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    l o go          Alachua County, Florida
             Energy Conservation Strategies
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Contents

Key Terms                                                                                                                     v

3   Residential Housing                                                                                                      1
    3.1   Introduction ...................................................................................................    1
          3.1.1 Executive Summary ..........................................................................                  1
          3.1.2 Key Recommendations .......................................................................                   2
          3.1.3 Mission Statement .............................................................................               2
          3.1.4 Executive Summary ..........................................................................                  3
          3.1.5 Coordinated Policy ..............................................................................             7
    3.2   Background ....................................................................................................     8
          3.2.1 The Magnitude of Energy Efficiency and GHG Changes Needed ..........                                          8
    3.3   Alachua County Profile ...................................................................................          9
          3.3.1 Populations and Households ...............................................................                    9
          3.3.2 Income ..............................................................................................        11
          3.3.3 Age of Residents ................................................................................            12
    3.4   Housing Supply ..............................................................................................      12
          3.4.1 Background ........................................................................................          12
    3.5   Existing Homeowners .....................................................................................          14
          3.5.1 Background Information .....................................................................                 14
          3.5.2 Low-Cost Improvements and Retrofits ................................................                         14
    3.6   Alternative Recommendations for Existing Homeowners .................................                              22
    3.7   Multifamily and Landlords ..............................................................................           24
          3.7.1 Background ........................................................................................          24
          3.7.2 Regulations ........................................................................................         27
          3.7.3 Incentives ..........................................................................................        28
          3.7.4 Mechanisms for Implementing Regulation ............................................                          28
          3.7.5 Alternative Energy ..............................................................................            30
          3.7.6 Leverage Existing Programs ...............................................................                   31
          3.7.7 Apartment Building Rules ...................................................................                 31
          3.7.8 Bulk Buying Plan ................................................................................            32
    3.8   New Construction ...........................................................................................       33
          3.8.1 Background ........................................................................................          33
          3.8.2 Goals for New Construction ................................................................                  33
          3.8.3 Model Green Building Ordinance .......................................................                       34
    3.9   Performance Goals and Standards ..................................................................                 34
          3.9.1 Sustainable Building Policy ................................................................                 39
          3.9.2 FGBC Green Home Standard .............................................................                       41
          3.9.3 Goals for Energy Intensity by Segment ...............................................                        42
          3.9.4 Goals for Product Information ............................................................                   43

A Model Green Building Ordinance
                                                                                                                             46

B HERS Index Overview                                                                                                        69
  Bibliography




List of Tables
3.1 HUD Median Income .......................................................................................................          11
3.2 HUD Median and Low Income Levels, 1999–2005 ........................................................                               12
3.3 HUD Income Limits for Low Income in Gainesville MSA ...............................................                                13
3.4 Alachua County Population by Age ................................................................................                  14
3.5 Rental Housing Demand .................................................................................................            15
3.6 Alachua County Housing Supply ....................................................................................                 16
3.7 Energy Use in a Typical North Florida Home (3 bed; 2 bath; 1,500 square feet) .......                                              18
3.8 GRU Residential Off-Peak Demand Share by End-Use ..................................................                                19
3.9 Significant Milestones in Alachua County Energy Efficiency in the Home ....................                                        40
3.10 FGBC Green Building Resources ....................................................................................                42
3.11 Benchmark Goals for Green Building Certification ......................................................                           43


List of Figures
3.1 GRU Electricity Use .........................................................................................................             7
3.2 HUD tables for Gainesville Housing Data ...................................................................... 10
     (a)     Population and Household Growth in the Gainesville Housing Market Area (HMA) 10
     (b)     Components of Population Change in Gainesville H M A ................................ 10
     (c)     Number of Households by Tenure in the Gainesville H M A ........................... 10
     (d)     Rental Vacancy Rates in the Gainesville H M A ............................................... 10
3.3 Number of Housing Units in Alachua County by Year Built(in thousands) ................... 17
3.4 Residential Electricity Use per Capita by State (2004) ................................................. 22
3.5 Existing Housing: A Plan for Increased Energy Efficiency ............................................ 23
3.6 Solar Roof ......................................................................................................................... 31



Text Boxes
3.1   Proposed Residential Energy Efficiency Ordinance .......................................................                         20
3.2   Proposed List of ECO Repairs ........................................................................................            21
3.3   Selected Elements from the FGBC Program (1) ............................................................                         35
3.4   Selected Elements from the FGBC Green Government Standard (2) ...........................                                        36
3.5 Selected Elements from the FGBC Program (3) ............................................................ 37
3.6 Energy Efficiency Improvements From Enhanced Standards for New Construction . . 44
 Key Terms
 green energy Energy produced from renewable resources that do not contribute to long-term green-
       house gas levels. Examples would be energy produced from solar, wind, hydro, or combustion of
       plant material. Combustion of fossil fuels is not green because it releases carbon into the
       atmosphere that would otherwise have been trapped under ground.

 green An environmentally sustainable process or activity or something that facilitates sustainable
       practices.


 BOCC Board of County Commissioners of Alachua County.

 ECO Energy Conservation Ordinance. A proposed ordinance for Alachua County that would require
       low-cost improvements when a house is sold or when there are substantial renovations made to it.

 ECSC Energy Conservation Strategies Commission. The commission appointed by the Alachua
       County Board of County Commissioners to author this report.

 energy intensity The amount of energy used (in a building) per square foot of heated floor space. This
       is one measure of energy efficiency.

 Energy Star® A program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that promotes energy efficient
       products and practices.

 FGBC Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc., a Florida 50 1(c)3 nonprofit corporation whose mission
       is to establish and maintain a Florida system of statewide green building standards and third
       party certification programs with environmental and economic benefits. Their web s it e i s
       w w w . f l or i d a g r e e n b u i ld i n g . o r g .


 Gainesville HMA Gainesville Housing Market Area. The region around Gainesville that is used by the
       U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to collect and report housing data.
       The area includes all of Alachua and Gilchrist counties. See the Comprehensive Housing Market
       Analysis     available       from     http://www.         huduser.     org/Publications/PDF/
       CMAR_GainesvilleFl.pdf.


GHG Greenhouse gas. These are gases that contribute to the warming of the atmosphere. The
         primary anthropogenic GHGs are carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide.

 Green$mart® A registered trademark and an organization that provides pioneering green consulting
       services including sustainable incentives and code writing, seminars, workshops and confer-
       ences; and production of instructional and educational materials in the fields of sales motivation,
       sales and marketing, design and development of high performance, environmental buildings,
       lending and enviro-land development. Pattie Glenn is Founder/CEO and Managing Member of the
       Green$mart® Companies. http :/ /www. green smart . net /gs_mis s ion . htm.


                                                    v
GSHP Ground-source heat-pump. A system that exploits the nearly constant temperatures of the
      ground or subsurface water sources to heat homes in winter and cool homes in summer.


 HERS Home Energ Rating System. A rating system for expressing the energy efficiency of a home with
       an index number. HERS is a trademark of Residential Energy Services Network, Inc..

 HUD .

 HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.

 ICLEI International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, which is an organization that
       assists governments in developing sustainable economics. Alachua County has worked toward
       goals set by ICLEI.

 LEED ™ Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ™ by the U.S. Green Building Council:
       a series of rating systems designed to indicate the energy efficiency and sustainabil ity of
       buildings. There are different levels of certification and variations for neighbor hood
       development (LEED-ND), commercial buildings, schools, and more. See http : //www.
       usgbc . org/DisplayPage .aspx?CMSP age ID=222 for more information.

 REALTOR® A registered trademark of the National Association of REALTORS®. See http :
       //www.realtor.org/letterlw.nsf/pages/mmmPartOne#OneI.

 SHIP State Housing Initiatives Partnership. SHIP is a program whose function is defined by FAC
       420.907: “The State Housing Initiatives Partnership Program is created for the purpose of
       providing funds to counties and eligible municipalities as an incentive for the creation of local
       housing partnerships, to expand production of and preserve affordable housing, to further the
       housing element of the local government comprehensive plan specific to affordable housing,
       and to increase housing-related employment” (Retrieved from http :/ /www.
       floridahousing.org/webdocs/ship/2003_Statute_420 -907.pdf).

 sustainable building A building standard that includes evaluation of a) energy design and con-
       struction, appliances and lighting; b) water: fixtures, reuse and landscape, c) lot choice; d) site;
       e) health and safety (including air quality); f) materials; g) disaster mitigation, along with
       miscellaneous credits for small footprint, adaptability, renewable energy, remodeling and
       homeowner manuals.
 *
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Water heater blanket
     Photo by Puregin
                                     3.    Residential Housing




3.1 Introduction
We can build more efficient homes, but our energy requirements will
continue to rise unless the inefficiency of existing housing stock is
addressed. Ninety percent of the existing homes were built before 1999 and
they represent a huge opportunity for energy reduction through energy
conservation and energy efficiency improvements.


3. 1. 1 Ex ec ut i v e S um m ar y

The potential for energy savings in the residential sector are estimated to
be between 45–80% per household.
   To maximize the energy savings investments in of Alachua County, we
recommend the following sequence of energy-saving steps:

   1. education,

   2. conservation,

   3. low-cost energy saving improvements,

                                                                              Home insulation made from soy beans.
   4. major energy efficiency upgrades, and                                   Photo by NatureTek, Jacksonville, FL
                                                                              http://www.naturetekinc.com

                                                                              used by permission***pending response
   5. alternative energy systems.

   Energy savings from Steps 1–3 will generate significant financial
savings that can be used to fund the investments in Steps 4 and 5. This
energy savings strategy is the most efficient use of private and public
funds available for reducing energy consumption in the residential
housing sector.
3-2                                    Chapter 3. Residential Housing




      3.1.2 Key Recommendations

      Develop a coordinated education program through local media outlets,
      utilities, county and city governments, schools, churches and other
      organizations. Behavior change associated with this education program can
      potentially save 10–15% of the energy consumed by a residential
      household [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].
          Create a residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (ECO) that
      includes low-cost energy improvements, to ensure that existing homes are
      brought to a baseline energy efficiency standard. Low-cost energy
      improvements can reduce energy consumption in a residential
      household by 20–25%.
          Establish an incentive-based program to promote major energy
      efficiency upgrades in the existing housing stock to maximize energy
      savings. These energy efficiency upgrades can help reduce energy
      consumption by 25–50% [7, 8, 9, 10].
          The incentives will also encourage investments in alternative energy
      sources such as solar energy systems. Incentives, which include rebates,
      low-cost loans, tax credits, bulk-buying programs, etc., are designed to
      help homeowners and landlords attain a higher level of
      energy-efficiency compared to the standard level.


      3.1.3 Mission Statement

      The members of the Energy Conservation Strategies Commission
      (ECSC) Residential Housing Subcommittee are committed to exploring
      energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction in residential housing.
      This implies an extended commitment to principles that guide the
      legislative actions of the Board of County Commissioners (BOCC) and
      that lead the ECSC to consider the well-being of each of Alachua County’s
      diverse communities. These extended commitments include (a) planning
      for the inclusion of low-income households in energy-reduction
      programs, (b) planning for the preservation and conservation of natural
      resources, (c) promoting simplicity in the presentation of and access to
      energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction programs, and (d)
      planning for the protection of public health, safety, and welfare today and
      forever. With this understanding, the members of the Residential
      Housing Subcommittee of the ECSC hereby state our Environmental
      Mission Statement to adopt Guiding Principles: to identify pertinent
      Issues, state prioritized Goals and create an Action Plan through a
      multi-faceted approach using Market Research, Education, Sustainable
      Policy, and Sustainability Marketing.
          In addition, this committee proposes that this multi-faceted com-
      mitment shall serve to strike a balance between Green and Gold—
      environment and economy—to best promote the public health, safety and
      welfare of our community while we protect and conserve precious natural
      resources. The policies that stem from this comprehensive ap-
proach, when combined with a commitment to measure our sustainable
performance and communicate our stewardship through a Sustainability
Marketing Plan, shall uniquely differentiate Alachua County as a
continuously highly ranked, preferred place to live.


3.1.4 Executive Summary


    To better understand the current and future energy needs of residential
housing in Alachua County, the ECSC Residential Subcommittee set
forth to analyze and compile local housing research sources and other
information related to our task:




   1. Alachua County Profile: Report an updated snapshot view of the          Home insulation made from soy beans.
                                                                              Photo by NatureTek, Jacksonville, FL
      County profile including population, demographic trends, and            http://www.naturetekinc.com

      local economy.                                                          used by permission


   2. Housing Supply: Update existing housing supply and research
      building permit data to identify characteristics, market trends of
      new construction to forecast projected housing demand.

   3. Affordability: Assess housing costs to analyze affordability of
      various housing types so that our recommendations benefit
      people from every housing type.
      Building: best save natural resources,and itsenergy Sustainable
      that reduce the sustainable building, Elements of and identify
      and to Define Efficiency: Defining affordability to
   4. Beyond Energy carbon footprint of residentialcommon elements
      ways encourage and promote housing save housing. water,

   5. Cost Effective Approach Analysis: Identify the most cost ef-
      fective low-cost energy improvements and energy-efficiency
      retrofitting approaches.

   6. Financing Sources: Explore creative financing vehicles to best
      foster the sustainable market transformation for both low
      income and market rate housing.

   7. Sustainable Policy And Incentives: explore and recommend
      policy and incentives that strive to transform the existing and
      new housing stock to reduce energy consumption and facilitate
      sustainable building.
                                                                                            Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                                                         9. Education: Identify target audiences including stakeholders,
                                                            industry, public sector, and community citizens. Develop and
                                                            coordinate education to increase buy-in, reduce confusion and
                                                            increase results.

                                                         10. Marketing: Develop a sustainability marketing plan using an ed-
                                                             ucational focus that incorporates a local brand to raise awareness
                                                             and implements a comprehensive marketing plan.

                                                           To understand how to improve our housing, it is important to recognize
                                                        the notable milestones and progress achieved in high-performance
Hot and Humid Climate Zone
                                                        housing that have occurred here in Alachua County and in the State of
Photo from Department of Energy, also see http://www.
eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/
                                                        Florida (see Table 3.9). In 2001, it was this acknowledgement of the
pdfs/36960.pdf                                          unique characteristics and needs of Florida’s climate that led the local
                                                        and state building science experts, Florida’s universities, and
                                                        stakeholders from local government, and most importantly,
                                                        building-related industries, to form the Florida Green Building Coalition,
                                                        Inc. (FBGC), a 501(c)3, nonprofit organization, to expand the focus
                                                        beyond just energy efficiency, to specifically define the elements of
                                                        sustainable building for Florida’s hot, humid climate. Alachua County
                                                        was well-represented by three of its Founding Board members.

                                                           The second FGBC home in Florida, which was also the first existing
                                                        home to become an FGBC Certified home in Florida, was here in Alachua
                                                        County and won a 2007 Green Aurora Award in the existing home
                                                        category [see 11].

                                                        3.1.4.1 Key Recommendations

                                                           1. Adopt the FGBC Green Government Standard, and use the
                                                              Interactive Application Tool spreadsheets for Building and De-
   The Florida Green Building                                 velopment to outline a comprehensive program for (a)
                                                              energy-efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction, and (b) saving
   Coalition (FGBC) has already
                                                              natural resources in the residential sector complete with
   created energy-efficiency and
                                                              standards, goals, methods of measurement, and systems for
   green building guidelines that
                                                              tracking comprehensive efforts toward sustainability [12, 13, 14,
   are specifically tuned to
                                                              15, 16, 17]. Integrate the program with existing building codes so
   Florida’s hot, humid climate.                              that the standards are clear and concise. This program includes
   The coalition is comprised of                              detailed energy-efficiency guidelines, credits for use of sustainable
   building experts, universities,                            materials, and health standards for buildings in addition to the
   government stakeholders, and                               standards set by the consensus-approved programs identified
   the building-related industries.                           under the Model Green Building Ordinance [18, see also Appendix
   These parties worked together                              A].
   to first define, then develop
   Florida’s green rating systems                          2. Establish a sustainable building Program for Alachua County and
   for government, commercial,                                partner with cities to synchronize policies.
   homes, and developments.
                                                           3. Calculate the savings from green public buildings to identify budget
                                                              sources to create incentives to execute sustainable building
 3. 1. Introduction                                                                             3-5




  programs, ordinances, and community green awards programs
  (based on certified green homes).

4. Adopt a comprehensive program for energy-efficiency and green-
   house gas reduction in the residential sector complete with stan-
   dards, goals, methods of measurement, and systems for tracking
   comprehensive efforts toward sustainability. Integrate the
   program with existing building codes so that the standards are clear
   and concise. A good choice of a comprehensive plan for residential
   housing would be the FGBC’s Green Local Government Standard
   Designation [16]. This program includes detailed energy-efficiency
   guidelines, credits for use of sustainable materials, and health
   standards for buildings in addition to the standards set by
   programs such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental
   Design™ (LEED).

