TESLA_Cosmos_2003

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					   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

Santa Cruz
Institute for Particle Physics
Tesla Coil Show
entertains COSMOS
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz
                      Your Guests today
   Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics SCIPP
      Prof. Hartmut Sadrozinski
      Prof. Terry Schalk
      Dr. Lan Zhang, UCSC Post Doc.
      Charlie Crummer, Laboratory Manager

      Christian Flacco, UCSC Grad. student

      Mr. S. Briber, Independence HS, San Jose
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz
                               Tesla Program
                      Introduction & Jacob's Ladder
                      Safety First
                      Corona:
                       – Zorro’s Sword
                       – Lights without Cords
                      How the Tesla Coil Works
                      Knight in Armor
                       – Bolt to the face
                       – Sparks from the feet
                      Chicken Coop ?
                      Who was Nikola Tesla?
                      Mystery Knight in Armor
                       – Fighting Lightning
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz




                                  Teaching, Research, Outreach



 AstroPhysics
 Big objects in the sky: Stars,
    Black holes, Supernovae




                                              C.M.:
                                              How do objects form
       HEP: Smallest Particles: Quarks        and stay together?
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


       The size of the object and its distance tells me what kind of instrument I need to see it.

                                                 Larger & Farther away
                                      Galaxy

                                                                              Smaller &
                                                                    DNA
                                                                              Harder to see



                                                             Cell
                                                                          Atom

                                                                                  Nucleus




                                         the Universe
                     A Physicist View ofElectron
                                                 microscope
                                                                                 Accelerator
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


    Professors and Students (and Teachers!)
    conduct research in the SCIPP Laboratories.




          http://scipp.ucsc.edu
   SCIPP           SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

            Summer 2001: Teachers help launch a big Science Balloon




    Mr. Kliewer
    Prof. Schalk
    Dr. Dann
    Mr. Manildi
    Mr. Briber
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


    Balloon Flight, Chase and Recovery




 After 250 Miles across Texas at 130,000 ft, 50g crash, still works
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


  SAFETY FIRST!
      Distance at least 20 ft.
      Computers, Gameboys, CD players,
       telephones to the back of the room –
       unplugged, switched off!
      Hearing aids off, pacemakers out of
       room!
                                                    1 Million
                                                     Volts!
          Normally you can't see, hear or smell
           electricity, but the Tesla Coil makes    DANGER
            • Bright sparks
            • Loud crackling noise
            • The air smell strange (Ozone)
                                              BRACE YOURSELF!
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz




    Zorro
        Drawing lightning with a sword
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz
           Sparks
                 Electricity
           to grounded sword


                 Moves
                                 What about

                 Through the Air those lights
                                 without cords?
                 (you knew that,
      What is happening with Zorro?
                 because you use
    Wire to safe
    ground     a    radio and TV)
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

                 Summary of Tesla coil operation:


                  1 million
                    volt
                               Resonance circuit

   Voltage
    starts
    at 120
                  14,000
     ends                Transformer
                   volt
     up at
   1 million!


                    120
                    volt      Outlet
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

  Learn about Transformers



                                Power comes out
                                   at 14000 Volts

 Power goes in
   at 120 Volts                         Where have
                                         you seen
                                        this before?



                             Commercial Transformer,
                             hooked up the “backwards”
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

         Physics Principle: Transformer
   We hear a lot about conserving Power
   (turn off lamps, air conditioners, close refrigerator doors...)
   Electrical Power is just converted wind, water, thermal power
   It is brought to your neighborhood on high voltage lines


                                             Power goes in
                                             at 14000 Volts



                   Power comes out
                       At 120 Volts

                         and a transformer brings it down to 120V
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz



  Transformer 101:


  Energy (Power ) (at best! - heat, sound, motion!) conserved
                  I*V constant
  Primary (n1) and secondary (n2) share the Magnetic Flux 
                 (use iron core!)
                  V1  n1*d/dt
                  V2  n2*d/dt  n2/n1* V1
   SCIPP               SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

                       High voltage sparks I: Jacob’s ladder


                                                   E=VJ/d
                       14kV R




   off:                         on:
            R     RJ                    R          RJ




          RJ>>R -> VJ>>VR             RJ<<R
          I=0                         I=V/(RJ+R)
   SCIPP         SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

                         High voltage sparks II: Tesla coil
 • 110 VAC -> >=14kV
 • C gets charged
 • high V across S
                                                                     T
                                   primary     S
                                 transformer

                                                      C      P2     S2

                                                       secondary
                                                      transformer




   • S breaks down                       • virtual capacitor (T -> ground)
   • C discharges through P2             • resonant circuit (S2,T)    2  1 / S 2  T  1
   • resonant circuit (S,C,P2)           • energy transfer
     1  1 / P 2  C                    • voltage gain :    VT  C / T VC  100kV
                                         • power transfer/sparks at 1 (10-100 MHz)
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

