Project 2 Green Dorm by xiagong0815


									Green Dorm Project

         Hanzhen Lin
        Jesse Shaffer
     Kuralay Muratbekova
        Suyeon Geon
      December 2, 2011
           Team 17

    The objective of this report is to gather Penn State students’ opinions on how to improve their
living condition by improving their dorm room design. The concept of sustainability was heavily
integrated into our redesign to make it “green.” The primary targeted population is the East Hall
residents. The current design of the dorm rooms in the East Hall lacks the concept of sustainability in
many aspects of the design. Our team surveyed the current East Halls residents in order to pinpoint
the areas of the residences that need improvement. Every concept for our green dorm design is
generated to make the East Halls more sustainable and eco-friendly. Internet research was done
initially for each of our team members to have a concept of what is the green dorm design and how
we can integrate the pros of existing college green dorm designs into our concepts. Our customer
needs is completed by asking the current residents from East Halls to complete a survey created by
us. The majority of questions in our survey were based on surveyors’ preference on how they want to
improve their living conditions. We implemented several concept selection methods to choose our
best combination of concepts as our final design. A detailed explanation of the final design including
the reasons behind the material selection is concluded at the end this report.

1.0 Introduction
 “Ecological footprints measure humanity’s demands on nature” ("Ecological footprint," 2011).
According to, the average American lifestyle would require 5.3 planets. As
advance as our current technology is, scientists are still scratching their heads trying to solve the
population limit problem on Earth. While Earth’s population is increasing exponentially over years,
its size is not. As average life span of human beings increases with improving life quality, our planet
Earth is going to reach its carrying capacity in a matter of time. The sense of urgency of creating a
more sustainable living environment for us humans is developing quickly. According to the IPAT
equation, I=PAT, the environment impact (I) may be expressed in terms of the population (P),
affluence (A) and technology (T). Since it is inevitable for both affluence and population on Earth to
increase, the only thing we can focus on to reduce the environment impact is by improving
technology, the technology that can increase the sustainability of our living environment. Our team’s
green dorm project is centered on the concept of increasing sustainability of student dorms in the
East Halls. We set to improve various aspects of the original dorm design by proposing a completely
new set of innovative designs, all converge upon the concept of sustainability.

1.1 Initial Problem Statement
The current design of the East Halls dorm buildings lacks the concept of sustainability in many areas.

2.0 Customer Needs Assessment
   In order for our team to design a more sustainable dorm building, we first need to gather
opinions from the current residents from the East Hall. Therefore we surveyed the current East
Hall residents in many areas of the current design of the dorm building. As it turned out, 56
people answered our online survey, and we have interviewed 4 people in person who live in the
East Halls. This survey really helped our team to determine the main areas that we need to focus
on coming up with our own design of the East Hall dorm buildings. Our customer needs
assessment is summarized in Table 1.

                                 Table 1. Customer Needs Assessment

                           Floor material
                           Light sufficiency
                           Size of the room
                           Heat insulation
                           Furniture arrangement
                           Garbage recycle
                           Water fountain availability
                           Water quality
                           Window insulation
                           Automatic Lighting
                           Temperature Control
                           Energy Efficient Appliances
                           Motion Sensing water control
                           Hand Dryers
                           Closet size
                           Noise Insulation
                           Furniture Arrangement

2.1 Weighting of Customer Needs

We used AHP pairwise comparison chart to weight the customer needs, which sets the priorities for
our green dorm design. The chart is summarized in Table 2.

Table 2. AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting for Main
Objective Categories
                   Energy           Quality of   Space        Waste
                                                                            Total   Weight
                   Efficiency       life         efficiency   elimination

                   1                2            6            2             11      0.478

Quality of Life    0.5              1            2            1             4.5     0.196

Space efficiency   0.165            0.5          1            0.33          1.995   0.087

                   0.5              1            3            1             5.5     0.239

 Customer needs hierarchy based on the weighted AHP pairwise comparison chart is summarized
in Table 3.
                                Table 3. Customer Needs Hierarchy
            1. Energy Efficiency (0.478)
               1.1. Appliances
               1.2. Temperature control
               1.3. Motion sensing water control
               1.4. Heating and Insulation
                    i.      Window Insulation
                            a. Material Selection
                    ii.     Floor Insulation
                            a. Material Selection
                    iii.    Ceiling Insulation
                            a. Material selection
            2. Quality of life (0.196)
               2.1. Water quality
               2.2. Water fountain availability
               2.3. Noise Insulation
            3. Space efficiency (0.087)
               3.1. Size of the room
               3.2. Furniture
                    i.      Energy Consumption Controls
                    ii.      Arrangement
                    iii.    Mobility
                    iv.     Size
                            a. Refrigerator
            4. Waste reduction (0.239)
               4.1. Hand dryers
                    i.      Eliminates paper towel wastes
               4.2. Easy garbage recycle
                    ii.     Reuse waste