5. Adopt incentives and regulations to help improve the energy
   efficiency of Alachua County’s existing housing stock. The
   incentive approach might be easier for homeowners to accept, but
   comes with higher cost from the County’s point of view. The
   regulation approach might result in lower costs from the County’s
   perspective and might result in high compliance rates, but might
   also be unpopular with homeowners. One regulation approach is
   described by the the Energy Conservation Ordinance (ECO)
   ordinance, which is described in this document, and is a means of
   requiring energy-efficiency home improvements when the title to a
   home is transferred or when a permit is issued for work valued at
   $50,000 or more (see page 3-20). This ordinance would require
   low-cost improvements to homes and would have a cap of 1% of
   the value of the sale price or permit value.                             Enlux LED light

                                                                            Photo by Bob Hoot


6. To better assess the impact of mandated energy-efficiency repairs on
   low-income housing, request that BOCC authorize funding and
   staff to update the 2003 Affordable Housing Study [19], that was
   originally created by the Alachua County Affordable Housing Plan
   Team, and expand the report to include

     a) real housing costs; principal, interest, taxes, and insurance
        (PITI); plus utility costs (PITI+E), wherever possible, to
        better assess affordability, and to ultimately quantify and
        measure housing performance, now and in the future,

     b) integration with the 2007 Affordability Housing Index, and
     c) a reassessment of the percentage of the County’s popu-
        lation that is cost burdened using the recently redefined
        Affordability Index that also reflects the cost of utilities [see
        20].
                       3-6                                 Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                             7. Support local nonprofit organizations that help disadvantaged
                                populations make energy efficiency improvements. One such
                                organization is the Community Weatherization Coalition.

                             8. Approve recommended financing vehicles to fund low-cost
                                weatherization improvements and sustainability retrofits of local
                                housing supply. Ask the State Housing Initiatives Partnership
                                (SHIP) to request approval from the Florida Housing Finance
                                Corporation (FHFC) to expand their efforts to non-first time
                                homebuyers and to fund energy efficiency improvements to new and
                                existing homes.

                             9. Adopt a multifamily version of the ECO ordinance to require
                                energy-efficiency retrofitting of rental units as a precondition for
                                obtaining the proposed landlord license from the County (or from
                                cities). Work with cities to encourage them to adopt similar
                                ordinances (see page 3-29). A variation of the recommendation is to
                                split the cost of upgrades between landlord and tenant.

                             10.     To extend the motivation for landlords to install renewable
                               energy systems, allow landlords to keep all of the proceeds from
                               renewable energy systems installed on rental properties (i.e., the
                               landlord buys the system and sells the power to a utility company and
                               gets all of the rebates and tax breaks).

                             11.      Landlords will not be able to prevent tenants from placing
                               reflective material in windows that are exposed to the sun and will
                               not be prevented from placing insulating material in windows as long
                               as there is no objectionable writing on the material and as long as
                               there are no other safety concerns (see page 3-31).

                             12.     Establish a bulk-buying program that would enable Alachua
                               County residents and landlords to purchase energy efficient ap-
                               pliances (air conditioners, refrigerators, etc.) at very competitive
                               prices (see page 3-32).

                             13.      Encourage agencies in the County to extend energy
                               efficiency programs that are designed for homeowners be extended
                               to owners of multifamily units if the investments are made to
                               common areas of the complex.
Insul ated ai r duct


                             14.      Develop an Energy Conservation Investment Fund. The
Photo by the U.S. EPA


                               fund would be a savings or investment account run by local credit
                               unions and funded by local investors. Assets from the funds would
                               be allocated to residents and small businesses in Alachua County so
                               that they can make energy efficiency improvements. The County
                               could promote the fund and support it by either subsidizing the
                               interest rate or providing some form loan guarantee so that the
                               interest rate is reduced.
        Figure 3.1 GRU Electricity Use
               15000
               14000
               13000
               12000
               11000
               10000
               9000
               8000
               7000
               6000
               5000
               4000
               3000
                                                            GRU
               2000                                         US FL

               1000




                                                Source: Gainesville Regional Utilities




 15. Partner with private contractors that will serve as energy consultants
     to residents and small businesses in Alachua County. These energy
     consultants will produce easy-to-understand recommendations for
     energy-efficiency retrofits that will save money for the consumer.
     The consultants would partner with the Energy Conservation
     Investment Fund as one source of funding for major retrofits.




3. 1. 5 C oor d i na t ed Po l i c y
Alachua County does not currently have a strategic policy for reducing
energy use in residential housing and does not have a mechanism to
allow households to obtain energy from renewable sources. Although a
variety of rebate programs are offered by municipalities and utilities,
there is no comprehensive set of sustainable building guidelines,
incentives, and regulations to encourage sustainability in this sector.
    One challenge in the effort to reduce energy use in the housing
sector is the substantial percentage of rental units in the County. Energy
costs in rental units are typically paid by the tenant thereby leaving
landlords with little motivation to invest in capital improvements to
improve energy efficiency. Another challenge is finding ways to help
low-income households to make energy conservation improvements to
their homes. Yet another challenge is finding the best mix of incentives and
regulations to generate the desired effects.
                                                                   Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                               3.2 Background
                               3.2.1 The Magnitude of Energy Efficiency and GHG
                                      Changes Needed
                               Considering that today’s homes are already more energy efficient than
                               older homes, the County will observe some improvements in average
                               energy efficiency in the housing sector as homes built after 2008 become
                               an increasing percentage of the total housing stock. If the housing stock
                               increases by 2% per year (in line with population growth), then by 2030,
                               about 55% of the housing stock will have been built after 2008 (more or
                               less depending on the rate that older homes are destroyed). If the new
                               homes are 30% more energy efficient than the average home today, then
                               the average home in Alachua County in 2030 would be about 17% more
                               efficient than the average home in Alachua County today.
                                   To reach a goal of perhaps 50% improvement, the county must make
                               progress in several areas: behavior change, low-cost energy efficiency
                               improvements, energy retrofits of existing homes, improvements in the
                               efficiency of new construction, and increased use of alternative energy.
                               If the County tries to achieve its 2030 goals solely by changing standards
Alachua County cannot          for new construction, then every house built after 2008 would need to
reach a goal of 50% im-        have zero net emissions of greenhouse gasses and zero use of
provement in home energy       carbon-based fuels, and this is not likely to happen.
efficiency in 2030 without         There are several ways to view the recommendations presented in
retrofitting existing homes.   this document so that the BOCC can visualize how significant the
                               changes must be to substantially improve energy efficiency and reduce
                               greenhouse gas emissions in the residential housing sector. One view is to
                               categorize all of the efficiency improvements into categories that
                               constitute all of the changes that the County can influence—the sum total
                               must equal 100% of the planned energy efficiency improvements and
                               greenhouse gas reduction. The components of change would be

                                 1. behavior change (shorter showers to reduce the energy needed for
                                    hot water, less air conditioner use, etc.),

                                 2. low-cost improvements (such as insulating water heaters, applying
                                    weather stripping, etc.),

                                 3. energy retrofits of existing homes (attic and wall insulation, new
                                    windows, etc.),

                                 4. high energy efficiency of new construction, and

                                 5. increased use of alternative energy (such as solar panels) and
                                    other technologies (such as ground-source heat pump (GSHP)
                                    systems and solar attic fans) that reduce greenhouse gas emis-
                                    sions.
     3.3. Alachua County Profile                                              3-9




3.3 Alachua County Profile
The review of Alachua County’s housing and energy profile includes
data that has been aggregated to different levels. Some sources produce
data for the entire county, other sources produce data for the
Gainesville Metro-Statistical Area (MSA), and other sources produce
data that combines Alachua County and Gilchrist County.
    Some data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Devel-
opment (HUD)description is based on the Gainesville Housing Market
Area (HMA), which is the aggregation of both Alachua County and
Gilchrist County [21, p. 1] and is used in the Comprehensive Housing
Market Analysis report for Gainesville, Florida [21]. In contrast, the
Florida Housing Data Clearinghouse isolates Alachua County data sep-
arately in the State of Florida Housing: 2007 [20]. These differences might
account for discernible differences in calculations of population,
households and demographics.
    Alachua County encompasses a total land mass of 874 square miles [22,
Table 8.03] featuring a medium density of 279 persons per square mile
[22, Table 1.14]


3.3.1 Populations and Households

Alachua County’s estimated population in 2006 was 243,779 [22, Table
1.12] with an annual growth rate of 1.4%, with an estimated population
in 2015 of 277,300 [22, Table 1.41]. Approximately 73.1% of Alachua
County’s population is located inside the urbanized area, and 24.7% of
its population located in non-farm rural areas with 1.3% remaining inside
urbanized clusters and 1% in Rural Farm areas [23].
    Alachua County is racially diverse and comprised of 67.9% White,
19.6% African American, 4.3% Asian, and 6.4% Hispanic. Minorities are
represented in 30.3% of its population, which has increased 1.7% since
2000 [24].
    The University of Florida has significantly increased population since
1990, from about 35,000 students to nearly 50,000 students in 2000,
which represented an estimated half of net in-migration to spur
population growth. Migration into Alachua County has remained has
increased from job growth even though UF population has not
increased. The result was an increase in population since 2000 by about
3,800, or 1.6% a year [21, p. 4]. Since 2000, net in-migration of
households stemmed primarily from vibrant job growth, though larger
in size: “household growth slowed somewhat to about 1,600
households, or 1.7 percent, a year” [21, p. 5]. Figure 3.2 shows housing
statistics for the Gainesville Housing Market Area. The number of owner
households has increased by about 1,100 per year, which means that
approximately 70% of new households where owner-occupied as
opposed to be rented [21, p. 5].
    With employment growth expected to continue, net in-migration
   3-10                                                                               Chapter 3. Residential Housing


Figure 3.2 HUD tables for Gainesville Housing Data


                                                                         (b)       Components of Population Change in
                                                                         Gainesville HMA
 (a)   Population and Household Growth in the
 Gainesville Housing Market Area (HMA)                                         4000


      5000




                                                                               3000




                                                                                           1990 to       2000 to          Forecast
                                                                                        2000           2007




                                                                                                                                                 (c)     Number of House
                                                                                                                                                 Gainesville HMA
                                                                                                                                                     70000




          Source: figures 5, 4, 6 and 8 from Comprehensive Housing Market Analysis: Gainesville, Florida by the U.s. Department of Housing and
          Urban Development (HUD). Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Publications/PDF/CMAR_GainesvilleFl.pdf
     Table 3.1 HUD Median Income
                                                                                              Number of                     Percentage of
                                                           Max Sales Price                    Total SF Sales                Total SF Sales
             % of 2006            4-Person                 Affordable                         Affordable At                 Affordable at %
             Medium HUD           Household                at 130% of                         % of Median                   Level of Median
             Family Income        Income Limit             Median                             Income
             70% Median                  $38,150                 $115,474                                 455                      11.60%
             100% Median                 $54,500                 $162,493                                1,168                     29.79%
             130% Median                 $70,850                 $209,512                                1,952                     49.78%

                                      Adapted from Tables 7, 8, and 9 of   The State of Florida’s Housing—2007. Retrieved

                                       from http://flhousingdata.shimberg.ufl.edu/docs/SOFH_2007.pdf




is expected to remain strong, and the total population is expected to
increase by more than 4,200 with number of households expected to
increase by approximately 1,800 per year during the 3-year forecast
period.


3.3.2 Income

The ability of homeowners to pay for energy-efficiency improvements is
limited by their income. Approximately 47% of households earn
$35,000 per year or less, which represents low income, but many low
income households would be students [25]. The University of Florida has
an enrollment of approximately 35,000 undergraduate students, 78%
of whom live off campus, and approximately 17,000 graduate and
professional students [26].
    Table 3.1 shows the percentage of single family homes that are
affordable for people at or near the median income for the Gainesville
HMA: 29.79% of the single family sales are affordable at median
income and 49.78% of homes are affordable at 130% of median income.
Median incomes have grown over the years, as has the income level
that is identified as low income (see Table 3.2). Table 3.2 shows that
median income and very low median incomes rose 25% from 1999 to
2005. The income data, in addition to the effects of the current
mortgage foreclosure problem, suggests that a substantial percentage of
Alachua County residents might not be able to afford high-cost energy
retrofits for their homes or high-cost energy retrofits on rental properties
that pass the cost to their tenants.
    The lack of available income means that many of the homeowners in
Alachua County will find it very difficult to make any kind of housing
retrofits to increase energy efficiency. The low income problem also
affects renters because the cost of retrofitting rental units might be
passed to the renters.
                                                                                          Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Table 3.2 HUD Median and Low Income Levels, 1999–2005
 Median        Median           Median              Median              Median              Median        Median

  $42,700      $44,700          $46,800             $48,100             $50,600             $52,200       $53,550



 V e r y L o w V e r y L o w V e r y L o w V e r y L o w V e r y L o w V e r y L o w V e r y L o w 4-P
 IL 1999 4-P IL 2000 4-P IL 2001 4-P IL 2002 4-P IL 2003 4-P IL 2004 4-P IL 2005
  $21,350       $22,350        $23,400       $24,050        $25,300        $26,100         $26,800

                      Source: HUD. Retireved from http://www.huduser.org/datasets/il/IL_99_05_REV.xls




                                             3.3.3 Age of Residents
                                             At the close of 2007, the median age was 30 with 24.6% of the popu-
                                             lation age is 0–19, and 25.8% of the population age is 20–29, which
                                             constitutes over half of Alachua County’s population under the age of
                                             thirty, which is largely influenced by the University of Florida student
                                             population. The remaining population is fairly evenly split amongst its
                                             baby boomer population.


                                             3.4 Housing Supply

                                             3.4.1 Background

                                             3.4.1.1 Sales Housing Market

                                             With the recent softening of the real estate market, single family home
                                             sales fell 18 percent, and condo sales fell 33% in the last year, resulting
                                             in a decline in median sales prices by 3.7% and 1.1 percent,
                                             respectively. Building permits for single family construction was also
                                             down by one-third. HUD reported that “despite the slowdown in sales, the
                                             overall market is relatively balanced... ” with a vacancy ratio of 2.1% for
                                             residential housing sales, which is “just slightly above the 2-percent
                                             vacancy rate in 2000” [21, p. 2]. Housing demand for this market
                                             segment is calculated at 4,400 new sales housing units over the 3-year
                                             forecast period [21]. As of September, 2007, the unsold inventory of
                                             homes represents a supply of less than 3 months.


                                             3.4.1.2 Rental Housing Market

                                             The largest market share of the rental market is garnered by students, as
                                             78% of UF students live off-campus [26] in the increasingly more
      Table 3.3 HUD Income Limits for Low Income in Gainesville MSA

                                              FY 2008 MFI: 56600, Gainesville, FL MSA

                                       A N N U A L              I N C O M E              L I M I T S — 2 0 0 8

                                ----------------------------------------------               Number of People ---------------

      Program         1                              2            3              4              5             6              7        8
      30% of median 11,900                           13,600       15,300         17,000         18,350        19,700         21,100   22,450
      Very low income 19,800                         22,650       25,450         28,300         30,550        32,850         35,100   37,350
                                         Source: HUD. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/fl_fy2008.pdf




popular 3–4 bedroom units offering roommate matching/separate lease
rental options with an average monthly rent of about $550 [21, p. 7].
    The rental market has strengthened since 2000, with the conver-
sions of approximately 20 apartment complexes or 3000 apartments to
condominiums from 2004–2006. “Many of these units were bought by
investors and remain in the rental inventory” [21, p. 7] with a limited
impact on the student rental market as most conversions were one-two
bedroom units, as opposed to the larger apartments, more frequently
preferred.
    The current average monthly rent for a two-bedroom unit is $750 [21,
p. 7], with an average increase of rent of about 4% per year. The rental
housing market is currently balanced with a 6.7% vacancy ratio [21, p.
7].




3 . 4 . 1 . 3 E xi s t i n g H o u s i n g S u p p l y

 The Alachua County FL 4th Quarter, 2007 Report states Alachua County
has approximately 109,852 housing units with an annual growth rate of
1.6% [24]. Approximately 54% of the housing units are owner-occupied
and 46% are renter occupied (excluding unoccupied homes) [27]. The
State of Florida Housing, 2007 reports a total of 110,043 housing units
with 42% owner occupied, including 93,206 single family units with
44% owner occupied, 9,841 mobile homes with 42% owner occupied,
6,996 condominiums with 27% owner occupied, 1,778 Multi-family <10
units with 6% owner occupied, and 373 Multi-family >10 units with
11% owner occupied [20].
            3-14                                                                                          Chapter 3. Residential Housing




         Table 3.4 Alachua County Population by Age

                                Estimated Population by Age Population By Age & % Estimate
                                2012   Total Population Projected                261,319
                                2007   Total Population                         244,351
                                2007    Total Population 0-19                 60,176                                    24.6%
                                2007   Total Population 20-29                 63,141                                    25.8%
                                2007   Total Population 30-39                 25,969                                    10.6%
                                2007   Total Population 40-49                 30,006                                    12.3%
                                2007   Total Population 50-59                 30,357                                    12.4%
                                2007   Total Population 60+                   34,702                                    14.2%

                                Source Alachua County Profile from North Carolina Economic Development Intelligence System. Re -
                                             trieved from https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/countyProfile/FL/12001.pdf




                                                                 3.5 Existing Homeowners

                                                                 3.5.1 Background Information
Approximately 54% of the
housing units in Alachua                                         3.5.1.1 Housing Stock
County are owner-occupied                                        Alachua County has approximately 107,000 housing units of which 54%
and 46% are renter occupied                                      are owner occupied and 46% renter occupied [27]. Of this housing base,
(including vacancies).                                           32% of houses were built after 1990 [calculated from 22, Table 2.03] and
                                                                 roughly 26% were built after 1993 [estimated from 22, Table 2.03].
Source: U.S. Census. Retrieved from
                                                                     Before the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 [29], which
http://tinyurl.com/5eple7.
                                                                 provided incentives for energy efficiency in construction, new homes in
                                                                 Alachua County were not as energy-efficient as today’s homes. Additional
                                                                 energy-efficiency codes for Florida housing became effective with the
                                                                 2001 Energy Code [30].
                                                                     One measure of energy efficiency in homes is Energy Star ® certi-
                                                                 fication [31]. Alachua County is home to the first EPA Energy Star ®
                                                                 renovated home in the nation (1997), first EPA Energy Star® affordable
                                                                 apartment complex in the nation (2000), and the first affordable neo-
                                                                 traditional Energy Star® community in the U.S. [32]. These homes are
                                                                 generally more energy efficient than older homes. In addition to Energy
                                                                 Star® certification for the entire home, individual appliances can be
                                                                 Energy Star® compliant, but older homes might not have Energy Star®
                                                                 appliances.


