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					Service Continuity
             Maintaining Your
             Agency’s Ability to
             Respond
What is Service Continuity?

The ability of a service organization to
 continue to function under adverse
 conditions
Service Continuity Planning

Set of policies, procedures, and information
  developed and maintained for use in the
  event of a service disruption
Purpose
   The purpose of Service Continuity is
    to maintain a minimum level of
    service while restoring your
    organization to “business as usual.”
Why is SCP important?
   An organization which fails to
    provide a minimum level of service
    to its clients following a disaster
    may not have an agency to recover.
 Trust may be breached; Reputation
  damaged
 Funding may disappear
 Service may be re-evaluated and
  deemed unnecessary
 Clients may seek services elsewhere
Also:
Emergency Response agencies have a
 moral and professional obligation to
 be prepared to provide community
 assistance during an event
Question?

 What specific event ignited
 the topic of business
 continuity?
Y2K
Y2K represented uncertainty.
Questions were:

     What value is information if there is no
      system to put it on?
     What good is the system if there is no
      place to put it or no access to it?
     What good is the system if there are
      no skilled people to perform the work?

      Thus, Business Continuity was born…
Service Continuity assists in…disasters
Hurricane Katrina
     > 1,600
      Deaths

     $75 Billion
      in damages

     $200 Billion
      estimated in
      economic
      impact
Catastrophic Incidents
             September 11, 2001
                  2,750 persons perished
                  8,000 Intel-based servers
                   and 5,000 UNIX servers lost
                  Estimated that 45,000 –
                   50,000 securities positions
                   (i.e. trading, sales,
                   research, operations) were
                   lost in WTC and adjacent
                   buildings.
         Loma Prieta Earthquake
           7.1 -- 15 Seconds
   3,000 Injured
   62 Deaths
   $7 Billion property
    damage
   $1.5 Billion highway
    repair
   1,925 Businesses
    destroyed/damaged
   414 Homes
    destroyed
   18,306 Homes
    damaged
1906 San Francisco Earthquake
    April 18, 1906
    8.3 Magnitude
    $500 Million
     Damage
    > 3,000 Deaths
    375,000
     population
    Fire was the
     greatest danger
More common risks that we
face:
     Communications          Legal action
      failure                 Loss of key
     Computer crash           personnel
     Fire                    Recession
     Electrical failure      Reputation
     Flood                   Severe storm
     Hazmat incident         Unscrupulous
     Inflation                vendor
     Internet failure        Ubiquitous “other”
Where do the Hazards originate?
    External
      Nature
      Utilities & Suppliers
      Economic / Political forces
      Human nature
    Internal
      Facility problems
      Equipment failures
      Staff
Development of a Service Continuity
Program

 Approach
   A.   Service Impact Analysis
   B.   Risk Assessment
   C.   Service Continuity Plans
   D.   Disaster Recovery Plan
   E.   Incident Management Plan
                                                  Comprehensive Emergency
                                                  Management

Level of                  EVENT
 Effort
                                   Response


      Business as Usual                       Business Interruption



                                                 Local Authority
                                                    Recovery


      Risk        Preparedness                                        Community Recovery
   Assessment
                  Mitigation

                                                                                           Time

 Preparedness Plan                Response Plan
 Mitigation Plan                    Municipal Recovery Plan
 Risk Assessment                          Business Continuity Plan

                                                   Community Recovery Plan
Effective Service Continuity

Effective Service Continuity is built on 7 P’s:
1. Program – proactively managing the
   process
2. People – roles & responsibilities,
   awareness & education
3. Processes – all organisational processes
4. Premises – buildings & facilities
5. Providers – supply chain, vendors,
   outsourcing
6. Profile – reputation, image
7. Performance – benchmarking,
Most important Resource?
Answer:        Personnel

   Although there are other
    critical resources, the service
    or product in almost all
    organizations depend on
    actions preformed by, and
    decisions made by, people.
The difference between Service
Continuity and Disaster Recovery

 Service Continuity is PROACTIVE. Its
  focus is to avoid or mitigate the
  impact of a risk
 Disaster Recovery is REACTIVE. Its
  focus is to pick up the pieces and
  restore the organization to business
  as usual after a risk occurs
            Three Phases of
           Continuity Planning


 1. Risk                  2.                      3.
Reduction              Incident                Recovery


Producing a Service   Activating the Service   Using and closing
  Continuity Plan        Continuity Plan       down the Service
                                                Continuity Plan
A. Service Impact Analysis

  Examines the impact of the
    service interruption.