3.0 Revised Problem Statement
After weighting our customer needs assessment, our team realized that energy efficiency is the
primary area for us to improve. The method of waste reduction is another area that needs to be
improved. The temperature control system along with the power management system of the dorm
buildings have to be redesigned to improve energy efficiency. To make East Halls a much more
comfortable place for Penn State students, various other aspects must be ameliorated accordingly.

4.0 External Search
4.1 Patent Search
  One of the most important things in finalizing the idea of a “green” dorm is realizing what
inventions are out there for your use. Through using the resources available to us, mostly Google
Patents, our team will search for ideas that our fellow Engineers in times past have materialized
and patented to help us in completing our project. The results will be compiled in an Art-
Function Matrix labelled Table 4.

                                    Table 4. Art-Function Matrix for Green Dorm Project
             FUNCTION                    ART
                            Carpeting    Thermal      Composite    Hand         Motion         Thermostat     LED        Dual
                                         Insulation   Wood         Dryer        Sensor                                   Flush
                                         Tile         Flooring                                                           Toilet
             Flooring       D167984      6712318      5928735
             Bathroom                                              D542976                                               5887292
             Heat Control                                                                      2427615
             Lighting                                                                                         D538950
             Device                                                             D427101

             4.2 Benchmarking
             Our team searched four existing college green dorms on the internet to have a better idea of the
             current technologies involved in building those dorm buildings. By comparing how each college’s
             green dorm satisfies our customer needs, we can select the best features from each of them and come
             up with our own design. The scores of each evaluated green dorm are summarized in Table 6.
             Harvard University reduced energy consumptions in a great margin using various energy friendly
             appliances. The water irrigation system utilizes the rain greatly, which reduced water consumption by
             more than 60 percent. Motion sensors are fully incorporated into the entire dorm building to save
             energy. The recycling method was simple and easy. Special recycle bins are designed for easy
             recycling (Senbetta & Healy, 2011).
                            Table 6. Benchmarking of Four College/University Green Dorms

Features              Rice University                      Harvard                                          U Penn

Economics             (4)                                  An energy-efficiency program in Harvard-         (3)
                                                           managed buildings has University real
                                                           estate managers smiling at savings of more
                                                           than $700,000 annually (3)
Energy                RU             is         powered    added insulation, installed new motors,          Develop     and    monitor  energy
Efficiency            by energy produced at an on-         variable speed drives, and controls,             conservation programs to encourage
                      campus natural gas fueled            upgraded lighting, and improved boilers for      sustainable behavior among building
                      cogeneration plant, as well as       heating and chillers for air conditioning (5)    occupants    and   ensure  efficient
                      from electricity purchased off the                                                    management by staff. (4)
                      grid from Reliant Energy. (4)
Recycling             RU achieved a diversion rate of      Harvard recovered more than 8,395 tons of        U Penn achieved a diversion rate of
                      27.40%. (3)                          recyclables and compostable for a recovery       28.00%. (5)
                                                           rate of 52.00% (4)

Incentives          (4)                                 (4)                                           (3)
Water               Expect to save from between 12         Able to save 25,000 gallons of water per   Utilizes aerators on all lavatory faucets
Conservation        million and 14 million gallons of   day by addressing defective water             that reduce water flow to 0.5 gallons
                    water each year. (2)                solenoids. (4)                                per minute. (2)
          4.3 Literature Review
          In order to make a dorm room greener our group decided to use energy efficient appliances as much
          as it would be possible. First, we looked up Energy star refrigerators, and according to reviews we
          found out that the most energy efficient refrigerator is Bottom freezer refrigerator
          (“ConsumerGuide”). Next, we were thinking about using Nest thermostat as a heating system, and
          agreed that it is a good idea as nest is really energy & money efficient appliance (“Nest Thermostat:
          Official”). Our other concerns related to lighting system, we looked up most cost-effective and
          energy-efficient light appliances in order to make dorm rooms Greener. According to information we
          found, we stopped our reference on compact fluorescent lamps (Lee). We also looked up things for
          bathroom design, so we could also improve bathroom, make it greener. Thus, we think it is better if
          we make a change in hand drying system and toilet model. Eco HandDryer is affordable, as well as
          great for environment. Thus, we tried to use the most energy efficient, cost affordable appliances
          which are going to make a dorm room and bathroom environmentally friendly, Greener.

