Study Guide for Earth Science Final Exam—200 questions, multiple choice. You may only use
the following items on the final:
2. Earth Science reference tables
3. Layers of earth flip book
4. Planet transparency notes
5. Atmosphere foldable
6. Cloud ID sheet
Ch. 1 Intro to Earth—29 questions
1.5—Be able to give steps in scientific method and define each.
Know difference between observation and measurement
1.1—Know branches of earth science and what is studied in each.
1.2—Know spheres of earth and what is contained in each
1.4—What are systems, why is earth a system, what powers earth as a system
Compare and contrast open and closed systems
1.3—Mapping, be able to read coordinates on a Mercator map, be able to define contour
interval and relate it to the slope of a terrain and determine altitude on a topographic map,
recognize depressions and common map symbols, read distance from map scale (18 questions
on this section alone)
Ch. 2—Chemistry & minerals—43 questions
2.1—Chemistry-- Be able to count p+, n, & e- in an atom from atomic number and mass
Be able to give the atomic # and mass # from p+, n, & e- in an atom
Identify the 3 types of chemical bonds, give examples and properties of each
Give names and/or formulas for binary ionic compounds
Give names and/or formulas for binary covalent compounds
Compare and contrast ion and isotope and define each.
List 3 phases of matter (s, l, g) and give properties of each
Parts of the atom (p+, n, & e-) and properties and location of each.
Be able to convert metric units
Convert temps from C to K and K to C.
2.2 & 2.3 Minerals— ( 13 of the 43 questions come from minerals)
Know the definition of a mineral.
Know the groups of minerals and be able to classify minerals into the groups.
Be able to diagram a silicon oxygen tetrahedron
Be able to define the properties of minerals and apply them.
Ch.3 Rocks—34 questions
Know the definition of a rock.
Know 3 types of rock
Know steps of the rock cycle.
Know how alternate paths in the rock cycle work.
Know how we classify igneous rocks, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
Know difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rock and relationship to crystal size.
Know the difference between clastic and chemical sedimentary rock. Which one is formed
from deposited rock fragments and which one is formed from precipitated minerals?
Know the difference between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rock
Know the difference between regional and contact metamorphism
Be able to read reference charts to know parent rock for each type of metamorphic rock.
Be able to read reference charts to classify igneous rock by composition and texture.
Be able to read reference charts to classify sedimentary rocks by particle size.
Know steps in coal formation.
Know steps in metamorphing shale to gneiss.
Know relationship to magma and lava to igneous rock and crystal size.
Know key terms in forming rocks, cooling & crystallization for igneous; weathering, erosion,
deposition, compaction, and cementation for sedimentary, and heat and pressure for
Know the special features of sedimentary rock—fossils, mud cracks, ripple marks
Ch. 4 Environment and Alt Energy—9 questions
Define renewable and non-renewable resources and give examples.
Know consequences of burning fossil fuels and using plastics
Steps in forming coal
Nuclear fission vs. Nuclear fusion and fuel for each
Pollution pie chart, Figure 19, p. 110
Define following alternate energy sources and give pro con, hydroelectric, solar
Know the environmental laws we did projects on.
Ch. 10—Volcanoes and Intrusive igneous—10 questions
Factors that influence how violent an eruption is, either 2 or 3
3 types of cones & examples of each
p. 283 diagram of a stratovolcano
which cone is most dangerous
define and describe—pluton, batholith, sill, dike, pluton
know how to classify intrusive igneous bodies
3 factors that form magma—increase or decrease temp, pressure, H2O
Ch. 9 Plate tectonics—11 questions
Know who Alfred Wegener was.
Define hypothesis of continental drift, and give 4 evidences/examples of each.
Define Pangaea and Panthalassa.
Know why continental drift was rejected.
9.2 & 9.3
Know the number of major plates.
Know the 3 types of plate boundaries, whether crust is made or destroyed, notable features at
each, and give example of each.
Know the 3 types of convergent boundaries, notable features, and give examples of each.
Know average speed of plates
Define subduction. Which kind of plate boundaries have it?
Know the diagrams of the plate boundaries from Ch. 9.3.
Ch. 8 Earthquakes—21 questions
Vocab—Be able to define and recognize: elastic rebound hypothesis, focus, fault, fracture,
epicenter, seismograph, seismogram, intensity, magnitude, aftershock, foreshock, tsunami,
Compare and contrast P, S, & L waves—speed of travel, layers of earth travel through,
direction of compression
Be able to tell what is measured by Richter scale, Mercalli scale, moment magnitude.
Define the factors that influence damage in an earthquake.
Use P-S wave graph to plot distances and travel times for quakes
Use flipbook to define, compare and contrast layers of the earth.
Fault responsible for 1906 SF quake.
Be able to find the epicenter of a quake.
Ch. 12 & 13—Geologic Time
Ch. 12—4 questions
Know laws of superposition, principle of cross-cutting relationships, principle of original
horizontality, and be able to date rock layers on diagram
Define fossils and how they form
Calculate half-life and mass remaining in ½ life calculations
Ch. 13—4 questions
Which era of geologic time is the largest. The most recent.
Which is period is age of fishes, reptiles, mammals?
What allowed mammals to dominate.
When did dinosaurs die
Ch. 16.3 Shell Island Delimma—3 questions
Know causes of sediment movement at the beach
Know ways to stop beach erosion, pros & cons of each
Know how barrier islands form
Ch. 22---5 questions
Know heliocentric and geocentric models and who favored each.
Who first used the telescope.
Positions of earth, sun, & moon at lunar eclipse, solar eclipse, new moon, & full moon.
Difference between maria and highlands
Space exploration—3 questions
Recognize the following people: Alan Shepherd, Gus Grissom, John Glenn, Yuri Gagarin, Jim
Lovell, Fred Haise, Ken Mattingly, Jack Swiggert, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins
Know the crew size and significance of Sputnik, Explorer I, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab,
Mir, Space Shuttle
How to survive on the moon and site of first lunar landing
Ch. 23—10 questions
Understand how the solar system formed through the nebular hypothesis
Know difference between terrestrial and Jovian planets and which type each planet is, and
general composition of each type
Name planets in order from sun out to Pluto
Know relative densities, masses, rate of rotation, and revolution for each planet
Which planets have rings
Notable features of each planet
Be able to define comet, asteroid, meteor, meteoroid, meteorite, and know parts of the comet
Ch. 24 & 25—5 questions
Know the fuel for the sun and the process it uses
Be able to define and identify on the sun—photosphere, chromospheres, corona, sun spot
Know which stars are hotter and brighter (color)
Atmosphere Ch. 17—5 questions
Be able to list layers of atmosphere in order from earth surface.
Use foldable to identify layers by temperature.
Know what ozone is and which layer contains it
Clouds Ch. 18—6 questions
Use Cloud ID guide to describe types of clouds given name or name clouds given description—
focus on cumulonimbus, cumulus, stratus, nimbostratus, altostratus, cirrus, fog
Ch. 19 & 20—Weather and climate—9 questions
Be able to identify types of air masses (cP, cT, mP, mT) and give properties and areas of
Identify which are masses make types of weather fronts (warm, cold, occluded, stationary)
Identify weather fronts using map symbols and diagrams of their structure.