                                                                 3.5.2 Low-Cost Improvements and Retrofits
                                                                 The ECSC envisions a pathway toward energy conservation and sus-
                                                                 tainability for existing residential housing. The pathway begins with
                                                                 education and continues with low-cost energy-conservation improve-
                                                                 ments, retrofitting, and local adoption of alternative energy sources
    3.5. Existing Homeowners                                                                                                   3-15




   Table 3.5 Estimated Demand for New Market-Rate Rental Housing in the Gainesville HMA October
                                              1, 2007 to October 1, 2010

                 1 Bedroom                                      2 Bedrooms                                      3 or More Bedrooms

         Monthly                                     Monthly                                               Monthly
        Gross                  Units of             Gross                           Units of              Gross            Units of
        Rent ($)               Demand               Rent ($)                        Demand                Rent ($)         Demand
             600                   880                    800                           870                     1,100          250
             650                   775                    850                           720                     1,150          230
             700                   710                    900                           660                     1,200          200
             750                   640                    950                           590                     1,250          180
             800                   560                  1,000                           510                     1,300          150
             850                   475                  1,050                           440                     1,350          130
             900                   400                  1,100                           370                     1,400          110
           1,000                   320                  1,200                           300                     1,500           80
           1,100                   260                  1,300                           190                     1,600           60
           1,200                   200                  1,400                           130                     1,700           40
           1,300                   160                  1,500                            90                     1,800           30

                    Source: Table 5 from Comprehensive Housing Market Analysis: Gainesville, Florida by HUD, 2007. Re -
                                  trieved from http://www.huduser.org/Publications/PDF/CMAR_GainesvilleFl.pdf




(solar and perhaps geothermal). The pathway is roughly organized
around the ease of implementation.
    Many Alachua County residents can reduce their household energy
use by making some relatively easy and inexpensive home improve-
ments. One set of such improvements would be as follows:

   1. two low-flow showerheads,

   2. three sink aerators,

   3. compact-fluorescent light bulbs,

   4. a water heater timer for electric water heaters,

   5. a water heater blanket (for old water heaters),

   6. water heater pipe insulation,

   7. weather stripping for two doors,

   8. attic hatch insulation and seal exterior air leaks based on visual
      inspection (an air pressure test is not needed at this stage),

   9. window caulk,

   10. outlet and electrical switch gaskets,

   11. seal and insulate air ducts based on visual inspection (an air
       pressure test is not needed at this stage),
                                                                                        Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Table 3.6 Alachua County Housing Supply

   Total units/properties                 52,584             5,678               5,136          63,398 1,678          373
   Homesteads                             40,622             4,163               1,860          46,645   100            2
   Mean year built                           1981              1987               1989            1974               1981
   Median year built                         1981              1988               1987             1979              1982
   Mean assessed value                 $122,160           $49,943        $102,284 $128,384                     $2,564,431
   Median assessed value               $103,510           $46,400 $100,300 $115,500                             $842,700
   Mean just value                     $154,722           $59,025 $110,404 $130,314                            $2,564,441
   Median just value                   $134,900           $54,500 $107,300 $116,200                             $842,700
   Total assessed value ($mils.)       $6,423.6           $283.58          $525.33             $215.43            $956.53
   Total just value ($mils.)                      4       $335.14          $567.03             $218.67            $956.54
   2006 Mean Sales Price 2006          $8,135.9         $155,736
   Median Sales Price                             2 $155,400
                                        Source: Table
                                       $233,889 36 from State of Florida Housing Supply: 2007.
                          Retrieved from http://flhousingdata.shimberg.ufl.edu/docs/SOFH_2007.pdf
                                       $209,900



                                               12. attic ventilation, and

                                               13. a programmable thermostat.

                                                 This illustrative set of home improvements might cost $300-1,000.
                                               Alachua County could encourage people to make low cost improve-
                                               ments like these in several ways:

                                                 1. Gather Information on local energy consumption and demo-
                                                    graphics.

                                                 2. Determine energy use per day per person, energy use per day
                                                    per square foot, and energy use per household within each de-
                                                    mographic.

                                                 3. Analyze the information.

                                                 4. Identify opportunities for low-cost energy conservation in
                                                    Alachua County.

                                                 5. Design an action plan (see below).

                                                 6. Select solutions.

                                                 7. Set reduction goals.

                                                 8. Execute the plan.

                                                 9. Follow-up.

                                                In some cases, older homes suffer from structural problems or other
                                             faults that would have priority over energy efficiency repairs. These
                                             problems might disproportionately affect low-income residents and
                                             senior citizens who do not have the money to make structural repairs
       Figure 3.3 Number of Housing Units in Alachua County by Year Built(in thousands)




                       Source:   Alachua County, Florida: Selected Housing Characteristics: 2006 by the U.S. Census

and, because of the substandard state of the home, assistance programs
might not extend loans or grants to these residents. These challenges
apply to low-income homeowners and low-income renters who might
note be able to afford to live in apartments that have adequate energy
efficiency. The County might have to determine if the house needs
safety modificaions or if the homeowner is either exempt from repair or
has a given amount of time to meet code (perhaps 5–10 years). The
following repairs might have priority over energy-efficiency repairs:

   1. leaky roof or a roof that has exceeded its life expectancy,

   2. knob and tube wiring in the attic,

   3. open electrical splices in attic,

   4. inadequate electrical service to accommodate new heating, ven-
      talation, and air conditioning (HVAC),

   5. structural wood damage,

   6. moldy or damaged drywall, or

   7. lead-based paint, asbestos, and other environmental problems.

    The action plan could take several routes: education in schools,
direct mail public information campaigns, incentives, or regulation.
Regulation would need to take into consideration both the ability of
homeowners to pay and the energy needs of the county. Possible paths to
regulation would be to require that a specific set of improvements be
made when (a) a homeowner applies for a building permit or other such
permit, (b) the house is sold, (c) or the homeowner applies for a
significant rebate, lending program, or other such offer made by or
sponsored in part by the County. The County would determine the
details of any such plan.
                                                                             Chapter 3. Residential Housing



Table 3.7 Energy Use in a Typical North Florida Home (3 bed; 2 bath; 1,500 square feet)




                                 Source: GRU DEED Report [28, p. 30–31]




                                             A supplemental plan would be for the County to support nonprofit
                                          organizations that help homeowners to make energy efficiency im-
                                          provements. The Community Weatherization Coalition is a local effort
                                          that includes member organizations such as Rebuilding Together, The
                                          Action Network, Central Florida Community Action Agency, GRU,
                                          and others [33]. They use volunteers to visit low income homes and
                                          make small energy efficiency upgrades and direct people to further
                                          resources. Another such organization is the Central Florida Community
                                          Action Agency [see 34]. They conduct energy efficiency testing and
                                          make repairs including attic and floor insulation. They can also provide
                                          energy assistance in emergency situations. The County could directly
                                          fund organizations like these to make efficient use of volunteer efforts to
                                          help low income families.
                                             The ECSC recommends a program that includes

                                              1. broad educational programs,

                                              2. support for non-governmental energy agencies (such as The
                                                 Community Weatherization Coalition),

                                              3. support for a bulk-buying program to reduce the cost of
                                                 energy-efficient appliances to consumers (see Section 3.7.8 on
                                                 page 3- 32),

                                              4. a financing system that affords homeowners access to low-cost
                                                 loans to make energy-efficiency improvements—the loans are
                                                 repaid through the tax payment system (see the Alternative
                                                 Energy chapter of this report),

                                              5. regulation to require low-cost energy efficiency improvements,
                                                 and
     3.5. ExistingHomeowners                                                                                                                                    3-19



     Table 3.8 GRU Residential Off-Peak Demand Share by End-Use
             20%




              0%
                   Central A/C              Lighting                   Freezer                Water Heater        Clothes Washer           Other
                                 Room A/C              Refrigeration             Dishwasher             Clothes Dryer         Appliances           Space Heat



                        Source: Exhibit 3-9 from City of Gainesville Electrical Supply Needs (RFP No. 2005-147) by ICF Con-
                        sulting. Retrieved from http://legistar.cityofgainesville.org/attachments/2564.pdf




   6. incentives to encourage more substantial energy-efficiency
      retrofits for homes that have already made the low-cost improve-
      ments in at least Phase I—incentives might include rebates, and tax
      incentives. The County could offer a real estate tax offset, which
      would be a rebate that is designed to reduce increased real estate
      taxes incurred by the greater home value that comes with
      investment in energy efficiency upgrades.

     The regulations for requiring low-cost energy-efficiency repairs are
outlined in Textbox 3.1 on page 3-20 and Textbox 3.2 on page 3-21. These
changes are intended to help move Alachua County’s energy profile up
the scale presented in Figure 3.5 on page 3-23. The Phase I and Phase II
changes are intended to help increase the energy efficiency of existing
homes by roughly 25%. After those improvements are made, additional
increases in energy-efficiency would be expensive, but might be
encouraged by incentives and by the rising cost of energy.




3.5.2.1 Energy Auditors

Alachua County could reserve the right to verify the work that has been
done. The County should strongly consider using properly trained County
employees or private energy auditors that have signed a disclosure that
they do not have financial ties to companies that provide appliances or
materials that would typically be used in energy-efficiency repairs.
   3-20                                                                                                      Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Text Box 3.1 Proposed Components of an Energy Conservation Ordinance (ECO)

This proposal is for an ordinance that requires energy efficiency upgrades and recommends that Alachua County
encourage its cities to adopt similar ordinances. The proposal applies to single-family housing— whether they
are owner-occupied or renter-occupied. Some of the components of the program came from Berkeley’s
Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance that was implemented in the 1980s.

   1. All homes or apartment buildings sold, transferred, or undergoing renovations with a combined permit
               value of $50,000 or more must comply with ECO energy efficiency requirements. Perhaps refinancing
               would also trigger the requirements. These events will be known as ECO events.

   2. Upon the first ECO event, the Phase I (low-cost) improvements in Table 3.2 on page 3-21 will be completed.
      On the second ECO event that occurs 5 or more years after the first event, the homeowner will meet Phase
      II changes if the safety condition allow the changes to be made: equip the attic with at least R-19
      insulation and seal the air ducts based on visual inspection (blower test not required but might be useful for
      homeowners).

   3. Low-income owners of single-family houses that have knob and tube wiring in the attic (or other structural
      issues listed on page 3-17) might not be able to pay for both rewiring and attic insulation. Ideally the City,
      County, State, or other organizations would be able to provide assistance with repairing the wiring so that
      insulation can be added.

   4. The enforcing municipality will make a good-faith effort to direct homeowners to rebates, grants, and
      subsidized loan information that might help them to not only make the required home improvements but
      also make additional energy-reduction improvements.

   5. Compliance could be confirmed by having the homeowner complete a signed form or by inspection
      according to policies determined by the municipality.

   6. The enforcing municipality will prominently display appropriate safety warnings wherever details of the
      ECO program are presented. For example, warnings about the dangers of performing electrical repairs
      without a qualified electrician or the dangers of asbestos insulation.

   7. ECO requirements can be waived if the home has been recently inspected and has an energy rating that
      meets the County’s criteria.

   8. To reduce the adverse impact on low income households, municipalities can exempt homes whose value is
      below a specified percentage of median home value. For example, owner-occupied homes that are below
      65% of the median home value might be exempt from Phase II upgrades if financial assistance is not
      available.



ECO is   the   Energy Ordinance proposed by the Alachua County ECSC and inspired by Berkeley’s Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance.
  3.5. Existing Homeowners                                                                                  3-21




Text Box 3.2 Proposed List of Initial Repairs for ECO†

Phase I—low-cost improvements
The following is a list of recommended low-cost improvements, but the ECSC recommends that Alachua County
consult other experts to assess any changes that might be needed to prevent health problems such as mold that
could be caused from sealing moisture into a home.

  1. Toilets: flow-reduction devices (i.e., an object in the water tank or other such device). This will save both
     water and waste water and the energy needed to process it.

  2. Showerheads: 1.5–2.5 gallons per minute (or less) flow rate. This will save both water and waste water and
     the energy needed to process it.

  3. Faucet aerators: 1.5 gallons per minute flow rate for kitchens and bathrooms. This will save both water and
     waste water and the energy needed to process it.

  4. Water heater timer (for electric versus gas water heaters): reduces water temperature when hot water is not
     needed.

  5. Attic hatch insulation and weatherstripping in air-conditioned rooms: Insulate to R-30. Older homes in
     Alachua County often do not have insulation on the attic hatch.

  6. Window caulk.
  7. Outlet and electrical switch gaskets.
  8. Hot water piping in pumped, re-circulating heating systems: Insulate all pipes to an insulation value of R-9.
  9. Exterior doors and doors leading to a non-conditioned space (such as a garage): Permanently affix
      weather stripping and door sweeps or door shoes.
  10. Water heater blankets: Insulation wrap of R-20 value between the water heater and ambient air where
      such a change can be made. Newer water heaters might be exempt if they already contain adequate
      insulation.
  11. Programmable thermostat accompanied by education on how to use them properly..




Phase II—Minimum Energy Efficiency Improvements




  1. Toilets with a rating of 1.6 gallons per flush.

  2. Equip the attic with at least R-19 insulation (newer homes will already meet this requirement).

  3. Seal leaks in air ducts based on visual inspection (i.e., a pressurized air test is not required). Ducts must be
     sealed with mastic sealant to remove air leaks. Metal tape should be prohibited due to product failures over
     time in our hot, humid climate.
                                                                              Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Figure 3.4 Residential Electricity Use per Capita by State (2004)




                                            .6 Alternative Recommendations for Existing
                                                Homeowners
                                           Alachua County could implement variations of the proposed energy
                                           conservation Ordinance. Additional incentives could be offered, and the
                                           amount of regulation could be altered. The following outlines
                                           alternatives proposed by members of the ECSC.

                                              1. Do not mandate energy efficiency improvements upon the sale or
                                                 transfer of homes but require ECO for rennovations for permit values
                                                 that total $15,000 in any calendar year, but rennovations would
                                                 require compliance with only the low-cost components of the ECO
                                                 program. Efficient mortgages for new purchases or refinancing are
                                                 useful financing tools that require a Home Energy Rating System
                                                 (HERS) rating. These mortgages might also include an itemized list
                                                 the energy upgrades.

                                              2. Review the recommended low-cost improvements and compare them
                                                 to prioritized lists of improvements that have been recommended by
                                                 other experts. For example, ICF consulting ranked energy efficiency
                                                 improvements according to the potential for GHG reduction [35, p.
                                                 95]. Another prioritized list was produced in the McKinsey report [36,
                                                 p. xiii]. A brief list was created by the American Council for an
                                                 Energy-Efficient Economy [37]. Another list is available from
                                                 Building America XXXXFIND THE LINK. The Builder Association of
                                                 North Central Florida (BANCF) recommended to the ECSC that
                                                 Alachua County use a prioritized list from experts.

