Ancient Greece Temple of Apollo at Delphi, originally Mycenaean and honored the titan goddess, Gaia. After the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, Greeks transformed it into a temple for Apollo. This also marks the transformation from matriarchal to patriarchal societies. Detail of columns at Temple of Apollo in Delphi Plan of the Temple of Apollo Bill and Ted with Socrates Plato, philosopher, no use for artists because they are just imitating nature that is already perfect because it is created by God. Craftsmen are above fine artists because at least they make something functional Socrates, Plato’s spokesman and teacher – developed a new form of teaching known as the Socratic dialogue, a process of question and answer through which the truth of the argument is elicited through the student Aristotle, Plato’s most distinguished student and tutor to Alex the Great, known for the diversity of his interests. Philosophy and aesthetics are very interrelated in Ancient Greece Geometric Style 1000-700 B.C. Geometric Amphora Meandering patterns, what is this reminiscent of? Orientalizing Style 700-600 B.C. Compare figures to the boxing children from Minoan frescos Cyclops and Medusa Hercules Archaic Style 600-480 B.C. Black – figure Achilles and Atlas playing a board game Exekias, amphora showing Achilles and Penthesilea Late Archaic to Classical Style 530 – 400 B.C. Red Figure Achilles and Penthesilea Niobid Painter, kalyx krater, Death of the Children of Niobe Berlin Painter, bell krater showing the Abduction of Europa Classical to Late Classical Style, 450 – 323 B.C. Reed Painter, Warrior by a Grave, Funerary vessel, shows artist’s interest in showing forms as they appear in natural, three- dimensional space. The Battle of Issos, Pompeii, c. 300 B.C., Mosaic, a.k.a. the “Alexander Mosaic” Tesserae – little tiles or opus vermiculatum – worm work (because of the circular placement resembles the movement of a crawling worm, 106 ¾ x 201 ½ found on the floors of houses of the wealthy Alexander and his famous horse Bukephalos “ox-head” – wavy hair typical of royalty, staring at the Persian leader Darius Shows naturalism and foreshortening Sculpture Orientalizing Style: Lions of Delos, considered a fertile island because Apollo and his twin Artemis were born here. Because such a sacred site, constant struggle for control, thus the lion guardians. Archaic: New York Kouros, Attica, c. 600 B.C., Marble, 6 ft. life size, no provenience, originally used as grave markers, earliest known life size of a standing male from the Archaic period Cheramyes Master, Hera of Samos, c. 560 B.C., Marble, 6ft. 3 ½ in. What is encaustic painting? Why does that art term relate to this sculpture? Peplos Kore, c. 530 B.C., retains traces of paint on her dress and in her eyes, reminds us that Greek artists used color to enliven white marble statues. Early Classical Style The Kritios Boy, Acropolis, Athens Reflects a moment of self awareness marked by the change from Archaic to Early Classical – the only stylization left is in the hair and curls around the head, the flesh covers an organic structure of bone and muscle contrapposto- Latin: “contra” – against “positus” – position Head is turned slightly and the right leg, that is forward, bends at the knee so that the left leg appears to hold the body’s weight. The torso shifts so that the right hip and shoulder are lowered – contrast between rigid and relaxed elements allow the viewer to feel the inner workings of the human body. Poseidon/Zeus, found in the sea off Cape Artemision, dates to about 30 years after the Kritios Boy, it reflects the Greeks interest in athletics, artists studied athletes practicing in order to create figures in action Lost wax Process: Wax apple rubber mold and hollow cast fire-proof mold final bronze cast case in plaster in paraffin (clay based) with spruing Diskobolos – Discus Thrower 460 – 450 B.C. Only known from marble copies of the bronze original. Based on a circular design with two overlapping arcs, from the head to the knee and from hand to hand. The torso twists to align with the thighs, unity between the domed head, disc, and round base, frozen circular motion of a pivoting athlete Warrior from Riace, c. 450 B.C., also found in the sea off the southern coast of Italy near Raice, eyes are inlaid with bone and glass paste, copper eyelashes, lips and nipples, and silver teeth create a vivid, life-like impression, dated to the end of Early Classical and beginning of Classical, stylized hair is an Early Classical element, while the self confident, dynamic pose and organic for are characteristic of Classical Style. (see fig.5.25 on page 159 for better detail) Classical