ch7-Tazia by lanyuehua

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 12

									Chapter 7: Food and
    Agriculture
          Historical Info
   Population estimated to be malnourished
    decreased from 900 million (1969-1971) to
    800 million (1988-1990)
   Several million lives claimed by famines in
    Soviet Union, Bengal, China, and most
    recently in Africa
   Adequate levels of nutrition is most
    concerned with the future of agriculture
Obstacles Agriculture Must
           Face
    Little new land cultivating (land per capita is
     declining)
    Productive land comes from expense of rain
     forests
    Aquifers are being drawn down
    Sites of new irrigation reservoirs are inconclusive
    Fertilizer and other chemical use contribute to
     pollution
    Fish stocks are falling
       Optimistic View on
          Agriculture
   Relied on advanced agricultural technology
   Organization for Economic Cooperation and
    Development (OECD) forecasts production growth
    of 1.8 percent through 2010 (about 20% a decade),
    and raise production by 6 times
   Current debates for food demand in China
    – rapid industrialization will lead to major growth in
      dependence of food imports
    – imports by 2030 of 300-640 million metric tons of grain
      (grain is still the most basic and important food)
     Food and Agriculture
          Dynamics
   Food demand is a function of:
    – population size
    – income available to that population through GDP
    – share of income spent on food
   Supply side consists of processes and dynamics
    that seek to satisfy the demand
   Prices are the key to almost all production loops
    – help determine whether profits and capital investments
      are made
    Improving Productivity
   The Consultative Group on International
    Agricultural Research (CGIAR) put together
    states and international (non) governmental
    organizations supported by 15 research centers all
    over the world
    – contributed to grain production
    – quintupled global meat production (rising rapidly in Asia)
          Asia consumes only 14 grams of animal protein per capita
           per day compared to 55 grams in Japan and 71 grams in U.S.
                 Food Aid
   Governments and organizations sometimes turn to
    food aid for countries in special need
    – reduced deaths in African famines
   However, political failures such as wars and
    breakdowns of civil orders in the Middle East
    disrupt food production
   Therefore, food aid has been used less and
    improved technology become more reliant
                     Fishing
   Fish catch is only 5% by weight of the world’s
    grain production and one-half by weight of global
    meat production
    – fishing is a global source of protein
   Competition among ships from individual countries
    and global competition within the open ocean
    result in overfishing and financial losses
   Fish production is expanding in aquaculture or fish
    farming especially in Asia
    – total production reached 23 million tons in 1996, more
      than doubling in a decade
           In Conclusion...
   On-going investigations have begun to prove
    that we (population) have a significant effect
    with respect to food
   Food and agriculture is one of many examples
    in which the ultimate goal is facilitation of
    choice in the face of uncertainty
                                                                                                        Title
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                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](USA,Crop

                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](EU,Crop)
500


                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](Japan,Crop

                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](Russia,Cro

000                                                                                                                                                                 AGDEM[0](India,Crop)

                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](China,Crop

                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](Pakistan,Cr
500

                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](Taiwan,Cro

                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](North
                                                                                                                                                                    Korea,Crop)
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      1992
             1997
                    2002
                           2007
                                  2012
                                         2017
                                                2022
                                                       2027
                                                              2032
                                                                     2037
                                                                            2042
                                                                                   2047
                                                                                          2052
                                                                                                 2057
                                                                                                        2062
                                                                                                               2067
                                                                                                                      2072
                                                                                                                             2077
                                                                                                                                    2082
                                                                                                                                           2087
                                                                                                                                                  2092
                                                                                                                                                         2097
                                                                                                                                                             2100
                                                                                                                                                                    AGDEM[0](South
                                                                                                                                                                    Korea,Crop)
                                                                            Year
          Quiz Questions
1. T F The population estimated to be malnourished
   increased from 1969 to 1990.
2. T F Levels of cholesterol is a concern when it comes to
   agriculture.
3. Which of the following obstacles does not deal with land?
    A. Reservoirs B. Fish stock C. Cultivation
    D. Rain forests
4. The OECD forecasts a production growth of what %
   through the year 2010?
    A. 1.5 B. 2.8 C. 8.1 D. 1.8
5. Which of the following is the most basic and important
   food?
          Questions cont’d
   A. Meat B. Bread C. Grain D. Fish
6. Which of the following is not a function of food demand?
  A. Net Income B. Population size C. Share of income
   spent on food D. Income available through GDP
7. T F Although Asia’s meat production is rising rapidly, the
   United States consumes the most grams of animal protein.
8. T F Food aid is becoming more often used than
   technology.
9. Fishing is a global source of:
   A. Cholesterol B. Iron C. Protein D. Carbohydrates
10. T F Aquaculture is expanding especially in Europe.

								
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