  Impacts might include:
     Well-being of clients is reduced
     Public image; loss of reputation
      and community goodwill
     Loss of donor funding
Additional Impacts:


   Excessive staffing      Extra expense to
    costs                    replace supplies
                             or equipment
   Legal - failure to
    meet contractual        Customer
    obligations; fines       services –
    or penalties             reduction or
                             termination of
                             service, possibly
                             when needed
                             most
B. Risk Assessment
         Risk Options
1.   Avoid the risk
      – Leave location
      – Eliminate the service rendered
2.   Transfer the risk
      – Contract out function or resource
      – Insurance
3.   Mitigate the risk
      – Reduce the risk or its impact
      – Control the risk
4.   Accept the risk
      – Should be calculated after full evaluation
Not all risks present the same
danger

Risks can be rated:
   Probability of occurrence
     •frequency
   Consequence on the organization

     •impact
 Probability and Consequence

                     Consequences
                     1               2       3             4       5
Probability          Insignificant   Minor   Significant   Major   Catastrophic


5 Certain            L               M       H             E       E



4 Likely             L               M       H             H       E



3 Possible           L               M       M             H       H



2 Unlikely           L               L       M             M       M



1 Rare               L               L       L             L       L




L:         Low risk
M:         Moderate risk
H:         High risk
E:         Extreme risk
C. Service Continuity Plan
Development

  1.   Obtain Management Support for
       SCP
  2.   Identify Essential Services
  3.   Identify Key Support Functions
  4.   Identify Critical Resources
  5.   Assure Workforce Considerations
  6.   Exercise and distribute the Plan
Clarifications

   Services are those activities which are
    deemed vital to client well-being.

   Functions are those measures within
    the organization to support the critical
    services, i.e. management,
    administration, IT, logistics, etc.

   Resources are the materials, hardware/
    software, and vendors that are
    necessary to achieve either the
    functions or service mandate.
2. Identify Essential
Services
 Identify all services that my agency
  delivers
 Identify essential services
 Useful Tool: “Maximum Acceptable
  Downtime”
       Window of time after which there is a
        serious impact on my agency’s service
        delivery
3. Identify Key Support Functions

     List the functions within the agency that
      are necessary to support Essential
      Services
         Senior management
         IT
         Logistics
         Administration
         Human Resources
         Etc.
Rank
               Function               Activity


Vital          IT / Communications    Restore communications

               Administration / BSU   Restore building,
                                      utilities, etc.
               Transportation         Restore transport links

Important      Operations             Supervise / redirect staff

               Logistics              Control / redirect relief
                                      supplies
               Human Resources        Support staff in relief
                                      activities
Non-critical   Organizational Dev’t   Staff redirected to relief
               (and Program staff)    efforts
4. Identify Critical
Resources
   List the resources that are necessary
    for Support Functions
     Utilities
     IT/Internet

     Communications

     Vehicles / Fuel

     Food / Water

     Etc.
Critical Resource
Considerations
 Relationship with vendors
 Multiple vendors and suppliers
 Systems redundancies
 Stockpiling supplies and
  materials
5. Assure Workforce Measures

    Manage Personnel during and after
     Event
        Protect Staff (e.g. H1N1)
    Decision-making authority
        Lines of authority
        Chain of command
    Staffing Plan
        Cross-training
        Call-out procedure
6. Service Continuity Plan
Testing
   Exercise the Plan
     Exercise schedule endorsed by senior
      management
     Tabletop exercises with each service
      area in the agency
     Tabletop exercises with select
      functional teams (e.g. IT, logistics…)
 Coordinate with partner agencies
 Distribute the Plan
 Update and revise Plan
Training
   To assure personnel will be able to
    effectively and efficiently respond
    after a disaster event