Style: Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), marble copy of bronze original Typical of Roman reproductions are the tree trunk supporting the back of the right leg and the right hand to the thigh. Bronze is stronger than marble and does not require such supports. Attributed to Polykleitos, Wounded Amazon, c. 430 B.C., Marble copy of bronze original, Amazons were female warriors from the east who helped defend Troy against the Greeks, Visual unity is created through the repetition of movement in the dress and the waves of her hair. It also interrupts the smooth texture of her skin. Grave Stele of Hegeso, c. 410-400 B.C., Marble Has a mourning look on her face as she looks at a necklace pulled from a box held by her servant. Architecture View of the temple of Apollo at Corinth, c. 550 B.C., limestone originally faced with stucco. Peripteral – (peristyle – open space surrounded by a collonade) temple whose walls are created by columns, proportions and grandeur diminish because “man is the measure of all things” – what does that mean? 6 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 Plan of the temple of Apollo at Corinth 1.Opisthodomos (back porch) 2. hallway seperated from naos by a solid wall 3. base of cult statue 4. naos (inner sanctuary) 5. Pronaos (front porch) 6. Solid wall 7. column of peristyle 8. steps Columns do not have a base, the rise out of the edge of the step. The capitals are reminiscent of Minoan columns from the Palace of Knossos, why? What kind of construction is this? Reconstruction of the façade of the Siphnian Treasury in the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, Archaic Style, Ionic order, housed inside, notice the decorative borders, egg and dart, leaf and dart Seated gods from the ionic frieze of the Siphnian treasury, Aphrodite, Artemis and Apollo argue over who won the war. What is the period style? How can you tell? Early Classical Style: Head of Zeus and Enthroned Zeus, Obverse and reverse of a coin minted by Hadrian to celebrate the 228th Olympiad, they used this coin to recreate the colossal statue of Zeus in the temple of Zeus at Olympia because the statue was destroyed many years before. The temple of Zeus at Olympia, 465-457 B.C., showing the cult statue seen from the façade, colossal statue originally 40 feet high, made of chryselephantine (“chrusos” – gold; “elephantos” – ivory) attached to a wooden frame West façade of Zeus’ temple at Olympia West pediment of Zeus’ temple, Apollo in the middle with a calm solid, stance. With a raised right arm to subdue the centaurs from attacking the Lapith people Centaur from west pediment The east pediment of Zeus’ temple, Zeus is in the middle with Oinomaos and Pelops Metopes showing the 12 labors of Herakles Athena, Herakles and Atlas, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, from the east side of the temple Dorian – western mainland Ionian – east coast from Athens, across Aegean Sea to western Turkey View of the Acropolis, Athens Plan of the Acropolis Parthenon, designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates, artistic direction from Phidias, made of marble, cut and fit without the use of mortar, primarily doric with the exception of four columns inside the treasury and a continuous ionic frieze that runs along the inside of the colonnade, shows the Athenian interest in harmonizing east and west Greece. East pediment of the Parthenon, various gods and goddesses, arranged to fit logically in the triangular shape of the pediment Doric on the outer colonnade and ionic on the inner colonnade Continuous Ionic frieze, Phidias adopted the convention of isocephaly – all the heads are about the same level, shown are the equestrian group of the north frieze Metope from Doric frieze, shown is Lapith and Centaur, high – relief sculpture, single combat What it hypothetically looked like. Athena, cult statue ,name sake of Athens, reconstruction of Phidia’s originial, found in the naos of the Parthenon. parthenos – virgin, comes from parthenogenesis meaning virgin birth Athena sprung from Zeus’ forehead and was not actually born in a human sense. Thus the virgin birth. She is the goddess of war and wisdom Shown wearing Medusa’s head, holding a statue of Nike The Temple of Athena Nike from the east of the Acropolis. Temple of Athena Nike, Nike Adjusting Her Sandal, from the balustrade of the temple at Athena Nike. Sheer, almost transparent drapery (wet drapery) appears to cling to the body, elegant repeated folds, graceful curved torso with diagonal planes The Erechtheum, west side of the Acropolis, built for the celebrated king who was worshipped with Athena and various other gods, caryatid