much cross-fertilization
(influences) There is an increase of
portraiture, becomes very dramatic
showing emotion, inner and outer.

Head of Alexander, from Pergamon
Lysippos was the official sculptor of
Alexander and established the official
royal image. Though none of his
images survived, many posthumous
portraits by other artists did survive.
Polyeuktos, Demosthenes, c. 280 B.C.
His life was beset with financial
hardship and a speech impediment.
He stuttered terribly but taught himself
to become the greatest public speaker
in Athens. His political enemies
succeeded in having him exiled for
trumped up charges of corruption,
rather than subjugating to the enemy
he drank poison to end his life. This
statue shows his worn face, furrowed
brow, concentrated gaze. The story is
important because it shows an integral
part of the statue creating a new,
biographical accuracy.
Winged Nike (Winged Victory),
from Samothrace, c. 190 B. C.
Marble, the shifting spatial
thrusts are characteristic of the
new Hellenistic command of
form and motion in space.

It is as if she were on the hull
of a boat in the naval fleet
coming home from victory. Her
wings are outstretched as they
have not landed yet and her
garment is clinging to her legs
from the rush of the wind.
Sleeping Eros, (Eros/Cupid is the son of Aphrodite), c. 150 B.C., Bronze,
Shows relaxation, the body is laying all of it’s weight on the support. His arm is
laying over limp from the force of gravity.
Boxer, 2nd or early 1st century,
wearing the leather straps on
his hands of Greek boxers,
they reeked havoc on their
opponent. The boxer himself
show the signs of many years
of fighting, broken teeth, scars
on his face, the skin across his
rib cage is sagging.
Laocoon and His Two Sons, Marble,
7 ft., the two figures on the left are
original, the boy on the right is a
roman addition. Laocoon was a
Trojan seer who warned them not to
trust the Greeks. Athena sent two
serpents to devour him and his sons
Altar of Zeus, west front, reconstructed and restored, from Pergamon ( the west
coast of Turkey), c. 180 B.C. Marble height of the frieze is 7 ft. 6 in. The frieze
portrays the Hellenistic taste for emotion, energetic movement and exaggerated
musculature. The outside frieze shows the battle between pre-Greek Titans and
Greek Olympians.
Athena Battling with Alkyoneus, (the son of Gaia who was Apollo’s predecessor at
Delphi), unlike the classical versions because it is full of melodrama, frenzy and

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