                                              3. Require new water heaters to have the Energy Star® label.
   3.6. Alternative Recommendations for Existing Homeowners                                                                      3-23




Figure 3.5 Existing Housing: A Plan for Increased Energy Efficiency




                                                                    EXISTING RESIDENTIAL HOMES




                                                                                ESTIMATED
                                             IMPROVEMENTS/PRODUCTS            COST PER HOME             RECOMMENDATIONS
                                                                                 (Average)




                                                                                                Homeowner/Landlord Must Comply
                                                ALTERNATIVE ENERGY                               With RECO Before Participating in
                                                                                  25,000‐
                                                Solar PV Systems Solar                                 Incentives Program
                                                Water Heater                     40,000 ?
                                                                                                                                         Additional 20
                                                    RE T RO F I T T IN G                                 INCENTIVES                     %           ‐40%
                                                  Solar Attic Fans                              REBATES: GRU, Clay, Progress Energy,    Estimated
                                                 Energy Efficient Roofing                                    e t c .                    Energy Savings
                                                   Efficient Pool Pump                           REBATES, TAX Credits: County, City,     could        be
                                               Tank‐less Water Heater                                   State, Federal                  obtained with
                                                 R‐30 Insulation or Better                      SPECIAL DISCOUNTS, COUPONS: Local       Retrofitting and
                                                   SEER 16or Better AC                                      Businesses                  Alternative
                                                                                  10,000‐
                                                  Double Pane Windows
                                                                                 18,000 ?                                                   Energy
                                                     Radiant Barriers                              Financing Incentives (Low APR)
                                                  1.6GPMToilets
                                                 Energy Star Appliances                                  Bulk‐buying Program
                                            Xeriscape / Native Groundcovers



                                             LOW‐COST IMPROVEMENTS              00 ‐$1,500 ?                    RECO
                                                    PHASE II
                                                                                                               WHEN:
                                              R‐19 Insulation (If possible)
                                                   Duct Leak Repair                                   Real Estate Transactions
                              Residential                                                                                              Regulation and
                                                        PHASEI                                                                          Education can
                                Energy      Low‐flowShowerheads 2.5 GPM                                        Permits                  lower Energy
                             Conservation     Low‐flow Aerators 1.5 GPM                                                                Consumption in
                                                  Water Heater Timer                                        Refinancing                Existing Homes
                              Ordinance                  CFL's                                    Before Participating in Incentives    by an average
                               (RECO)              Window Caulking              300 ‐$1,000 ?                 Program                     of 2 5 %
                                                  Weather‐stripping
                                               Outlet & Switch Gaskets
                                                   Hot‐spots In Attic                           * The Minimum Standards Should be
                                             Water Heater Pipe Insulation                             Reviewed Every 5 Years.
                                                Shade AC Compressors




                                            EDUCATION, PROMOTION, MARKETING

            Low Efficiency
 3.7.
 3-24Multifamily and Landlords                                                                          3-25
                                                                              Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                                               4. Support the availability of energy improvement loans for reno-
                                                  vations and/or energy efficient mortgages for new purchases or
                                                  refinance are useful financing tools that require a HERS rating to
                                                  and list the energy upgrades separately. XXXXPATTIE WILL
                                                  EXPAND ON THE LOAN INFO.

                                               5.     Partner with Gainesville/Alachua County Association of
                                                    R E ALTOR ® s (GACAR ) a nd R E ALTOR ® a ssocia tions to
                                                    secure their partnership.

                                                      a) Require disclosure at every sale that advises the buyer and
                                                         seller how to make low-cost improvements. Give the
                                                         discloser twice: at purchase and sales agreement and sale.
                                                      b) Approach GACAR local counsel, Chic Holden, to see
                                                         what local changes can be made to better ensure contract
                                                         compliance and better use of the statute-required energy
                                                         disclosure. Local GACAR Pres, Jay Parrish, indicated a
                                                         willingess to foster housing affordability and spur the local
                                                         housing market by partnering and using creative finance
                                                         vehicles.

                                               6. Partner with the Builder Association of North Central Florida
                                                 (BANCF) to develop low-cost improvement brochures and dis-
                                                 tribute them to contractors. Partner with BANCF to exchange links
                                                 on BANCF website to help facilitate sustainability goals.

                                               7. Expand the State Housing Initiatives Partnership (SHIP) program
                                                  to include services for the working poor..

                                               8. Make efficient use of federal tax credits (water heater, windows,
                                                  HVAC). max credit was up to $500 per year.

                                               9. In any incentive program, measure energy efficiency with the
                                                  approved energy rating system.

                                             10. For new construction of gov building, ask them to build piping for
                                                 grey water even if they are not ready to use it (because the pipes
                                                 can’t be added later without extreme expense).




                                            3.7 Multifamily and Landlords
                                           3.7.1 Background
                                           3 . 7 . 1 . 1 Ma r k e t S i ze

                                             The 2000 US Census revealed the following housing characteristics of
                                             multifamily homes in Alachua County (info from the Alachua County
                                             Affordable Housing Study).
1. A total of 34,588 multifamily (2 or more units in the structure)
         units were in place in Alachua County.

    2. Multifamily units represent 36% of the total residential housing
       units in Alachua County.

    3. The majority of the of the multifamily units (72%) were in
       buildings with five or more units.



3 . 7 . 1 . 2 E n e r g y U s e I n Mu l t i f a m i l y B u i l d i n g s

In 1995, Home Energy ran an article about the energy savings associated
with multifamily buildings across the United States [38]. Some general
characteristics for this segment of the housing market are as follows:

    1. Multifamily homes represent over 25% of total US housing stock.

    2. Almost 60% of multifamily buildings were built in the 1960s and
       1970s, prior to any energy efficiency requirements.

    3. Approximately 90% of the residents in multifamily households are
       renters.

    4. Residents of multifamily homes have lower incomes, on average,
       than the rest of the population. Median income for residents in
       multifamily households was only 60% of the median income for
       residents in single-family households.

    5. Twenty seven percent of the income of families living in multi-
       family homes went to pay housing costs, compared to 16% for
       single-family households.

     Energy consumption characteristics associated with multifamily
buildings and multifamily households (five or more units per building),
from the same Home Energy Magazine article:

    1. The average multifamily household uses less than half as much
       total energy as a single-family household.

    2. Multifamily households use about half as much electricity com-
       pared to single-family households. They also use less natural
       gas.

    3. Energy use per occupant in a single-family home is 44% higher
       than the energy use per occupant in a multifamily household.
      3.7. Multifamily and Landlords                                                 Chapter 3. Residential Housing
                                                                                                               3-27




                                                  4. The average multifamily household occupies 800 square feet of
                                                     living space compared to an average of 1,900 square feet for a
                                                     single-family household. Less energy is required to heat and cool
Florida Statute                                      a smaller living space.
553.9061 Scheduled
increases in thermal                              5. When compared to single-family households, multifamily house-
                                                     holds consume 2/3 less space heating, 1/3 less air conditioning,
efficiency standards.
                                                     and their refrigeration requirements are 1/3 less.

(1) The purpose of this
                                                     Multifamily buildings and households have some design character-
section is to establish a
                                                istics that contribute to their inherent energy efficiency, when compared to
schedule of increases in the
                                                single-family homes.
energy performance of
buildings subject to the                          1. Multifamily units have more common walls and roofs than
Florida Energy Efficiency                            single-family homes have. A typical multifamily unit (in a five
Code for Building                                    or more unit building) will share one or more walls with another
Construction. The Florida                            unit. They will also probably share the same roof (multistory
Building Commission shall:                           building). These design characteristics reduce the building
...                                                  envelope exposure to the heat and cold outside the unit. In a
(c) Increase energy effi-                            single-family detached home, all four sides of the home and the roof
ciency requirements by the                           are exposed to the climate outside the home.
2016 edition of the Florida
Energy Efficiency Code for                        2. Multifamily units have less internal volume to heat and cool
Building Construction by at                          because these apartments are smaller and their ceilings are lower
least 40 percent as                                  than many single-family homes.
compared to the energy                            3. Refrigerators in multifamily homes tend to be smaller than those in
efficiency provisions of the                         single-family homes, therefore they require less energy.
2007 Florida Building Code
adopted October 31, 2007.
(d) Increase energy effi-
                                                3.7.1.3 Multifamily Energy Dilemma—Who Pays the Bill to
ciency requirements by the                              Reduce Energy Consumption?
2019 edition of the Florida
Energy Efficiency Code for                      The typical rental agreement in a multi-family home requires the tenant to
Building Construction by at                     pay for the energy consumed within the unit and the landlord pays for the
least 50 percent as                             energy consumed in the public space—lighting, washers, dryers, pools,
compared to the energy                          etc. Many opportunities exist to reduce energy consumption in the
efficiency provisions of the                    apartments and the public spaces. But who will pay for the energy
2007 Florida Building Code                      efficiency upgrades in the rental unit?
adopted October 31, 2007.                           There is reluctance on the part of the landlord to pay for energy
                                                efficiency upgrades because they don’t feel they benefit from this
                                                investment and the tenant is reluctant to pay for energy saving upgrades to
                                                a property that they don’t own. As a result of this reluctance to invest in
                                                energy efficiency upgrades by both parties, major investments to reduce
                                                energy consumption in multi-family apartments are rare.
                                                    To address the reluctance of landlords and tenants to invest in
                                                energy efficiency and renewable energy in multi-family units, a com-
                                                bination of regulations and incentives must be put in place. Some
  movement must take place on the part of both parties to make multi-
family homes more energy efficient.

3.7.1.4 Programs for Common Areas
Landlords might be motivated to invest in energy-saving building
improvements for the portion of energy that is billed directly to them.
These areas might include swimming pools, hallways, office space,
parking garages, parking lots, courtyards, and community laundry
rooms. For these areas, alternative energy sources (solar electric and
solar hot water) might be in the direct best interests of the property
owner. For these areas, landlords might be more willing to use their roof
space for solar panels.
    The ECSC recommends that Alachua County encourage agencies in
the County to extend energy efficiency programs that are designed for
homeowners be extended to owners of multifamily units if the
investments are made to common areas as described above.

3.7.1.5 Multifamily Units are Inherently Efficient
A great opportunity exists in the multifamily market to make multifamily
housing the most energy efficient housing available by a significant
margin. Combining the above mentioned energy efficient design char-
acteristics of multifamily apartments with energy efficiency upgrades,
low-cost energy efficiency improvements, energy conservation education
by the landlord, and behavior changes on the part of tenant, will result in
the most energy efficient existing housing, on a per capita basis, in
Alachua County.
    To take advantage of this opportunity, a great deal of education and
marketing must take place. Landlords and tenants must be made aware that
multifamily homes are, for the most part, the most energy efficient housing,
on a per capita basis, available. The desire for energy efficient housing is
strong at this time and this desire will grow as energy prices rise.
    If a marketing and education campaign is successful in creating a
greater desire for multifamily housing units (including condominiums and
apartments), demand for these existing units might grow. With this
growth in demand for existing multifamily units will come the potential
for higher rents—more income available for the landlord to invest in
energy efficiency and conservation to make their properties even more
energy efficient.


3. 7. 2 R eg u l at i ons
Many college communities, like Alachua County, across the country have
what are called Residential Energy Conservation Ordinances (RECO). To
be consistent with the ordinance mentioned earlier in this report, the
ordinance will hereafter be referred to as an Energy
                                   Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Conservation Ordinance (ECO). These ordinances set minimum energy
efficiency standards for housing within a community. ECOs are in
place in Burlington, VT (University of Vermont, Champlain College,
Burlington College), Berkeley, CA (UC Berkeley), Boulder, CO
(University of Boulder), San Francisco, CA (City College of San
Francisco, San Francisco State University, UC Irvine, University of San
Francisco), Davis CA (UC Davis), and Ann Arbor, MI (University of
Michigan) [39, 40, 41, 42].
    We suggest developing a multi-family ECO similar to the Energy
Conservation Ordinance for Existing Homeowners described in Textbox
3.1 on page 3-20. The multi-family ECO should be designed by Alachua
County management to bring multi-family housing units and common
areas to a minimum energy efficiency standard. The low cost
improvements mentioned in the ECO for existing homeowners should
also be required for multi-family homes.


3.7.3 Incentives
After the low-cost improvements are made, the next area for potential
energy savings would be retrofitting, such as installing double-pane
windows and attic insulation. Retrofitting an entire building of rental
units can be very expensive. To encourage landlords to make these
retrofits, incentives will be needed.
    Every effort should be made to secure incentives for landlords that are
similar to the incentive programs mentioned in Existing Homeowners
section of this report Figure 3.5 on page 3-23. Additional or different
incentives could be required to persuade landlords to make the
energy-efficiency retrofits.
    To qualify for incentives to make the retrofits, the multi-family
complex (rental units and common areas) must have made all the
low-cost energy improvements required by the multifamily Energy
Conservation Ordinance.
    If the incentives are not enough to persuade landlords to make the
energy efficiency retrofits, another multifamily ordinance should be put in
place that requires landlords to make the retrofits. This ordinance should
require landlords to perform retrofits on a percentage of their rental units
each year until all the units are retrofitted. The percentage of units that
need to be retrofitted each year and the time allowed to the landlord for
retrofitting their units should be determined once the County has set its
long-term energy and greenhouse gas reduction goals.


3.7.4 Mechanisms for Implementing Regulation
3.7.4.1 Landlord Licensing

3.7.4.1.1 Low Cost Improvements The enforcement of
energy-efficiency standards for rental units might be complicated by the
lack
     3.7. Multifamily and Landlords                                            3-29




of a mechanism that gives the County authority to enforce the stan-
dards. One solution might be to require that landlords register for a
license and then make compliance with the low-cost energy-efficiency
repairs a requirement for the license. The County could implement such
a program in unincorporated areas and encourage cities to follow the same
model or to adopt the model outright.
    To reduce the potentially substantial costs associated with inspecting
rental units to verify compliance, an alternative would be for the County
or cities to require landlords to present an information packet to every
tenant when a lease is signed (or alternatively the County could mail
such information when the utilities are registered under the new name).
The packet could contain a prominent list of energy-saving improvements
that the landlord must make and it would also contain a contact number
that the tenant could use to inquire about enforcement. The list would
also contain an interpretation of Florida Statutes 11.163.04 to clarify
which tenants reserve the right to install clothes lines (landlords might be
able to prohibit clothes lines in buildings that are four or more stories
[43]). In a related program, Seattle requires that landlords deliver a
printed copy of the Landlord-Tenant Act to each new tenant [44] .
    The landlord licensing program might impose a modest fee and
require applicants to make a statement of compliance with the
energy-efficiency standards. The County would first identify a series of
low-cost energy-efficiency improvements that could be made over a period
of 5 years. Ideally, 20% of the upgrades would be made each year so
that the landlords do not wait until the last minute thereby wasting energy
for the first several years of the program and risking failure to comply.

3.7.4.1.2 Energy-Efficiency Retrofits After the low-cost home im-
provements are made, the next area for potential energy conservation
would be retrofitting, such as installing double-pane windows and
ceiling insulation. Possible retrofitting would include

  1. air conditioners rated SEER 16 or higher,

  2. low-e double-pane windows,

  3. efficient water heaters,

  4. attic insulation to R-30,

  5. radiant barriers,

  6. Energy Star® refrigerators,

  7. Energy Star® washer and dryer,

  8. Energy Star® dishwasher, and
                                   Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                         9. mastic duct sealing.

     These changes could cost $10,000-20,000 or more, but the ECSC
recommends that Alachua County mandate changes like this in new
construction and gradually require that these changes be made in
existing construction.
     The ECO ordinance can be adapted for apartment buildings by
bypassing the normal mechanisms that trigger action on behavior of the
property owner. The Residential subcommittee has two suggestions. The
first is that the repairs made for apartment buildings will be shared by
tenant and landlord to reflect the benefit that is bestowed to tenants who
are expected to receive lower energy bills, more comfortable
temperatures, or both.
     For apartments, municipalities can require that apartment owners
register for a landlord license, and as a condition for retaining the
license, the apartment owner would have to comply with the multifamily
version of the ordinance. Upon passage of the ordinance, apartment
owners would need to make the minimal repairs, up to 1% of the
property value according to tax records. Three years from the passage
of the ordinance, apartment owners would need to make the next round
of repairs. At 6 years from the passage of the ordinance and then every
5 years in perpetuity, apartment owners would have to make another
round of repairs until the apartment complex is in compliance with the
County-approved energy rating for the given time period. Municipalities
could choose to adjust the target energy-rating over time so that there is
adequate time for property owners to comply with energy efficiency
standards.


3.7.5 Alternative Energy

In addition to encouraging the adoption of energy-efficient technology and
encouraging changes in behavior, Alachua County can take additional
steps to further its goal of reducing carbon output. Encouraging the
installation of locally attached alternative energy sources might be most
efficient when it is done in multi-unit buildings (both owner-occupied
condominiums and rental units). To encourage landlords install
alternative energy systems, such as solar panels, there must be a benefit
that accrues to landlords. One action that Alachua County could take
would be to allow landlords to receive all of the energy savings from
locally installed energy-producing systems. This policy could be
established by measuring the energy that solar panels or other such devices
contribute to local energy grid and compensating the owner of the
system with competitive payments that reflect the cost of incremental
energy to the utility. For example, if peak hour electricity contributed by
citizen-owned energy systems reduces the need to buy energy from the
grid at a high rate or reduces the need to build new energy plants, these
cost savings would translate to higher payment per
    3.7. Multifamily and Landlords                                                                   3-31




                                                                             Figure 3.6 Solar Roof
kilowatt-hour to the system owner than the flat-rates that consumers are     Photo by MJ Monty

currently charged.
    The same program would apply to condominiums in which the
condominium would be the owner of the system and any energy rebates
would be paid to the condominium association as opposed to owners of
individual units. Consolidating the ownership and benefits of energy
systems simplifies the execution of distributed energy plans and
facilitates local energy production where it might achieve economies of
scale compared to single-family residential units.


3.7.6 Leverage Existing Programs
Some of the County’s energy-efficiency objectives can be met by
making efficient use of existing state and federal programs. This would
require a efficient consolidation and dissemination of energy-related
information. This function would be performed by the new Alachua
County Sustainability Coordinator.
    The Alachua County Sustainability Coordinator could also oversee
consideration and implementation of the recommendations by the
ECSC. The energy-efficiency department could seek to leverage
resources by working with private industries, cities, state agencies,
federal agencies, financing institutions, and other such organizations.