          5.0 Concept Generation

          5.1 Problem Clarification
          To fully understand the problems existing with the current dorm building design, our team has
          created an EMS model to figure out where the problems exist. After generating the EMS model,
          Diagram 1, for the current dorm building design, we realized that there exist 3 major problems.
          People often forget or simply get lazy to turn off switches to save energy. So much energy and water
          are wasted with current manual switch system. The current building materials are not helping
          insulating heat. Another major problem is the recycling method.

          5.2 Concept Generation
          To help generate concepts for our own design, our team used the TRIZ matrix to point in to the right
          direction. We created three TRIZ matrices for the three major problems that exist with the current
          dorm design summarized in Table. 6. By implementing TRIZ, our team has generated numerous
          concepts for the dorm building redesign. The concepts are summarized in Table. 7.

          Table 6. TRIZ Matrices for concept generation
          TRIZ for Recycling Method                      TRIZ for Heat Insulation
          Feature to improve: 33-Convinience of use      Feature to improve: 33-Convinience of use
          Undesired results (conflict): 25-Waste of time Undesired results (conflict): 34-Reparianbility
          Principles:                                    Principles:
               4 Asymmetry [24]                                        12 Equipotential [37]
               28 Replace a mechanical system [4]
                                                                       26 Copying [11]
               10 Preliminary action [2]
               34 Recycling (rejecting and regenerating) [15]          1 Segmentation [3]
                                                                       32 Optical changes [9]
          TRIZ for Saving Energy
          Feature to improve: 22-Waste of energy
          Undesired results (conflict): 39-Productivity

 28 Replace a mechanical system [4]
 10 Preliminary action [2]
 29 Pneumatics or hydraulics [14]
 35 Physical or chemical properties [1]

Diagram 1. EMS Model


                                          Accept         Appliances
    Electric Energy


                                                           Utilities       Power

                                      Heater                           Transformation


                                    Dorm room
                                                        Trash can

     Commodity                       Wastes

                                                       Recycle bins

Table 7. Morphological Chart

          Flooring          Water fountain          Lighting                Room Loyalty    Bathroom                 Trash disposal
                                                                            Furniture       Appliances

Concept   Resisted          Regular water           LED Light strip,        Room Design 1   Eco Dryer                Plastic Garbage
1         Recycled          fountain in the         Manual turn off                                                  can, Vented
          Texting Fiber     hallway                                                                                  Recycled Bin
          Carpeting with

Concept   Bamboo            No water fountain       LED, Bulb, Motion       Room Design 1   Dual flush               Vented Recycled
2         Flooring                                  sensitivity, turn off                                            Bin

Concept   Insulated tile    Regular water           Energy efficient        Room Design 4   Motion sink              Plastic Garbage
3                           fountain in dorm        bulb, motion switch                                              Can

Concept   Hardwood tile     Water fountain with     Large room, light,      Room Design 3   Button sink              Garbage can with
4                           bottle filler in dorm   manual switch                                                    recycling bags
                            room                                                                                     attached around

Concept   Resisted          Water fountain with     LED ,strip, manual      Room Design 1   Eco dryer with motion    Garbage can with
5         Recycled          bottle filler with      and motion                              sensor with dual flash   divider for
          Texting Fiber     water filtering         activated                               toilet                   recycling
          Carpeting with    system in the
          bamboo flooring   hallway

6.0 Concept Selection
Since our team has cooperated throughout this entire project, we just created a team PUGH chart
instead of individual PUGH charts to save some time. We selected our final concept by creating a
team PUGH chart, which is shown in Table 8. We set concept 1 to be our standard concept or base
concept. Concept 5 came out to be the best one that best satisfies our customer needs assessment.

