Chapter 7: Food and Agriculture Historical Info Population estimated to be malnourished decreased from 900 million (1969-1971) to 800 million (1988-1990) Several million lives claimed by famines in Soviet Union, Bengal, China, and most recently in Africa Adequate levels of nutrition is most concerned with the future of agriculture Obstacles Agriculture Must Face Little new land cultivating (land per capita is declining) Productive land comes from expense of rain forests Aquifers are being drawn down Sites of new irrigation reservoirs are inconclusive Fertilizer and other chemical use contribute to pollution Fish stocks are falling Optimistic View on Agriculture Relied on advanced agricultural technology Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) forecasts production growth of 1.8 percent through 2010 (about 20% a decade), and raise production by 6 times Current debates for food demand in China – rapid industrialization will lead to major growth in dependence of food imports – imports by 2030 of 300-640 million metric tons of grain (grain is still the most basic and important food) Food and Agriculture Dynamics Food demand is a function of: – population size – income available to that population through GDP – share of income spent on food Supply side consists of processes and dynamics that seek to satisfy the demand Prices are the key to almost all production loops – help determine whether profits and capital investments are made Improving Productivity The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) put together states and international (non) governmental organizations supported by 15 research centers all over the world – contributed to grain production – quintupled global meat production (rising rapidly in Asia) Asia consumes only 14 grams of animal protein per capita per day compared to 55 grams in Japan and 71 grams in U.S. Food Aid Governments and organizations sometimes turn to food aid for countries in special need – reduced deaths in African famines However, political failures such as wars and breakdowns of civil orders in the Middle East disrupt food production Therefore, food aid has been used less and improved technology become more reliant Fishing Fish catch is only 5% by weight of the world’s grain production and one-half by weight of global meat production – fishing is a global source of protein Competition among ships from individual countries and global competition within the open ocean result in overfishing and financial losses Fish production is expanding in aquaculture or fish farming especially in Asia – total production reached 23 million tons in 1996, more than doubling in a decade In Conclusion... On-going investigations have begun to prove that we (population) have a significant effect with respect to food Food and agriculture is one of many examples in which the ultimate goal is facilitation of choice in the face of uncertainty Title 000 AGDEM(USA,Crop AGDEM(EU,Crop) 500 AGDEM(Japan,Crop AGDEM(Russia,Cro 000 AGDEM(India,Crop) AGDEM(China,Crop AGDEM(Pakistan,Cr 500 AGDEM(Taiwan,Cro AGDEM(North Korea,Crop) 0 1992 1997 2002 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032 2037 2042 2047 2052 2057 2062 2067 2072 2077 2082 2087 2092 2097 2100 AGDEM(South Korea,Crop) Year Quiz Questions 1. T F The population estimated to be malnourished increased from 1969 to 1990. 2. T F Levels of cholesterol is a concern when it comes to agriculture. 3. Which of the following obstacles does not deal with land? A. Reservoirs B. Fish stock C. Cultivation D. Rain forests 4. The OECD forecasts a production growth of what % through the year 2010? A. 1.5 B. 2.8 C. 8.1 D. 1.8 5. Which of the following is the most basic and important food? Questions cont’d A. Meat B. Bread C. Grain D. Fish 6. Which of the following is not a function of food demand? A. Net Income B. Population size C. Share of income spent on food D. Income available through GDP 7. T F Although Asia’s meat production is rising rapidly, the United States consumes the most grams of animal protein. 8. T F Food aid is becoming more often used than technology. 9. Fishing is a global source of: A. Cholesterol B. Iron C. Protein D. Carbohydrates 10. T F Aquaculture is expanding especially in Europe.
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