3.7.7 Apartment Building Rules

To allow residents to reduce their energy consumption, landlords will be
prohibited from making certain restrictions on tenants. Landlords will not
be able to prevent tenants from placing reflective material in windows
that are exposed to the sun.
3-32                                     Chapter 3. Residential Housing




       3.7.8 Bulk Buying Plan
       Buying in bulk (large volumes) typically reduces the cost per unit of
       whatever is being purchased. Bulk buying programs can help reduce the
       cost of the equipment needed to make energy efficiency retrofits and
       low-cost energy improvements.
           If Alachua County were to implement a bulk buying program to
       facilitate greenhouse gas reduction and increased energy efficiency, the
       County could require that landlords comply with the multi-family ECO
       before they could participate in the in the bulk buying program for
       energy efficiency retrofits.
           Combining the bulk buying program with a low-interest loan pro-
       gram, guaranteed or managed by the County, could prove to be a great
       approach to increasing the volume of energy efficiency retrofits within
       Alachua County.
           Benefits associated with this type of program include

         1. reduced greenhouse gas emissions,

         2. increased value of rental properties,

         3. increased rental value of the units, and

         4. enhanced marketability of the rental units because of their lower
            utility costs.



       3.7.8.1 Sustainability Investment Fund and Consulting
               Service
       Another option for providing funds for energy upgrades is a special
       sustainability fund that local credit unions or banks could offer. This fund
       would be similar to current savings accounts, certificates of deposit, or
       money market funds but the funds would be dedicated for loans to local
       farms, energy retrofits by local residents and businesses, renewable
       energy, and local programs that improve the energy profile of the County.
           The County could promote such a fund in several ways. They could
       provide small matching funds that would correspond to a small reduction
       in the interest rate to the consumer. The County could promote the use
       of the fund in any loan program or energy-related program that is run by
       the County. The County could invest some of their own funds or even
       borrow from it if need be. The sustainability investment fund would
       benefit local residents as well as selected businesses that are of strategic
       importance to the County’s sustainability.
          The sustainability investment fund could be combined with an on-site
       energy consulting service that helps residents and businesses identify the
       most effect energy-efficiency modifications that they can make to their
       propert. An example program was established in Cambridge,
3.8. New Construction




                        Massachusetts by the Cambridge
                        Energy Alliance [45, 46]. Homeowners
                        invite experts into their homes to
                        provide a one-page summary of               Florida Statute 255.252
                        energy-saving modifications that can
                        be made to the home—this is
                                                                   (3) In order that such
                        essentially a consulting service that
                        allows residents to address many
                                                                   energy-efficiency and
                        energy efficiency issues by making
                                                                   sustainable materials
                        one phone call. The Alliance then
                                                                   considerations become a
                        offers loans that can be paid quickly
                                                                   function of building design,
                        from the savings produced by the
                                                                   and a model for future
                        energy efficiency upgrades. The city
                                                                   application in the private
                        manager approved of the program            sector, it shall be the policy
                        because he realized that merely            of the state that buildings
                        changing light bulbs would not enable      constructed and financed
                        the city to reach its GHG reduction        by the state be designed
                        goals [45, 46]. Homeowners would           and constructed to
                        benefit from not having to master all of   comply with the United
                        the technical information that is needed   States Green Building
                        to optimize electrical appliances,         Council (USGBC) Lead-
                        heating     and     cooling     systems,   ership in Energy and
                        insulation, and other such things, and     Environmental Design
                        the homeowner also benefits from           (LEED) rating system,
                        not having to find all of the separate     the Green Building Initia-
                        energy programs. The city has              tive’s Green Globes rating
                        minimal liabilities because the funds      system, the Florida Green
                        come from a local bank that works          Building Coalition
                        with the Alliance, and private             standards, or a nation-
                        investors could provide much of the        ally recognized,
                        funds     used     to    support     the   high-performance
                        energy-efficiency retrofits.               sustainable building rating
                                                                   system as approved by the
                        3.8 New Construction                       department. It is further
                                                                   the policy of the state, when
                        3.8.1 Background                           economically feasible, to
                                                                   retrofit existing
                        Escalating energy costs can reduce the     state-owned buildings in a
                        financial liquidity of new homeowners      manner which will minimize
                        and thereby reduce their ability to        the consumption of energy
                        pay for energy-efficiency retrofits.       used in the operation and
                        Building practices that are observed       maintenance of such
                        in the construction of new buildings       buildings.
                        exemplify efficient integration of
                        energy-efficient technology. When
                        sustainability and energy efficiency
                        are an integral part of the design, the
                        most cost-effective techniques for
                                                                      Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                                  sustainability can be integrated into the construction process.


                                  3.8.2 Goals for New Construction
                                  There is a lack of practical knowledge about sustainable building in the
                                  private sector. Business, industry, and consumers are less likely to commit
                                  to energy-efficiency and sustainability without this knowledge. Education
                                  and marketing can help to encourage sustainable building practices and
                                  thereby serve to spur the economy while increasing consumer interest for
                                  increased energy efficiency. The lack of incentives, underutilization of
                                  green mortgage products, underutilization of green ratings, and lack of
                                  sustainable policy serve as barriers to sustainable market
                                  transformation.
                                       Utilizing performance-based incentives that require third-party cer-
                                  tified sustainable building, including HERS rated residential housing, will
                                  deliver quantified, high-performance housing to enhance energy
                                  conservation and sustainability. Third-party certification can also help to
                                  transform the market beyond energy efficiency to include water con-
                                  servation, waste reduction, resource efficiency, and use of renewable
                                  energies.
                                      If the roof of a house is 15—20 years old, replacing it a light-colored
                                  roof can reflect light and reduce the heat gain in the summer [28]. If
                                  there are many east- or west-facing unshaded windows, planting small,
                                  fast-growing deciduous trees or vines on trellises would reduce the heat
                                  gain. Alternatively, external shading of windows can be accomplished with
                                  awnings or shade screen, a louvered blind. These are examples of how
                                  residents can reduce their demand for energy by careful planning of new
                                  construction. The ICF report lists more ways to reduce energy demand
                                  [35].


                                  3.8.3 M ode l G reen B ui ldin g O rdina nc e

                                  The ECSC recommends that Alachua County review and adopt the
                                  Model Green Building Ordinance and the FGBC Green Local Government
Municipalities that are serious   Standard. The complete Model Green Building Ordinance is shown in
about improving energy            Appendix A. Highlights of the Green Local Government Standard are
efficiency and reducing           shown in Textboxes 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5 on pages 3-35–3-37.
greenhouse gas emissions
must set specific goals so that
they can track their progress,    3.9 Performance Goals and Standards
know when the are or are
                                  3.9.0.1 Goals
not achieving their goals,
identify programs that work,      Municipalities that are serious about improving energy efficiency and
and know where additional         reducing greenhouse gas emissions must set specific goals so that they can
efforts are needed.               track their progress, know when they are or are not achieving their goals,
                                  identify programs that work, and know when additional efforts are
                                  needed.
                                      In the residential housing sector, municipalities can choose from a
variety of energy-efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction goals and can
benefit by using multiple goals simultaneously. Goals can be set for
physical attributes of homes (energy-efficient windows, insulation
ratings, etc.), energy use per home, energy use per person, energy use by
source of energy (locally attached solar energy versus coal-based
municipal energy source), or energy intensity. Energy intensity is a the
amount of energy used per square foot of heated floorspace in a building.
Energy-efficient homes would have lower energy intensity than
energy-inefficient homes.
    Measuring energy efficiency in terms of energy intensity can be used
effectively when looking at a snapshot of the current status of the
residential sector, but there is a significant problem with this metric
when used for long-term planning: it does not necessarily correspond to
energy-use per person. If housing sizes increase or if residents install
energy-intensive products (pumps for swimming pool filters), the County
could see a reduction in energy intensity and a simultaneous increase in
energy used per person and total energy consumed. Although energy
intensity can be used for some goals, the highest-level
   3.9. Performance Goals and Standards                                                                                         3-35




Text Box 3.3 Selected Elements from the Florida Green Local Government Program †


        Governments that adopt the standard can choose to include or exclude components of the program.

Building and Development
Monitor and track sustainable building within the city/county

      Create and maintain an electronic database of all building energy code compliance.

     Create and maintain an electronic database of all green and energy ratings.
City/County sustainable building program with incentives

      Adopt FGBC or LEED green standards as official green standards of the city/county.

      Offer an incentive(s) for FGBC or LEED certified commercial and institutional buildings.

      Offer an incentive(s) for FGBC or Energy Star certified green homes.

     Offer an incentive(s) for FGBC certified green developments.
Preserve/enhance native habitat and natural resources

      Require mitigation for consumption of natural habitat or resources.

      Enact and enforce a tree preservation or land-clearing ordinance.

      Regulate impervious parking surfaces.

    Enact a septic system replacement ordinance.
Conserve water resources

      Enact a rain sensor ordinance applicable to all functioning automatic irrigation systems.

     Enact a landscaping ordinance for new construction.
Staff education

     Require key staff to complete approved course in sustainable building on a bi-annual basis.
Industry education

      Offer classes to industry that detail any green incentives or regulations present.

      Offer incentives for local professionals to attend sustainable building classes offered by others.

    Conduct a sustainable building awards program.
Community education

      Publicity and case studies for sustainable building.

The FGBC worksheet c an be dow nloaded from http://w ww.florid agreenbuilding.org/db /standar ds/ govs/pdfs /local_govt_tool_ locked . xls
  3-36                                                                          Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Text Box 3.4 Selected Elements from the Florida Green Local Government Standard (cont.)


Housing and Human Services Provide green, affordable housing to the community

     Construct/renovate sustainable buildings.
Increase the affordability of affordable housing

     Affordable housing constructed by city/county and other parties

     Offer incentives for construction of green affordable housing.

    Offer incentives for location efficient affordable housing.
Improve current stock of affordable housing

    Remodeling of affordable housing mandated green.
Community education

    Offer orientation classes for residents of affordable housing or refer to existing courses. Staff
education

     Applicable staff complete CEU approved course in sustainable building on a bi-annual basis.
Planning and Zoning
Monitor and track sustainable building within the city/county

     Develop a system of sustainable community indicators related to local govt.

     Link indicators to a GIS system.

    Assist other departments with the tracking of indicators related to their function.
Enhance pedestrian travel in a city and reduce green house gas

     Maintain a bicycle / pedestrian coordinator on staff.

     Implement FDOT “12 Steps Toward Walkable Communities” into planning process.

    Healthy street design is official local government policy.
Green building incorporated into the city/county planning process

     Develop urban area boundaries.

     Encourage mixed-use zoning/development.

     Maintain or reduce net impervious surface area through zoning decisions.
Staff education

     Organize sustainable building seminars and/or training sessions for staff and elected officials.
  3.9. Performance Goals and Standards                                                        3-37




Text Box 3.5 Selected Elements from the Florida Green Local Government Program (cont.)


Property Appr ais er/T ax Collec tor
Monitor and track sustainable buildings

     Include green features / ratings of homes in database.
Incentives for sustainable building

     Tax incentives for certified green properties.

     Tax incentives for lands qualifying as historic, high water recharge, greenbelt, etc.
Industry education

     Green education to local lending / real estate industry.
                                                                                      Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                                                 goal should be expressed in terms of energy use per capita (energy use per
                                                 person).
                                                     Individual residents in Alachua County can also benefit from the
                                                 combination of energy efficiency measurements and goals. To help
                                                 measure and track home energy performance, Alachua County should
                                                 adopt an approved energy rating system and track performance across
                                                 time. Rating systems include the HERS index (see Appendix B), the
                                                 FGBC FGBC Green Home Standard (designed specifically for Florida and
                                                 includes broader measures of sustainability), a version of LEED for
                                                 homes, and the Degree of Green system.
                                                     Another complication in the future might be energy use for
                                                 electric-powered vehicles. If electric vehicles become widely used in the
                                                 future, energy usage statistics could become distorted to the point at
                                                 which they are no longer meaningful. If plug-in electric vehicles become
                                                 more popular, the County might need to find ways to measure or
                                                 estimate the electricity used for these vehicles so that home energy
Executive Order 07-127
(excerpt)
                                                 statistics can be adjusted.
                                                     The housing sector is comprised of segments that differ from each
Convene the Florida Building                     other in terms of their total energy use and their energy intensity. The
Commission for the purpose of                    low-income sector has been characterized with high energy-intensity but
revising the Florida Energy                      smaller home sizes and approximately average energy use per capita.
Code for Building                                The most expensive homes often have good energy intensity but higher
Construction to increase the                     total energy use per capita. Attention to individual housing segments is
energy performance of new                        also important because the capacity to pay for energy efficiency
construction in Florida by at                    upgrades differs between low-income and high-income segments.
least 15% from the 2007
Energy Code. The
Commission should consider                       3 . 9 .0 . 2 B e st P r ac ti ce s
incorporating standards for                      The U.S. Conference of Mayors Best Practices Guide provides dozens of
appliances and standard                          examples of municipalities that built energy-efficient buildings and
lighting in the Florida Energy                   reduced greenhouse gases, and many of those were built to LEED™
Code. Target implementation                      standards as a means of ensuring that the buildings are energy efficient
date for the revised Florida                     [47]. Many of the case studies are of enhancements made to existing
Energy Code for Building                         buildings, but in some cases cities adopted ordinances to require specific
Construction is January 1,                       standards for new buildings. The case study of Hayward, CA shows that
2009...                                          the city set the example by earning their status as a Certified Green
Source: Executive Order 07-127. Retrieved from   Business. Hayward also established sustainable building guidelines with
http://www.flgov.com/pdfs/orders/                elements for natural resource conservation, water and energy efficiency,
07-127-emissions.pdf                             and indoor air quality. The Best Practices Guide lists many cities that have
                                                 adopted some form of green building policies: Alexandrian Virginia,
                                                 Chicago Illinois, Dublin California, Irvine California, Vancouver
                                                 Washington, West Hollywood California, Eugene Oregon, San Jose
                                                 California, and Asheville North Carolina.
                                                    The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)
                                                 Best Practices for Climate Protection guide presents a case study of
                                                 Berkeley’s Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance that
      3.9. Performance Goals and Standards




required inexpensive upgrades to existing homes [48]. The ordinance
included a maximum dollar amount so that residents were not forced to
spend too much money. Alachua County could use a similar approach to
require inexpensive improvements but cap the expenditures a given year
or in a given span of years. An organization formed by cities that are
leading the way to reduce their impact on climate change produced a case
study of the Berkeley ordinance [49]. They estimated that it has saved over
5,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually and saved residents about $450 per
year. Perhaps there are carbon credits that could be obtained for savings
this big.


3.9.1 Sustainable Building Policy

The State of Florida has established a website titled My Florida Green
Building [50]. This website describes Florida’s sustainable building
programs, profiles of sustainable buildings, recognized sustainability
rating systems, rebates and incentives, and available resources such as
energy and environmental calculators.
    In an effort to recognize and integrate various local, state, and
national sustainability building programs, the Florida Building Com-
mission developed the recently-released Model Green Building Ordi-
nance (see Appendix A), which was developed by its Florida Green
Building Workgroup comprised of local and state governments, building
officials, industry representatives and conservation advocates [see 18].
The first Green Building Ordinance in Florida was adopted by the City
of Gainesville in 2001 and served as a model for the Model Green
Building Resolution [see 18]. The Florida-recognized sustain-ability
rating systems include the FGBC ratings: Green Government, Green
Commercial, Green Development, and Green Homes Standard; FDEP’s
Green Lodging; Green Communities; U.S. Green Building Council’s
LEED ™ ratings: New Construction, Commercial Interiors, Core and
Shell, Existing Buildings, Homes and Neighborhood Development;
Green Globes, Green Building Initiative®, and NAHB National Green
Building Program.
    The FGBC is a 501(c)3 non profit organization dedicated to im-
proving the built environment. Its mission is “to provide a statewide
green building program with environmental and economic benefits”
[12]. FGBC’s membership is a coalition comprised of individuals and
businesses involved with various aspects of the housing industry including
design, materials, products, construction, inspection, marketing,
financing, sales, and government.
    These members have donated their time and expertise to develop and
promote consensus driven Green Certification Standards for Homes,
Commercial Buildings, Developments, and Local Governments. These
voluntary Standards are Florida-specific and provide a third party
independent verification that significant sustainability practices have
been achieved in the project.


                                                                              Compact fluorescent light bulb
                                                                              Photo by Bob Hoot
   3-40                                                      Chapter 3. Residential Housing




Table 3.9 Significant Milestones in Alachua County Energy Efficiency in the Home

          1997 Alachua County was the pioneering leader featuring the first EPA Energy Star ®
                 Home in Florida, The Mallory by H.K.W. Enterprises in 1997. This award -winning
                 home touted a case study that confirmed its energy performance through a Home
                 Energy Rating that calculated its energy costs of $17/month for heating and cooling
                 costs, that the homeowner benefited further from a energy bill guarantee.
          2000 Gainesville/Alachua County earned nationally-acclaimed recognition again as a
                 pioneer in sustainable market transformation of Energy Star ® homes, earning
                 recognition as #1 Market Share Per Capita Nation of Energy Star® rated homes
                 Green$mart® researched and reported this data nationwide, consisting of Energy
                 Star® certifications compared to Certificate of Occupancies for City of Gainesville
                 and Alachua County, confirmed by Energy Star® to document a market
                 transformation.)
          2000 Union Street Station gained national acclaim as the first known, mixed-use Energy
                  Star® building in the nation. McGurn Investment Company swept the 2000 Aurora
                  awards, including Grand Aurora for the Southeastern U.S. and other categories
                  including Commercial Park, Reurbanization, Waterwise Home and Energy Efficient
                  Home, in additional to earning a 2001 Energy Value Housing Award. This pioneering
                  project featured 54 Energy Star® City homes, built over commercial and retail floors
                  that were also built to Energy Star® standards.
          2001 The FGBC, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization was formed resulting in the second
                  statewide sustainable building program in the nation. It was the first statewide
                  program to feature disaster-resistance and universal design categories and
                  third-party certification on all homes, with disaster-resistant and universal design
                  categories.
          2001 The City of Gainesville adopted Florida’s first Green Building Ordinance, which
                  served as a model for other municipalities, which ultimately led to the development
                  of Florida’s Model Green Building Ordinance released January 25, 2008.
          2002 Atlantic Design and Construction at Mentone, won the 2002 Energy Star ® Small Builder
                  of the Year Award. Mentone was also the first Cluster subdivision in Alachua County
                  in 1996 and won the 2000 Aurora Award for Best Community 100-500 acres in
                  Southeast U.S.
     3.9. Performance Goals and Standards                                     3-41




     Certified sustainable projects are more energy and water efficient,
safe, healthy, and durable. They are affordable to build and they are less
expensive to operate and maintain.
     Both the Enterprise Foundation (with the Florida Community Loan
Fund) and the Florida Home Builder’s Association have adopted FGBC’s
Home and Development Standards for projects in Florida [51]. FGBC
is focused on bringing together all of the organizations in the state to
become the single source of Florida-specific.