porch Theater at Epidauros, c. 350 B.C., diameter 373 ft., curved rows of stone, formed a conical shape, Skene – (scene) stage Shows were performed in honor of the wine god, Dionysos Late Classical Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 350.B.C. Marble Roman copy, Praxiteles was the leading Athenian sculptor of Late Classical style. Gentle “S” shape called the “Praxitelean curve” is outlines the stance of most of his statues. Aphrodite was commissioned by Kos but was rejected because of her nudity. She was then accepted by Knidos. It was with this piece that female entered the canon of beauty in Greek art, which was previously restricted to males only. The positioning of her hand shows both modesty yet draws attention to her nudity. How has the figure changed to classify it as Late Classical rather then Classical? How has the Greek “ideal” of female nude beauty changed to present day “ideal”? Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (athlete with a strigil [an instrument used to scrap moisture from the skin after bathing or exercising]) literally means “one scraping himself” Canon is distinguished from Polykleitos’s Doryphoros, Polykleitos’ figures were idealized youths. Lysippos prefered thinner bodies, smaller heads, more detailed hair and an increase in surface movement. The result was a taller, lighter appearance and livelier stance. Same artist, very different emotions and actions, what do you see? Attic grave stele, from near Athens, c. 350 – 330 B.C., Marble Shows man in the three stages of his life, from young boy weeping on the steps, to strong confident, heroic man, to old contemplative man. It is believed this stele marked the grave of a young man who died in the prime of his life. (he is the most prominent figure) The old man is a grieving father and the boy and dog added pathos (element of pity) that became typical of Greek art. Hellenistic Style: Extended from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the beginning of the Roman Empire under Augustus Refers to the spread of Greek influence beyond Greece especially to the east as a result of Alexander’s conquests. During the influx of power the is much cross-fertilization (influences) There is an increase of portraiture, becomes very dramatic showing emotion, inner and outer. Head of Alexander, from Pergamon Lysippos was the official sculptor of Alexander and established the official royal image. Though none of his images survived, many posthumous portraits by other artists did survive. Polyeuktos, Demosthenes, c. 280 B.C. His life was beset with financial hardship and a speech impediment. He stuttered terribly but taught himself to become the greatest public speaker in Athens. His political enemies succeeded in having him exiled for trumped up charges of corruption, rather than subjugating to the enemy he drank poison to end his life. This statue shows his worn face, furrowed brow, concentrated gaze. The story is important because it shows an integral part of the statue creating a new, biographical accuracy. Winged Nike (Winged Victory), from Samothrace, c. 190 B. C. Marble, the shifting spatial thrusts are characteristic of the new Hellenistic command of form and motion in space. It is as if she were on the hull of a boat in the naval fleet coming home from victory. Her wings are outstretched as they have not landed yet and her garment is clinging to her legs from the rush of the wind. Sleeping Eros, (Eros/Cupid is the son of Aphrodite), c. 150 B.C., Bronze, Shows relaxation, the body is laying all of it’s weight on the support. His arm is laying over limp from the force of gravity. Boxer, 2nd or early 1st century, wearing the leather straps on his hands of Greek boxers, they reeked havoc on their opponent. The boxer himself show the signs of many years of fighting, broken teeth, scars on his face, the skin across his rib cage is sagging. Laocoon and His Two Sons, Marble, 7 ft., the two figures on the left are original, the boy on the right is a roman addition. Laocoon was a Trojan seer who warned them not to trust the Greeks. Athena sent two serpents to devour him and his sons Altar of Zeus, west front, reconstructed and restored, from Pergamon ( the west coast of Turkey), c. 180 B.C. Marble height of the frieze is 7 ft. 6 in. The frieze portrays the Hellenistic taste for emotion, energetic movement and exaggerated musculature. The outside frieze shows the battle between pre-Greek Titans and Greek Olympians. Athena Battling with Alkyoneus, (the son of Gaia who was Apollo’s predecessor at Delphi), unlike the classical versions because it is full of melodrama, frenzy and pathos.
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