  Resonance
                             That’s how a swing works:
                             Match Resonance Frequency and In-Phase




                       In the Tesla “swing”, the kick is supplied
                       by the Primary Coil, so it has to be tuned
                       to the secondary circuit to be in resonance
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


                                                        T
                          primary
                                      S
                        transformer

                                          C    P2       S2

                                           secondary
                                          transformer
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz
                                                            SLAC
                  Transformation of Power
                     Power is used everywhere
                       – Visit the Stanford Linear
                         Accelerator Center (SLAC):
                         Electricity -> New particles
                                           Quarks

      GLAST         Power is tranformed in Space
                    Black holes explode :
                      – Material -> Light, x-rays, “jets”
                      – SCIPP works on GLAST Mission:
                        discover the most powerful
                      “power plants” in the universe
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz




     Meet the Fighting Knight


                 Fighting Lightning
                 Bolt to the Head
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

       Electricity in Air

                                Lightning
                                Jacob’s Ladder
                                Corona
                                Tesla Sparks
                        are all related.

    Principle: Air is made of molecules. When they are
    ionized, they become charged and can conduct a current
    like an electrical wire.
    If there is a large current, it heats up the air and makes
    light. Thus, the sparks, flames etc are direct evidence for
    the model of atoms!
   SCIPP            SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


  How lightning works
                                                  + +     +     +    +     +
                                           +  +                               + +
                                                   +    +   +     +
                                           – –      – –                          –
                                               –     –      –     – – –– –– –     –   –
                                                          –     – – –– – – –
                                                                        –
                                      + – –
                                                                           +
                                                                +     +
                                     + –     +        +   –
                                                                              +
                                               + –    –
                                                              +
                                                                   +
                                                                       +
                                      +  –                                  +
                                                  – + –             –
                                                +            + +
                                          + –                           +       +
         Ground is safe!                                          – –        –
                                                             –
                                                                + + +
                +    +   +   +   +   + + +                    +          +
         +

                                                    ++
                                                         + + +               + + + + + +
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


  The Faraday Cage                                   +
                                              +   + + +    + + +
                                          +              +    + +
                                                  +   +
                                                –       –
  Planes are close to the clouds          –   – – – – – –
                                               – – – –
  and away from safe ground.
  Why aren’t they in grave
  danger from lightning?
   Answer: They form a
   “Faraday Cage” -- that is,
   they are surrounded by                             + +
                                                  +
   metal.                                                   +
                                              +
   Electricity flows around the
   outside of the metal, and
   anything inside is safe!
                                   Safest place during a lightning
                                   storm is in a plane or car
                                   because it is a Faraday Cage
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz




     The “Chicken Coop”
                The World’s Ugliest Faraday Cage --
                  and it’s full of holes!
                But can it keep the lightning out?



                  Does the chicken trust the
                  equations?
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

                Chicken Wire = Mostly Holes
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


                               Thomas “DC” Edison
                               and his Batteries




                                     vs.




   Tesla Revival                                          Nikola “AC” Tesla
   271 web sites are dedicated to Nikola Tesla            and his Generators
   Join the “Tesla Coil Web Ring”
    http://nav.webring.yahoo.com/hub?ring=teslaring&list
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

       Nikola Tesla as a Daredevil waiting for a hair cut?




                       Double Exposure makes it safe!
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz




    Mystery Knight
                     Who is afraid of Lightning?

                           Not the Mystery Knight!
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


      Is the Mystery Knight OK?            Let’s check!
      The armored suit is safe!
         It's a Faraday Cage – no
          electric field allowed inside.
                                             Invisible
                                              current
    1 Million Volts

      Visible                                 Electrical
      sparks                                  current
      Visible                                 flows on the
      sparks                                  OUTSIDE of
                                              a metal!
     Ground
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz


                     Fysiks is Phun!

                 Questions?

        Ask after the show, e-mail, visit…

         You find our coordinates on the web
                  http://scipp.ucsc.edu
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

       Pls. Fill out the Feedback Form
                               Date…7/03/2002  School…COSMOS
       1)1) Teacher or Student (circle one)
       2) Did you know anything about these demonstrations before you saw them? (If so
             how much?)

       3) What did you learn from the demonstration?

       4) What did you think worked well for you and what didn’t make any sense?

       5) What suggestions do you have that might make this demonstration better? (that
           is easier to understand)

       6) Did you have fun at this presentation? Whom will you tell about what you saw
            today?

       7) Did this demonstration change your opinion about Science?

       8) Any other comments?


       http://scipp.ucsc.edu
   SCIPP        SCIPP Tesla at COSMOS
UC Santa Cruz

   Say “Good bye” to
   Daniel Greenhouse,
   the brain behind the sparks
   He was an undergraduate
    at UC Santa Cruz.




                                    http://scipp.ucsc.edu

				
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