3. 9. 2 FG BC G r ee n H o m e St a nd ar d

The FGBC Green Home Standard is a voluntary green home rating
system that measures the sustainable performance of a home in eight
categories:

   1. energy: design, construction, appliances and lighting,

   2. water: fixtures, greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting, reclaimed
      water reuse, and installed landscape,

   3. lot choice: infill, transit-oriented, cluster or proximity to infras-
      tructure, open space or community resources,

   4. site: native tree/plant preservation, on-site waste management,
      erosion control, and stormwater control,

   5. health: combustion, moisture control, V.O.C/source control,

   6. materials: cleanability, universal design, and ventilation,

   7. disaster mitigation: hurricane/storm, flood, wildfire and termite,
      and

   8. general credit: small house credit, adaptability, renewable power
      generation, remodel, and miscellaneous credit for FGBC team
      members, owners manual, owner education and training, edible
      landscape, and guaranteed energy bills.



3.9.2.1 Goals for Certified Green Homes

Energy intensity is closely correlated with the physical attributes of the
home. For example, all other factors being equal, a home with very good
insulation would have better energy efficiency than a home with poor
insulation. Setting goals for energy efficient attributes of homes can be
very helpful in achieving goals of energy efficiency, and the best way to
implement this approach is to adopt a holistic approach that looks not
only at the totality of energy-efficiency features of the home but also
looks at the environmental features of the home. Without adopting a
holistic approach, it is more likely that a home
Table 3.10 FGBC Green Building Resources



        Green Home Checklist:
                 A checklist that describes the features of an FGBC green (sustainable) home and that
                 can be printed
                 http://www.floridagreenbuilding.org/db/standards/homes/
                 HomeChecklist5.pdf
        Green Home Checklist Tool (spreadsheet):
                 A spreadsheet that can be used to record the features of a green home and assess the
                 rating.
                 http://www.floridagreenbuilding.org/db/standards/homes/
                 HomeChecklist5.xls
        Green Commercial Building Designation Standard Checklist:
                 A form to apply for the green building designation and the corresponding
                 checklist
                 http://www.floridagreenbuilding.org/db/standards/com/
                 pdfs/CommChecklist_V1_2004.pdf
        Green Development Checklist:
                 A checklist for a multi-unit green development
                 http://www.floridagreenbuilding.org/db/standards/devs/
                 GreenDevChecklist_v5.pdf

                       More information is available from http://www.floridagreenbuilding.org/db/?q=node/5363




 3-42                                                                                       Chapter 3. Residential Housing




                                                 can have a few high-profile energy-efficiency features and yet remain
                                                 energy inefficient because the air ducts pass through an attic that is
                                                 uninsulated.
                                                     One holistic approach to assessing the energy efficiency of homes is the
                                                 FGBC’s Green Building Certification program. That program asks
                                                 municipalities to adopt a Green Building Ordinance. The ordinance can
                                                 be customized by Alachua County to apply to certain elements of the
                                                 housing market (County buildings, new residential construction,
                                                 retrofitting of residential, commercial, etc.). The example ordinance
                                                 from the FGBC [18] says that new residential units can choose which set
                                                 of criteria to meet: LEED™, the National Association of Home Builders
                                                 National Green Home program, the Green Building Initiative new home
                                                 designation, or others.




                                                 3.9.3 Goals for Energy Intensity by Segment

                                                 Considering the difficulty of reducing energy use by approximately
                                                 50% by 2030 (or a target of that approximate magnitude), Alachua
                                                 County cannot rely solely on improved standards for new homes (see
                                                 Text Box 3.6).
       3.9. Performance Goals and Standards                                                          3-43




   Table 3.11 Benchmark Goals for Green Building Certification

        Goal                                                                  2010   2020   2030   2050

        New Construction
        New homes shall be certified green homes                              30%    50%    75%    100%
        New multi-family buildings shall be certified Green                   30%    50%    75%    100%

        E xi s t i n g H o m e s C e r t i f i e d a s Green
        Owner occupied homes built before 1993                                 2%    15%    30%    50%
        Owner occupied low-income homes built before 1993                      2%    15%    30%    50%
        Rental units built before 1993 (fewer than 10 units per owner;         2%    20%    50%    75%
        varying repayment schemes)
        Rental units built before 1993 (more than 10 units per owner;          2%    20%    50%    75%
        varying repayment schemes)




3. 9. 4 G o a ls f or Pr o duc t I nf or m at i o n

Consumers who have already learned about energy conservation and
greenhouse gas reduction might be willing to use products that advance
these causes. This choice of products can be facilitated by clear labeling.
There is currently labeling for recycled content of many consumer goods,
and the FGBC Green Building checklists (see Table 3.10) award
sustainability credits when property owners use building materials that are
made from recycled content.
    Another important type of information for consumers would be the
embodied green energy content of a product, or measure of the energy
that was used to make the product that was derived from sustainable vs
unsustainable sources. Perhaps Alachua County cannot mandate
labeling of consumer products to require that manufacturers disclose the
percentage of embodied energy that came from renewable resources (solar,
wind, hydro, etc.), but if Alachua County awarded credit in the ECO
ordinance for products made with green energy, manufacturers that use
sustainable energy sources would be motivated to publish that information
on their web sites.
    In the same way that product information about green energy use can
help consumers make better economic choices, information about the
energy efficiency of homes and apartments can help consumers make
better choices about where to live. One way to make this information
easy to understand would be to use an energy index that is approved by
Alachua County. The index would be a single number (or perhaps a very
simple description) that describes the energy efficiency of a building so
that a home with a better index would be more energy efficient than an
otherwise equivalent home that had a worse index. The numbers can
help renters and potential home buyers estimate their utility costs and
thereby estimate the real, fully-loaded cost of living in a particular
house, condo, or apartment.
     Text Box 3.6 Energy Efficiency Improvements From Enhanced Standards for New Construction
                                                                                                                    Chapter 3. Residential Housing


Alachua County Population (2007)                                                                                                   247,000
Estimated Population in 2030                                                                                                      316,800†
Percent change                                                                                                                        28%
Rough estimate of percentage of housing stock built between 2008 and 2030                                                             29%
Net energy efficency change in Alachua County if every new building has zero net                                                    —29%
energy use and zero use of carbon-based energy

                                                                                                                                       —57%




                †
                    Source: Table 1.41 from   Florida Statistical Abstract: 2007   by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR).
               Considering that energy efficiency of new housing will be no where near the zero-energy threshhold, the analysis above
                    suggests that existing homes must be retrofitted so that the County can meet energy- and GHG-reduction goals.
 Net energy efficency change in Alachua County if every new building has zero net
 energy use and zero use of carbon-based energy (assuming BEBR high population
 growth)




                                                                 The ECSC recommends that Alachua County take steps to encourage
                                                              the dissemination of product information and residence information so
                                                              that consumers can make better choices:

                                                                      1. Encourage the use of used materials for ECO repairs and encour-
                                                                         age the use of products that are made with a high percentage of
                                                                         green energy. This might include used construction materials
                                                                         (used insulation, used windows, or used appliances). Make it
                                                                         clear that some home ratings systems provide additional credit for
                                                                         products that are reused products or recyclable products.

                                                                      2. Identify building and repair products that might be used to make
                                                                         ECO repairs and that are made from a substantial percentage of
                                                                         green energy and then post a conspicuous link to those products on
                                                                         all notices related to ECO. Consider supplementing that program
                                                                         by partnering with hardware stores that will benefit from the ECO
                                                                         program and provide them with poster, pamphlets, or other such
                                                                         materials.

                                                                      3. Contact manufacturers of building materials that are needed to
                                                                         make ECO energy-efficiency improvements, and inform them
                                                                         that products made from green energy will receive special pro-
                                                                         motion within the ECO system.

                                                                      4. Encourage the disclosure of energy rating indexes that describe
                                                                         the energy efficiency of rental units by

                                                                                   a) partnering with the University of Florida to notify students
                                                                                      that they should look for the energy rating when finding
                                                                                      places to live,
b) partnering with large apartment complexes and developers to
   encourage them to publish theenergy rating index for
  3.9. Performance Goals and Standards                                           3-45




         their rental units in exchange for listing green apartments in
         an advertising program,
      c) conduct a pilot study to send information packets about the
         energy rating index to renters, and include the names of green
         apartments that have partnered with Alachua County.

5. Award ECO credit for property owners that obtain an energy
   rating from a certified rater.

6. Consider requiring a energy rating as a condition for transferring the
   title to a property. The rating, for the purposes of transferring the title
   to a property, would be valid for a specified period, such as 15 years
   and would be transferable to subsequent title holders during that
   period.

7. Pursue the feasibility of giving homeowners carbon credits for
   energy savings produced by the home improvements. A case
   study of the carbon savings from these programs suggested
   substantial carbon reductions [49].
3-46                                             Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance




   Appendix    A
   Model Green Building Ordinance


                   The following is the Model Green Building Ordinance from
       consensus.fsu.edu/FBC/GBW/Green_Building_Model_Ord_12 -31-07.pdf




                       MODEL GREEN BUILDING ORDINANCE




            Florida Green Building Workgroup of the Florida Building Commission

                                       Prepared By:

                             Florida Solar Energy Center
                             University of Central Florida
                                    December 31, 2007
                                        TAB LE OF CONTENTS

MODEL GREEN BUILDING ORDINANCE .......................................                              3
PREAMBLE ....................................................................................       3
FINDINGS .......................................................................................    4
Sec. 1.0. TITLE ................................................................................    7
Sec. 2.0. PURPOSE AND INTENT...................................................                     7
Sec 3.0. GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP ..........................................                           8
Sec. 4.0. DESIGNATION OF RESPONSIBILITY ..............................                              8
Sec. 5.0. GREEN BUILDING PROGRAM APPLICABILITY ..............                                       9
Sec. 6.0. GREEN BUILDING COVERAGE .......................................                           9
Sec. 7.0. GREEN BUILDING STANDARDS .....................................                            9
Sec. 8.0. INCENTIVES ....................................................................          10
Sec. 9.0. CERTIFICATION ...............................................................            12
Sec. 10.0. EDUCATION AND TRAINING .........................................                        12
Sec. 11.0. INDEX AND REPORT .....................................................                  13
Sec. 12.0. PROGRAM REVIEW .......................................................                  13
Sec. 13.0. CONFLICTING REGULATIONS REPEALED ..................                                     13
Sec. 14.0. SEVERABILITY ...............................................................            13
Sec. 15.0. EFFECTIVE DATE ..........................................................               13
Appendix A. U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement ..................                            14
Appendix B. Florida local green building programs ...........................                      16
B-1. City of Gainesville Green Building Program ...............................                    16
B-2 Miami-Dade Green Building Ordinance ......................................                     20
B-3 Sarasota County Green Building Resolution 2006-174 ...............                             21




                                                   Page 2 of 23
3-48                                             Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       This document is developed to help local governments develop a green building
       ordinance. The template offers many definitions and ideas that a local government
       may wish to include. The appendix provides some examples of local Florida
       ordinances and resolutions.
       The annotated language in italics is intended to provide the rationale for the specified
       provisions, alternative language options, and examples from community ordinances
       that have implemented similar provisions. Therefore, the language in italics is not
       necessarily intended to be taken in its entirety as language that would be adopted if
       the ordinance were enacted.


                            MODEL GREEN BUILDING ORDINANCE

                             ORDINANCE NO. __________________

       BE IT ENACTED BY THE PEOPLE OF THE                         OF              :

       PREAMBLE.
       We, the people of the             of _______ , consistent with our goals to:
       Usually a green building program is part of an overall sustainability or resource
       efficiency effort, so state that here. Potential phrases that may fit some
       jurisdictions:
                (1) Promote a sustainable future that meets today’s needs of a stable,
               diverse and equitable economy without compromising the ability of future
               generations to meet their needs by –
                      a) Protecting the quality of the air, water, land and other natural
                      resources
                      b) Conserving native vegetation, fish, wildlife habitat and other
                      ecosystems
                      c) Minimizing human impacts on local and worldwide ecosystems
                      d) Reducing green house gas emissions
               (2) Become a leader in setting policies and practicing service delivery
               innovations that promote environmental sustainability.
               (3) Create a sustainable jurisdiction by delivering renewable energy and
               energy efficiency projects, alternatively-fueled vehicles, developing green
               buildings and water-thrifty landscapes, resource education, and utilizing
               recycling and environmentally sound solid waste services.
               (4) Establish a green building program to:
                      (a) Improve the economic and environmental health of the
                      jurisdiction through measurable objectives
                      (b) Track and analyze key indices to measure performance
                      (c) Commit the jurisdiction to achieve green designations
                      (d) Provide incentives for voluntary compliance
                      (e) Provide green building educational opportunities for the
                      community


                                               Page 3 of 23
3-50                                           Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


             (5) Execute a green building program to measurably reduce
                   (a) CO2 emissions by___ %,
                   (b) NOx emissions by ___%,
                   (c) Energy consumption per capita by ___%,
                   (d) Water consumption per capita by ___%.
       FINDINGS.
       The following words, terms and phrases, when used in this chapter, shall have the
       meanings ascribed to them in this section, except where the context clearly
       indicates a different meaning.

             jurisdiction means the           of _____ , Florida.

             commission means the _____ Commission of the _____ , Florida.

             (1) ASHRAE: acronym for the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
             and Air Conditioning Engineers.

             (2) ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G: the Standard developed by the American
             Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
             to provide specific guidance on the rules and procedures used to simulate
             building energy use when the objective is to substantially exceed the
             requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, “Energy Standard for
             Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Structures.”

             (3) Conserve Florida: name of a statewide water conservation effort by water
             management districts and Florida DEP to develop and implement an
             accountable and measurable program to allow public water supply utilities to
             tailor cost-effective conservation programs to reflect their individual
             circumstances to achieve greater water use efficiency.

             (4) Construction: any project associated with the creation, development, or
             erection of any building eligible for the program.

             (5) Current: the standard in place at the time a program participant
             submits a project application form with the jurisdiction:

             (6) FGBC: acronym for the Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc., a Florida
             501(c) 3 not-for-profit corporation whose mission is to create a statewide
             green building program with environmental and economic benefits.

             (7) FGBC Local Government designation: A designation given by FGBC to a
             City or County that achieves the requirement of their local government rating
             system that examines environmental best practices for all local government
             functions. Levels of platinum, gold, silver and certified can be




                                          Page 4 of 23
             achieved. (As of the end of 2007, one county (Pinellas) and three cities (St.
             Petersburg, Tallahassee and Dunedin) achieved the designation.)

             (8) Florida Friendly Landscaping: Nine principles to guide Florida Yard and
             Neighborhood programs. The nine principles are to locate the right plant in
the right place, water efficiently, fertilize appropriately, mulch, attract
wildlife, manage pests responsibly, recycle, reduce stormwater runoff and
protect the waterfront.

(9) Florida Green Lodging: A program by the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection to designate lodging establishments as “green” for
following environmentally sensitive operating procedures.

(10) Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC): As the state of Florida’s energy
research institute, FSEC conducts research in Building Science,
Photovoltaics, Solar Thermal, Hydrogen and Alternative Fuels, Fuel Cells
and other advanced energy technologies.

(11) Florida Water Star Program: A program offered by water
management districts to encourage water efficiency in household
appliances, plumbing fixtures, irrigation systems and landscapes.

(12) Florida Yard and Neighborhoods: A University of Florida Extension
Service program that encourages homeowners and professionals to
create and maintain Florida-friendly landscapes that protect the natural
environment for future generations.

(13) GBI: Acronym for the Green Building Initiative, a not-for-profit
organization whose mission is to accelerate the adoption of building
practices that result in energy-efficient, healthier and environmentally
sustainable buildings by promoting credible and practical green building
approaches for residential and commercial construction.

(14) GHDS: acronym for the Green Home Designation Standard of the
Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc.

(15) Green Building: A designation given to buildings achieving the
requirements of the green building rating system defined in this green
building program.

(16) Green Building Program: The program outlined in this ordinance for
obtaining incentives for green buildings and developments.