                                     Table 8. PUGH Chart

          Energy Efficiency   Quality of Life    Space Efficiency Waste Reduction
Iteration (0.478)             (0.196)            (0.087)           (0.239)         Σ Row     Rank
                        0.478            0.196               0.087          0.239
1                           0                  0                 0               0         0          3
2                          -1                 -1                 0               0    -0.674          5
3                           1                  0                -1              -1     0.152          2
4                          -1                  1                -1               1     -0.13          4
5                           1                  1                 0               1     0.913          1

7.0 Final Design
After generating our team PUGH chart referred to Table 7, our team has selected concept 5 to be our
final design. We have selected bamboo for the flooring with resisted recycled texting fiber
carpeting for best heat insulation. We decided to modify the current water fountain into a water
fountain with bottle filler, which will both reduce plastic consumption and improve residents’
life quality. To save energy, LED light strip will be used everywhere within the building. It along
with the sink will be both manual and motion activated for less energy consumption purpose.
The manual switches will serve as the backup control when motion sensor fails to recognize.
Dual flash toilets are chose to be part our bathroom design, which will save water consumption
significantly. Eco electric hand dryer will be used to replace the traditional paper towel. The

garbage can in each dorm room will be redesigned for better recycling, where a divider separates
the recyclables and unrecyclable trash. Minor changes are to be made to the dorm room
arrangements for a more comfortable living. Nest thermostats will be installed in every room for
smart heat control.

Diagram 2. Nest Thermostat                          Diagram 3. LED light strip with motion
                                                    sensor and manual switch.

Diagram 4. Modified Trash Can                       Diagram 5. Bathroom Floor Plan

Diagram 6. Inside Dorm Room Floor Plan              Diagram 7. Eco Hand Dryer

7.1 Materials and material selection

Diagram 8. Eco Hand Dryer sustainability chart.

    Above is a 3Dimesional model of a hand-dryer that my team and I had looked into. We originally modeled the
dryer in Aluminum alloy, but after comparing the alloy with Ductile Iron, the iron proved more sustainable in the
areas of Carbon, Energy, and Air sustainability, as shown by the pie charts in the bottom right hand corner. After
comparing the ductile Iron to other Irons and other methods of creating it, the method we found to be most
sustainable was to have it Sand Crafted.

Diagram 9. LED Light Strip.

This is the LED Light Strip to be implemented in our room design. The Light is a Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) Strip
place into a housing unit. The light casing is made up of Glass Fibers, which when compared to the other glass
materials was the most sustainable, and the unit used to house the light is made from cast carbon steel. The carbon
steel used in the housing unit is durable, but the milling of the steel is friendly to the environment, while the glass
for the light casing is cheap and relatively easy to obtain. The steel is milled in Asia and shipped to North America,
which is cheaper AND more eco-friendly than milling the steel in America.

7.2 List of Materials
Provide a table that lists all materials required, where they can be bought and their cost (see Table 6
and 7).

                         Table 6. List of required materials and components.
        Qty.             Description          Catalog Number        Vendor                                Total Cost

                    Total Cost
Table 7. Contact information for suppliers of required Materials

 McMaster Carr Supply Co.   Edmund Scientific Industrial Optics
 473 Ridge Rd.              101 East Gloucester Pike
 Dayton, NJ 08810           Barrington, NJ 08007
 (732) 329-3200             (856) 573-6250
 FAX: (856) 573-6295
 Small Power Systems        Young Machine Co.
 74550 Dobie Lane           115 Phillip Drive
 Covelo, CA 95428           Rockaway, NJ 07866
 1-800-972-7179             (973) 361-7357
 FAX: 707-983-6525          Contact: Jey Won or John Won
 Contact: George Helmholz

7.3 Cost & Life Cycle Cost
Given the wide range of technologies you might choose, you will need to justify the cost. Present a
life cycle cost analysis for your design using appropriate assumptions.

8.0 How does it work & Conclusions
Add a few concluding thoughts that summarizes your project. To what extent was your project
successful? Compare your design to JIKO here. It needs to be better than JIKO. To what extent does
it meet the customer needs? Finally, comment on if and how your design can be manufactured

References (Times New Roman, 16, Bold)

Ecological footprint. (2011). Retrieved from

Senbetta, S. (Director), & Healy, C. (Director) (2011). Harvard business school student tours
green dorm [Web]. Retrieved from

"Bottom-Freezer Refrigerator Stuff Guide." ConsumerGuide . N.p., 2011. Web.

"Nest." Nest Thermostat: Official. N.p., n.d. Web. 2011.

Lee, Jeffrey . "Greener lighting." EcoHome. ECOHOME, April 2, 2009. Web.


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