   To develop self-confidence in the
    ability to perform assigned functions
SCP Plan Maintenance
    A plan that lacks maintenance
     quickly becomes a “Non-plan”
Service Continuity Program

D. Disaster Recovery Plan

        The Disaster Recovery Plan
         for provides the “game plan”
         for the recovery of services.
Service Continuity Program

E. Incident Management Plan

      The Incident Management
       Plan provides the EOC’s
       senior management and staff
       with a specific plan to
       “orchestrate” the recovery of
       business.
Summary:

Business Continuity is concerned
 with:
  People     Assets    Process
Remember…

  “Always plan ahead. It
 wasn't raining when Noah
 built the ark.”
              Richard C. Cushing
Questions?
Business Continuity
Plan Scenario…
H1N1 Influenza
…a challenging risk

      No infra-             Serious economic
       structural             interruption
       damage, but…          Public ‘unknowns’
      Long term              have huge impact
       staffing              Overwhelmed
       considerations         facilities
      Quickly changing      Limited outside
       event (decisions       resources
       with partial
       information)
Let’s review with a Flu
Scenario…

    It has been reported on television that the
   pandemic flu has reached Canada.

 The Times Colonist is reporting flu sickness on the mainland
 and Vancouver Island.
Week 1: Today

You have noticed that staff
absenteeism has been higher than
normal yesterday and today.
Week 1


 A few staff are coughing and
wheezing and complaining of
feeling ill…
Initial Reactions…
 What  staff issues are there?
 What are the implications?
 Can any of the staff work
  from home? What is required
  to make this happen?
 Who will you communicate
  with?
 Other issues?
Week 2

 Staff absence is now 25% higher
 than is normal for this time of the
 year.

 A key supplier calls to tell you that
 they will not be operating for the
 foreseeable future because of staff
 absenteeism.
            Actions?

   What are the priorities?
   Who do you communicate with?
   Is your contact list up-to-date?
   Do you have a phone tree?
   What will be the implication of losing
    a key supplier for the service?
   Do any members of the team have
    unique skills or knowledge? What are
    the risks of this? How to reduce this
    risk?
Week 2

The District has decided to close all schools
in the area due to teacher shortages and
also to limit spread of the flu.

Half of your staff have phoned in to say
that they will not be attending work this
week. They are staying at home to look
after their children.
A few more questions…

 What issues does school closing
  raise?
 How will you deal with staff who
  don’t attend work to look after
  their children/dependants?
 How will you deal with the work
  load?
           Week 3

Following further staff absences, the
number of staff in work has dropped by
75%.
You have just been informed that one
of your staff has died in hospital.
A Times Colonist reporter has asked for
your response on this and the effects of
the outbreak.
Actions of on-site
team?

      Who do you communicate with?
      How will you manage your
       resources, and your workload, with
       only 20% of staff attending work?
      What are the implications for the
       team of a death of a colleague?
      How will the media enquiry be dealt
       with?
      Anything else?
                Week 5
   You have located additional staff through an temp
    agency. Which areas of work would you prioritise for
    these extra staff?

   Do you work with any vulnerable groups? If yes,
    what are the implications of this group?

   How can you minimise the impact on this group?
         Week 8
   The event has eased. Are there issues that
    need to be addressed?
   Are there any questions this scenario has
    raised that you will now look into?
   Are there any plans you’d now put in place
    in case a 2nd wave hits?
   What lessons have been learned? How
    can this knowledge be used to improve
    your Service Continuity Plans?
Remember…

  “Always plan ahead. It
 wasn't raining when Noah
 built the ark.”
              Richard C. Cushing
    Additional Sources

   Business Continuity Institute
       http://www.thebci.org/
   Business Continuity Plan glossary
    http://www.drj.com/glossary/glossleft.h
    tm
   Business Continuity Planners
    Association http://www.bcpa.org/
   Natural Disasters preparedness
    http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/informer/inf
    ormerupdate.pdf
   Disaster recovery planning exchange
    http://www.drie.org/
Thank you!

				
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