(17) Green Globes: the U.S. commercial/institutional building rating
system of the Green Building Initiative.




                            Page 5 of 23
3-52                                      Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       (18) HERS® Index: the Home Energy Rating System Index used as part of
       Florida’s Home Energy Rating system in which a home with a HERS Index of
       100 represents the energy use of the “American Standard Home” and an
       Index of 0 (zero) indicates that the rated home uses no net purchased
       energy.

       (19) Independent or Independent of the jurisdiction: not employed by, or
       acting as agents of, the jurisdiction.

       (20) Institute for Business and Home Safety is an insurance and
       reinsurance organization whose mission is to reduce the social and economic
       effects of natural disasters and other property losses by conducting research and
       advocating improved construction, maintenance and preparation practices..

       (21) LEED: the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Rating
       System of the U.S. Green Building Council.

       (22) NAHB: Acronym for the National Association of Home Builders, a
       Washington-based trade association whose mission is to enhance the
       climate for housing and the building industry.

       (23) Positively Green Project: a building project that generates more energy
       on-site through renewable sources than it uses on an annual basis while
       providing for its water needs through typical annual rainfall (water rating tool
       may be forthcoming), and meets all of the requirements of this jurisdiction’s
       green building program. To meet energy qualifications, residential applicants
       must achieve a HERS index of 0 or less, and nonresidential must achieve
       100% energy reduction from non-renewables using procedures in ASHRAE
       90.1 Appendix G. rating procedure.

       (24) Private: property not owned by the jurisdiction.

       (25) Program: the jurisdiction’s green building program.

       (26) Program Certification: the final designation awarded to a program
       participant for satisfying all requirements associated with the program for a
       particular project.

       (27) Program Participant: any person or entity seeking program
       certification for a particular project.

       (28) Project: any construction associated with the creation, development,
       or erection of any building eligible for the program.




                                      Page 6 of 23
       (29) Project Application Form: the form submitted to the building
       inspection department indicating that a program participant is interested in
       participating in the program for a particular project.

       (30) Sub-program: means any area of construction covered by the
       program.

       (31) Sustainable Construction: the process of environmentally sensitive,
       resource efficient site selection, preparation, design, construction, and
       operation of buildings.

       (32) Unit: A residence permitted according to the jurisdiction’s residential
       building code.

       (33) USGBC: acronym for the United States Green Building Council, a
       non-profit organization whose mission is to transform the way buildings
       and communities are designed, built and operated, enabling an
       environmentally and socially responsible, healthy and prosperous
       environment that improves the quality of life.

The editor may choose to replace all instances of jurisdiction with the word “city” or
“county.”
Sec. 1.0. TITLE.
The provisions of Section 1.0 through Section 15 inclusive shall be known as the
C i t y o r C o u n t y of _____ “green building ordinance.” (Ord. xxxxx § x, Date)

Sec. 2.0. PURPOSE AND INTENT.
The purpose is to establish goals, programs and procedures that will help the
jurisdiction become a more sustainable community. This program shall establish
new environmental goals for the jurisdiction, define a certification-based "green
building" program with incentives, and define new measurement parameters and
reporting criteria to track the jurisdiction’s performance towards its environmental
goals. This program will promote economic and environmental health in the
jurisdiction, through the design, construction, operations and deconstruction of its
own facilities and provide leadership to both the private and public sectors in the
arena of green building practices including resource efficiency and disaster
mitigation.
The Purpose and Intent section increases the legal defensibility of the ordinance by
substantiating that the regulations of the ordinance are a warranted exercise of the
police power of governments for the protection of the public heath, safety and
welfare. Specific purposes and intent should be custom tailored to the individual
municipality with respect to its needs, resources, environmental conditions, and
reasons for adopting the ordinance.




                                      Page 7 of 23




Sec 3.0. GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP.
To demonstrate the jurisdiction’s commitment to a green building program, the
jurisdiction shall
The jurisdiction may choose to adopt one or more of a number of leadership
3-54                                           Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       items:
          (a) become and maintain a Gold level FGBC Local Government designation
          (b) comply with the green building programs established herein for all
              government buildings
          (c) Commit to the Architecture 2030 challenge for new government owned
              buildings to achieve fossil fuel reduction standard of at least:
              60% in 2010
              70% in 2015
              80% in 2020
              90% in 2025
              Carbon-neutral in 2030 (using no fossil fuel GHG emitting energy to
              operate).
          (d) Commit to sign the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement (As
              endorsed by the 73rd Annual U.S. Conference of Mayors meeting,
              Chicago, 2005) :
          (e) Track and report the government’s monthly water and energy use
              (potentially this could be done on a public web site) and
          (f) Publish an annual report that outlines the jurisdiction’s energy and water
              use and greenhouse gas emission performance for the prior year and
              outlines a plan to reduce it for the coming year

       Sec. 4.0. DESIGNATION OF RESPONSIBILITY
                 FOR ADMINISTRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION.
       The program shall be administered by the jurisdiction’s ______ department,
       which shall be responsible for:
       The implementation of methods to fund, promote, apply for incentives and resolve
       disputes of the program is left up to the jurisdiction and should be accomplished in
       consultation with the jurisdiction’s legal counsel. Possible ideas are:
       (a) Funding the program through annual funds budgeted and appropriated by
       the jurisdiction commission or funds generated through resource conservation
       fees assessed through local water or energy utility bills;
       (b) Marketing the program to the community by any reasonably effective means,
       including but not limited to press releases, television advertising, or advertising in
       electronic or print mailers;
       (c) Developing any appropriate or necessary application procedures, including
       but not limited to, the program application form;
       (d) Writing policies and procedures for staff implementation of the green building
       program


                                             Page 8 of 23
       (e) Providing the certifications for use in the program
       (f) Providing an incentive award to any program participant who has
       successfully satisfied the requirements associated with that incentive; and
       (g) Resolving disputes that may arise from implementing the program.

       Sec. 5.0. GREEN BUILDING PROGRAM APPLICABILITY.
       (a) For all private projects, the program shall be voluntary.
       (b) For any new jurisdiction-owned construction projects the program is
       mandatory.
Sec. 6.0. GREEN BUILDING COVERAGE.
The program shall be comprised of the following sub-programs:
(a) New residential construction;
(b) Residential retrofitting/remodeling;
(c) New commercial/non-residential construction,
(d) Existing Commercial/non-residential construction
(e) Land developments
Ideally the locality has a program for each of the types listed. As a starting point, a
jurisdiction may choose to just implement some of the above choices.
Sec. 7.0. GREEN BUILDING STANDARDS.
The program shall be administered using standards developed by the Florida
Green Building Coalition, the U.S. Green Building Council for certification of all
other building certifications, the Green Building Initiative, or the National
Association of Home Builders. These standards shall apply to each sub-program as
follows.
(a) New residentially permitted projects: For any program participant seeking
program certification for new residential construction, the program participant
must satisfy all of the requirements associated with either
       i) the current Green Home Designation Standard of the FGBC,
       ii) the current USGBC LEED for Homes® program,
       iii) the current National Association of Home Builders National Green
       Home program, or
       iv) the GBI new home designation,
including but not limited to, any monetary or certification requirements.
(b) Remodeling of existing homes: The participant must meet requirements of
remodeling certification for either
       i) the current Green Home Designation Standard of the FGBC,
       ii) the current LEED for Homes® program, or
       iii) the current NAHB National Green Home program, or
       iv) The GBI
including but not limited to, any monetary or certification requirements. The home
must meet the requirements for “remodeling” or “existing home” of the
designation.



                                       Page 9 of 23




(c) New commercial or institutional buildings: The program participant must
satisfy all of the requirements associated with the
       i) the current Green Commercial Designation Standard of the FGBC,
       ii) the current LEED for New Construction or derived USGBC LEED
       rating system (e.g., LEED for Schools, LEED for Health Care) program, or
       iii) the Green Globes environmental assessment system for new designs
including but not limited to any monetary or certification requirements.
(d) Existing commercial and institutional buildings: The program participant must
satisfy all of the requirements associated with the
       i) the current Green Commercial Designation Standard of the FGBC,
       ii) the current LEED for existing buildings or derived USGBC LEED rating
       system (e.g., LEED for Schools, LEED for Health Care) program, or
3-56                                           Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


               iii) the Green Globes environmental assessment system for existing
               designs, including but not limited to any monetary or certification
               requirements.
       (e) Land Developments: The participant must satisfy all of the requirements
       associated with the
               i) the current Green Development Designation Standard of the FGBC,
               ii) the current LEED for Neighborhoods and Developments rating system
               program, or
               iii) the NAHB development designation, including but not limited to any
               monetary or certification requirements.
       (f) Review. For the purpose of this section of the program, a program
       participant shall be bound by the standard designated for a particular sub-
       program unless the program participant requests to be certified under a more
       current version of a designated standard and the request is approved by the
       jurisdiction responsible for administering the particular program.
       (g) Green Practices Supersede Conflicting Covenants and Deed Restrictions: Local
       developers and homeowner association covenant and deed restrictions shall not
       limit the adoption of practices encouraged to achieve credit under these green
       standards.
       If only covering some of the programs in section 6, select only those items (a) –
       (e)) here.

       Sec. 8.0. INCENTIVES.
       The program shall include incentives designed to encourage the use of the
       program.

       Select incentives that are appropriate for the goals, implementation, budget and
       legal requirements of your community.
       (a) All sub-programs. For any voluntary program participant seeking a program
       certification, the jurisdiction's general government shall provide the following
       fast-track permitting incentives (following example based on Sarasota County
       Resolution 2006-174):




                                            Page 10 of 23
       i.     Site and Development plans for a proposed “Green Development” shall be
              processed in ten (10) working days. All such applications shall be
              accompanied by the appropriate green building program application form.
        ii.   Building permit applications for residential green buildings shall be processed
              within three (3) working days. All such applications shall be accompanied by
              the appropriate green building program application form.
        iii.  Building permit applications for commercial green buildings shall be
              processed in five (5) working days. All such applications shall be
              accompanied by the appropriate green building program application form.
       (b). For all projects other than one and two-family residential projects, there shall
       be a reduced development plan review fee, which shall equal 80 percent of the fee
       required for a non-program participant.
       (c). Reduced permitting fee (the City of Gainesville first instituted a 50% fee
       reduction with Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02), which shall equal 50 percent of the
       fee required for a non-program participants, for projects that meet all of the
       requirements of the program and reduce energy and water consumption by 50%
  and meet the minimum requirements of the Institute for Business and Home Safety.
  Reductions in energy shall be calculated using the HERS® Index for residences
  and the ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G rating procedure for commercial buildings.
  Water use shall be calculated in accordance with jurisdiction requirements.
  (d). Shall refund an organization’s registration fees on projects deemed
  “Positively Green Projects.”
  (e). Shall provide 25% increase in density for projects that meet the requirements of
  the green land development designation and permanently preserve 20% of land
  that would otherwise be deemed buildable under current codes and laws.
  (f). Shall provide $100 annual rebates for businesses operating in a building
  certified as green under this program.
  (g). Shall provide $100 annual rebates for businesses supplying 10% or more of
  their annual energy needs through on-site solar energy.
  (h) Marketing for all sub-programs. For any program participant seeking
  program certification for new residential construction, residential
  retrofitting/remodeling, new commercial/non-municipal construction, or new
jurisdiction owned civic or office construction projects, the jurisdiction's general
government shall provide the following marketing incentives, including but not
limited to:
   i.      Provide an outdoor sign that the builder may use to promote a project
           being designated under this program;
   ii.   The inclusion of program participants on a webpage dedicated to the
         program;
   iii. The creation of promotional packages such as a program logo for a
         program participant's advertisements or brochures;
   iv.     Press releases; and
   v.      Information about available financial programs, including but not limited to,
           those associated with Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac.


                                      Page 11 of 23




 vi.    Provision of website links to local sustainable businesses and green
        building materials.
 vii.   Cooperation with local banking, Realtors, and insurance companies to
        make green building more affordable

(i) Green building award. For the purpose of publicly recognizing outstanding
commitment to "green building," the program shall provide for an award called the
"green building award" to be awarded annually by the jurisdiction's general
government to one program participant in each sub-program.
(j) Special green contribution award. The jurisdiction shall annually provide a
special recognition award to those contractors that donate significant reusable
building materials to non-profit local building organizations.

Sec. 9.0. CERTIFICATION.
The program shall be subject to certification by a qualified third party who has
been trained and certified as a green building certifier. For the purpose of this
section of the program, "third party" means any person or entity authorized
according to the requirements of the standard in section 8.0. for a particular
3-58                                             Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       project.

       Sec. 10.0. EDUCATION AND TRAINING.

       (a) The building inspection department in conjunction with FSEC, FGBC, Green
       Globes, NAHB or USGBC shall conduct at least one training workshop per year for
       the purpose of educating potential or current program participants about the
       program.

              It is recommended that the jurisdiction’s website include information about
             the program, frequently asked questions and answers, and guidance for
             participation.

       (b) The jurisdiction shall attempt to make available a meeting space at a
       government facility when available for green building programs offered by
       organizations that are of a general nature (not product specific). Organizations
       shall contact the facilities staff to make arrangements.

       (c) Jurisdiction building and planning department staff shall be encouraged to
       attend at least __ hours of green building training a year.

              Local governments should encourage training as needed or required to learn
              the requirements and encourage staff to learn more about new resource
              efficient building practices. Some training may help staff maintain licenses.
              You may choose to make continuing education in green building criteria in
              their annual review.




                                              Page 12 of 23
       Sec. 11.0. INDEX AND REPORT.
       The goals and objectives of the program and their status as outlined in the
       Preamble shall be recorded, analyzed and reported to the commission. The
       jurisdiction administrator/manager shall be responsible for this indexing and
       reporting.

             An additional recommendation is to display the goals and objectives of the
             program and their status as outlined in the Preamble and make publicly
             available on a public website.

       Sec. 12.0. PROGRAM REVIEW.
       (a) Staff review. The jurisdiction shall provide for a review of the program to
       determine the need for changes in the program to increase it effectiveness.
       (b) Frequency. The program shall be subject to review one year after the
       effective date of this ordinance and thereafter at a frequency of not more than
       once per year.
       (c) Purpose. The purpose of reviewing the program includes but is not limited to
       updating program incentives, recommending program or marketing changes to the
       jurisdiction, reviewing suggestions made by program participants, and
       annually awarding the green building awards of the program.

       Sec. 13.0. CONFLICTING REGULATIONS REPEALED.
       All regulations that are in conflict with this ordinance, in whole or in part, are
hereby repealed to the extent that they are in conflict.

Sec. 14.0. SEVERABILITY.
If any portion of this ordinance is for any reason held invalid or unconstitutional by
any court of competent jurisdiction, such portion shall be deemed a separate
provision and shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of the
ordinance.

Sec. 15.0. EFFECTIVE DATE.
This ordinance shall take effect on the date on which it is enacted by the
jurisdiction.




                                      Page 13 of 23




Appendices
Appendix A. U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement as
endorsed by the 73rd Annual U.S. Conference of Mayors
meeting, Chicago, 2005
      A. We urge the federal government and state governments to enact policies
      and programs to meet or beat the target of reducing global warming pollution
      levels to 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2012, including efforts to: reduce the
      United States’ dependence on fossil fuels and accelerate the development of
      clean, economical energy resources and fuel-efficient technologies such as
      conservation, methane recovery for energy generation, waste to energy,
      wind and solar energy, fuel cells, efficient motor vehicles, and biofuels;

      B. We urge the U.S. Congress to pass bipartisan greenhouse gas reduction
      legislation that 1) includes clear timetables and emissions limits and 2) a
      flexible, market-based system of tradable allowances among emitting
      industries; and

      C. We will strive to meet or exceed Kyoto Protocol targets for reducing
      global warming pollution by taking actions in our own operations and
      communities such as:
             1. Inventory global warming emissions in City operations and in the
3-60                              Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       community, set reduction targets and create an action plan.

       2. Adopt and enforce land-use policies that reduce sprawl, preserve
       open space, and create compact, walkable urban communities;

       3. Promote transportation options such as bicycle trails, commute
       trip reduction programs, incentives for car pooling and public
       transit;

       4. Increase the use of clean, alternative energy by, for example,
       investing in “green tags”, advocating for the development of
       renewable energy resources, recovering landfill methane for energy
       production, and supporting the use of waste to energy technology;

       5. Make energy efficiency a priority through building code
       improvements, retrofitting city facilities with energy efficient lighting
       and urging employees to conserve energy and save money;

       6. Purchase only Energy Star equipment and appliances for City
       use;



                               Page 14 of 23
       7. Practice and promote sustainable building practices using the U.S.
       Green Building Council's LEED program or a similar system;

       8. Increase the average fuel efficiency of municipal fleet vehicles;
       reduce the number of vehicles; launch an employee education
       program including anti-idling messages; convert diesel vehicles to
       bio-diesel;

       9. Evaluate opportunities to increase pump efficiency in water and
       wastewater systems; recover wastewater treatment methane for
       energy production;

       10. Increase recycling rates in City operations and in the
       community;

       11. Maintain healthy urban forests; promote tree planting to
       increase shading and to absorb CO2; and

       12. Help educate the public, schools, other jurisdictions,
       professional associations, business and industry about reducing
       global warming pollution.
                                    Page 15 of 23




Appendix B. Florida local green building programs

B-1. City of Gainesville Green Building Program

ARTICLE I.5. GAINESVILLE GREEN BUILDING PROGRAM
Sec. 6-5. Definitions.
The following words, terms and phrases, when used in this chapter, shall have the
meanings ascribed to them in this section, except where the context clearly
indicates a different meaning.
City means the City of Gainesville, Florida.
City commission means the City Commission of the City of Gainesville, Florida.
City-owned civic or office construction project means city-owned buildings
providing a public gathering place or office facilities.
Construction means any project associated with the creation, development, or
erection of any building eligible for the program.
FGBC means the Florida Green Building Coalition.
GHDS means the Green Home Designation Standard of the Florida Green
Building Coalition.
Green building means generally the resource efficient design, construction, and
operation of buildings by employing environmentally sensible construction
practices, systems, and materials.
Independent or independent of the city means not employed by, or acting as
agents of, the city.
L.E.E.D. 2.0 means the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Rating
System, Version 2.0, of the U.S. Green Building Council.
Municipal means owned by the city.
Private means property not owned by the city.
Program means the city green building program.
Program certification means the final designation awarded to a program
participant for satisfying all requirements associated with the program for a
particular project.
Program participant means any person or entity seeking program certification for a
particular project.
Project means any construction associated with the creation, development, or
erection of any building eligible for the program.
Project application form means the form submitted to the building inspection
department indicating that a program participant is interested in participating in
the program for a particular project.
Sub-program means any area of construction covered by the program.
3-62                                           Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       USGBC means the U.S. Green Building Council.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-6. Intent and purpose.
       The purpose of the program shall be to provide the city community with a
       certification-based "green building" program. It is expected that city owned civic or
       office construction projects will follow the program guidelines, upon review by
                                            Page 16 of 23
         the city commission. This program will be voluntary for all others. This program
         will promote sustainable and environmentally-friendly practices of construction
       and design.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-7. Designation of responsibility for administration and
       implementation.
       The program shall be jointly administered by the building inspection department
       and city regional utilities, which shall be responsible for:
       (1) Funding the program through annual funds budgeted and appropriated by the
       city commission;
       (2) Marketing the program to the Gainesville community by any reasonably
       effective means, including but not limited to print advertising, press releases,
       television advertising, or advertising in monthly mailers;
       (3) Developing any appropriate or necessary application procedures, including
       but not limited to, the program application form;
       (4) Providing an incentive award to any program participant who has successfully
       satisfied the requirements associated with that incentive; and
       (5) Resolving disputes that may arise from implementing the program.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-8. Program.
       (a) For all non-city projects, the program shall be voluntary.
       (b) For any city-owned civic or office construction project, the city is expected to
       participate in the program unless the city commission determines that the cost
       (e.g., time, function, or funding) associated with participating in the program
       significantly outweighs the benefits of participating in the program to the city.
       (c) The city manager and the general manager for utilities or their designees shall
       develop policies and procedures to implement the green building program.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-9. Scope.
       The program shall be administered on a per-unit basis. For the purpose of this
       section of the program, "per-unit" means each unit built, except that any multi-
       family dwelling or similarly clustered structure may count as one unit, as
       determined by the city manager or general manager for utilities or
       their designee(s).
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-10. Coverage.
       The program shall be comprised of the following sub-programs:
       (1) New residential construction;
       (2) Residential retrofitting/remodeling;
       (3) New commercial/non-city construction, not including any expansions or
       remodeling; and
       (4) City-owned civic or office construction, not including any expansions or
       remodeling.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-11. Standards.
                                      Page 17 of 23




The program shall be administered using standards developed by the city for
certification of retrofitting/remodeling of existing residential units and standards
developed by 1) the Florida Green Building Coalition and 2) the U.S. Green
Building Council for certification of all other building certifications. These
standards shall apply to each sub-program as follows:
(1) GHDS. For any program participant seeking program certification for new
residential construction the program participant must satisfy all of the
requirements associated with the current Green Home Designation Standard of the
FGBC, including but not limited to, any monetary or certification
requirements. For the purpose of this section of the program, "current" means at the
time a program participant submits a project application form with the building
inspection department. A set of standards developed by the city will be used for
certification of residential retrofitting/remodeling.
(2) L.E.E.D. 2.0. For any program participant seeking program certification for
new commercial/non-city construction or new municipal civic or office
construction, the program participant must satisfy all of the requirements
associated with the L.E.E.D. 2.0, including but not limited to any monetary or
certification requirements.
(3) Review. For the purpose of this section of the program, a program participant
shall be bound by the standard designated for a particular sub-program unless the
program participant both requests to be certified under a more current version
of a designated standard and the request is approved by the city department
responsible for administering the particular program.
(Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
Sec. 6-12. Incentives.
The program shall consist of incentives designed to encourage the use of the
program.
(1) All sub-programs. For any program participant seeking program certification for
new residential construction, residential retrofitting/remodeling, new
commercial/noncity construction, or new city owned civic or office construction,
the city's general government shall provide the following incentives:
a. Fast-track permitting for building permits.
b. Reduced permitting fee, which shall equal 50 percent of the fee required for a
non-program participant, subject to availability of funds; if program participant is
building in a designated enterprise zone, then the reduced permitting fee shall be
50 percent off the usual permitting fee in the enterprise zone.
c. Final project designation by the city.
(2) Sub-program of retrofitting/remodeling. Any program participant meeting
program certification criteria for multi-family residential retrofitting/remodeling,
shall be eligible for the following incentives provided by GRU.
a. A cash renovation incentive, subject to availability of funds; and
b. A solar water heater incentive, subject to availability of funds and meeting
other solar rebate program requirements.
(3) Marketing for all sub-programs. For any program participant seeking program
certification for new residential construction, residential retrofitting/remodeling, new
commercial/non-municipal construction, or new city owned civic or office


                                      Page 18 of 23
3-64                                           Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       construction projects, the city's general government shall provide the following
       marketing incentives, including but not limited to:
       a. The erection of building site signs designating a project under the program;
       b. The inclusion of program participants on a city webpage dedicated to the
       program;
       c. The creation of promotional packages such as a program logo for a program
       participant's advertisements or brochures;
       d. Press releases; and
       e. Information about available financial programs, including but not limited to,
       those associated with Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac.
       (4) Green building award. For the purpose of publicly recognizing outstanding
       commitment to "green building," the program shall provide for an award called
       the "green building award" to be awarded annually by the city's general
       government to one program participant in each sub-program.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-13. Certification.
       The program shall be subject to certification by a qualified third party who has been
       trained and certified as a green building rater. For the purpose of this section of
       the program, "third party" means any person or entity authorized by the FGBC or the
       USGBC to verify that a program participant has satisfied any or all of the
       requirements associated with the standard designated for a particular project.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-14. Training.
       The building inspection department in conjunction with FGBC shall conduct at
       least one training workshop per year for the purpose of educating potential or
       current program participants about the program.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)
       Sec. 6-15. Program review.
       (a) Staff review. The building inspection department shall initiate a review of the
       program with the assistance of GRU as necessary to determine the need for
       changes in the program to increase it effectiveness.
       (b) Frequency. The program shall be subject to review one year after the
       effective date of this ordinance and thereafter at a frequency of no more than
       once per year.
       (c) Purpose. The purpose of reviewing the program includes but is not limited to
       updating program incentives, recommending program or marketing changes to the
       city, reviewing suggestions made by program participants, and annually awarding
       the green building award in accordance with section 6-12(d) of the program.
       (Ord. No. 001835, § 1, 10-14-02)




                                            Page 19 of 23
3-66                                           Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance


       B-2 Miami-Dade Green Building Ordinance
       Miami-Dade Legislative Item
       File Number: 052225
       File Number: 052225 File Type: Ordinance Status: Adopted
       Version: 0 Reference: 05-115 Control:
       File Name: EXPED REVIEW & APPROVAL OF BLDG PERMIT APPS FOR
       GREEN BLDGS
       Introduced:
       8/3/2005
       Requester: NONE Cost: Final Action: 6/7/2005
       Agenda Date: 6/7/2005 Agenda Item Number: 7E
       Notes: THIS IS FINAL
       VERSION AS
       ADOPTED. (also
       see 050971)
       Title: ORDINANCE CREATING PROGRAM FOR EXPEDITED REVIEW
       AND APPROVAL OF BUILDING PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR
       GREEN BUILDINGS; DEFINING GREEN BUILDINGS;
       PROVIDING FOR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER; CREATING
       SECTION 8-6 OF THE CODE; PROVIDING SEVERABILITY,
       INCLUSION IN THE CODE, AND AN EFFECTIVE DATE (SEE
       AGENDA ITEM NO. 9D1A)[SEE ORIGINAL ITEM UNDER FILE
       NO. 050971 ]
       Indexes: PERMITS
       BUILDING DEPARTMENT
       Sponsors: Katy Sorenson
       Sunset Provision: No Effective Date: Expiration Date:
       Registered Lobbyist: None Listed
       Legislative History
       Acting Body Date Agenda Item Action Sent To Due
       Date
       Returned Pass/Fail
       County Attorney 8/3/2005 Assigned Hugo
       Benitez
       8/3/2005
       Board of County
       Commissioners
       6/7/2005 7E AMENDED Adopted as
       amended
       P
       REPORT: The Board adopted the foregoing proposed ordinance as amended to correct a
       scrivener’s error that reflected Section 8.6 as Section 8.8.
       Legislative Text
       TITLE
       ORDINANCE CREATING PROGRAM FOR EXPEDITED REVIEW AND
       APPROVAL OF BUILDING PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR GREEN BUILDINGS;
       DEFINING GREEN BUILDINGS; PROVIDING FOR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER;


                                    Page 20 of 23
       CREATING SECTION 8-6 OF THE CODE; PROVIDING SEVERABILITY,
       INCLUSION IN THE CODE, AND AN EFFECTIVE DATE
       BODY
       NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED BY THE BOARD OF COUNTY
       COMMISSIONERS OF
MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA, that:
Section 1. Chapter 8 of the Code of Miami-Dade County is hereby amended by the
creation of a new section
8-6 as follows:1
***
>>Section 8-6. Expedited permit program for green buildings.
It is the intent of Miami-Dade County to promote environmentally sensitive design and
construction. To that end, the Building Official shall implement a program to expedite the
review and approval of permit applications for green buildings. As used in this Section a
green building shall mean one whose design, construction, and operation promote the
preservation of resources and environmentally sensitive construction practices, systems and
materials. In making the determination of whether the structure is a green building, the
Building Official shall rely on the review, evaluation and where available registration or
certification of the design by recognized environmental rating agencies including the
Florida Green Building Coalition, the National Home Builder Association and the U.S.
Green Building Council. The green buildings program shall be implemented through
administrative order to be approved by the Board of County Commissioners.<<
Section 2. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause or provision of this ordinance is held
invalid, the remainder of this ordinance shall not be affected by such invalidity. Section 3. It
is the intention of the Board of County Commissioners, and it is hereby ordained that the
provisions of this ordinance, including any Sunset provision, shall become and be made a
part of the Code of Miami-Dade County, Florida. The sections of this ordinance may be
renumbered or re-lettered to accomplish such intention, and the word "ordinance" may be
changed to "section," "article," or other appropriate work. Section 4. This ordinance shall
become effective 10 days after the date of enactment unless vetoed by the Mayor, and if
vetoed, shall become effective only upon an override by this Board.

       B-3 Sarasota County Green Building Resolution 2006-174
RESOLUTION NO. 2006- 174
RESOLUTION OF THE BOARD OF COUNTY
COMMISSIONERS OF SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA
A Resolution of The Board of County Commissioners of Sarasota County, Florida which
demonstrates a substantial commitment of the part of Sarasota County (herein referred to as
the “County”), to Green Building, and Green Development; and

Whereas, the County has already demonstrated its commitment to sustainable principles,
practices and technologies through the County’s Sustainability Resolution No. 02-119; and



                                        Page 21 of 23




Whereas, the County has already demonstrated is commitment to green building
principles, practices, and technologies thorough the County’s Green Building Resolution
No. 2005-048; and

Whereas, the County is a member of the U.S. Green Building Council, The United States
Department of Energy’s Rebuild America Program, the United States Environmental
Protections Agency’s ENERGY STAR® program and the Florida Green Building Coalition,
all of which advocate for higher performance buildings and developments; and
3-68                                              Appendix A. Model Green Building Ordinance



       Whereas, The U.S. Green Buildings Council (USGBC) has developed the Leadership in
       Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system that is a voluntary, consensus
       based certification program for design of sustainable buildings; and

       Whereas, The Florida Green Building Coalition (FGBC) has developed the Florida Green
       Building Residential Designation Standard, the Florida Green Commercial Designation
       Standard, and the Florida Green Development Designation whic h are voluntary,
       consensus based certification programs for the design of sustainable green buildings and
       developments; and
       Whereas, high performance sustainable buildings and developments are a means of
       balancing economic development with the preservation of the quality of life;
       NOW THEREFORE,BE IT RESOLVED BY THE BOARD OF COUNTY
       COMMISSIONERS OF SARASOTA, FLORIDA, in public meeting assembled:
       That it shall be the policy of the County to expedite the processing of Developments of
       Critical Concern (DOCC), amendments to sector plans, rezone and special exception
       petitions, site and development plans, and building permit applications for those
       developments which meet the following standards for green buildings or green
       developments and where the owners, developers and/or builders agree to the following
       conditions in a written agreement:
       1. Rezone or special exception petitions for a proposed “Green Development” shall
       include the application and documentation required by the Florida Green Building
       Coalition’s Green Development Designation. As phases of the development are
       completed, the Certificate from the Florida Green Building Coalition (FGBC)
       shall be presented to the Land Development Administration or designee. Such
       petitions shall be process within six (6) months from the date the petition is
       deemed complete.
       2. Site and Development plans for a proposed “Green Development” shall be
       processed in ten (10) working days.
       3. Building permit applications for residential green buildings shall be processed
       within three (3) working days. Building permit applications for commercial green
       buildings shall be processed in five (5) working days. All such applications shall be
       accompanied by the appropriate checklist from United States Green Building
       Coalition (USGBC) Standard Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
       (“LEED”) or the Florida Green Building Coalition Designation Standard.
       4. The owner and/or development commits that the Engineer of Record (EOF) and
       lead Planner are senior staff members acceptable to the Executive Director of


                                             Page 22 of 23
         Planning and Development Services or designee who shall be the responsible
         persons in charge.
         5. The Planning Commission plays an important advisory role in the review Rezone and
         Special Exception petitions. In order for the Board to hold its hearings in a timely
         manner, the Board requests that the Planning Commission refrain from continuing
         these petitions except in the most extraordinary circumstances.
         6. The engineering and/or planning firm will respond to the County’s staff comments
         within the same number of days within which the County responded to plans
         submitted when feasible and mutually agreed upon.
         7. Persons or corporations who fail to keep their commitments may be deemed
         ineligible for any future expedited reviews as determined by the Land Development
         Administration, Building Official and the Zoning Administrator and with a
         concurrence of the Executive Director of Planning and Development Services.
8. Any existing violation of any Federal, State or County Code or Ordinance, shall be
resolved prior to any expedited review.
9. New violations or consultations with Federal and/or State agencies which require
additional time to resolve may extend the proposed timeframes.
10. The plat shall include language about recorded deed restrictions for green
building and/or development.
11. A declaration by the Board of County Commissioners that an emergency exists
due to a natural disaster or other circumstances automatically relieves the County
from meeting the expedited review timeframes.
This resolution shall become effective upon adoption.
PASSED AND DULY ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF COUNTY
COMMISSIONERS OF SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA THIS 22nd DAY OF
August, 2006.
ATTEST:
KAREN E. RUSHING, Clerk of the
Circuit Court and Ex-Offcio Clerk of the
Board of County Commissioners of
Sarasota County, Florida Solar Energy Center
BY:___________________
Deputy Clerk




                                    Page 23 of 23
     B
Appendix
HERS Index Overview
                                           Components of the HERS®† Index
                                                                            Envelope


   Floors                                                # and size of windows                    Roof material/color
   Foundation type                                       Tint/U-factor                            Attic details
   Insulation value                                      Type of Frame                            Conditioned ceiling area
   Perimeter / area                                      Overhang details                         solar absorbency
   Floor covering                                        Ceilings
                                                                                                  Rood deck insulation level
   Walls                                                 Ceiling style                            Radiant barrier system Attic
   Orientation                                           Insulation value                         ventilation ratio
   Area                                                  Area
                                                                                                  Infiltration
   Insulation value                                      Garage
                                                                                                  Building envelope leakage
   Doors                                                 Attached or not
   Door area/U-value                                     Roof
   Windows                                               Roof configuration/slope

                                                                           Equipment


   Cooling                                               Insulation value                         Programmable thermostat
   System type                                           Duct location                            Refrigerator
   Capacity                                              Air handler location                     % fluorescent lighting
   SEER                                                  Amount of leakage                        Ceiling fans
   Hot Water                                             Duct surface area                        Dishwasher
   Type/location                                         Heating                                  Photovoltaics
   Efficiency                                                                                     Array
                                                         System type
   Daily usage                                                                                    Inverter
                                                         Efficiency
   Set temperature                                                                                Batteries
                                                         Capacity
   solar or heat recovery                                Appliances and Lights
   Ducts

    †HERS®=Home Energy Rating System; a trademark of Residential Energy Services Network, Inc.:
    http://www.natresnet.org/
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