bird_beak_adaptation_lab

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Bird Beak Adaptation Lab
Purpose
To learn about the advantages and disadvantages of phenotype variation, by simulating birds
with different types of beaks competing for various foods.

Background
Hopefully, you recall that Darwin was amazed by the variation in the characteristics of plants
and animals he encountered on his journey. In any habitat, food is limited and the types of
foods available may vary. Animals that have variations that enable them to take advantage of
available foods will be more likely to survive. We call beneficial inherited variations
adaptations. Adaptations are inherited characteristics that increase an organism’s chance of
survival. Those with the most helpful adaptations will be the most likely to live long enough to
pass on their genes to the next generations. This process ensures that beneficial adaptations
will continue in future generations, while disadvantageous characteristics will not.
Understanding the concept of adaptive advantage is absolutely required for an understanding
on how populations exist in ecosystems as well as the process of evolution.

Hypothesis
Read the procedure before making your prediction. Your hypothesis should state which will be
the best type of beak for each type of food and explain why you think that.
Materials
   Scissors                                           Paper clips
   Plastic Spoons                                     Rubber bands
   Tweezers                                           Toothpicks
   Large binder clip                                  Dried macaroni
                                                       Plastic cups


Procedures
   1. Each student will be given a spoon, tweezers, binder clip OR pair of scissors. Students
      will each have a small cup.
   2. You are now a very hungry bird. The tool you have selected is your “beak.” You can only
      use your beak to pick up food.
   3. Make a prediction as to which type of beak will be able to collect the most of each type
      of food.
   4. The cup is your stomach. It must remain upright at all times. You must hold your beak in
      one hand and your stomach in the other hand, close to your body. Only food that is
      placed in by the beak has been “eaten.”
   5. Food items will be placed in your “habitat.” When the teachers says “go” you will have
      30 seconds to feed on a specific food item(or until the food runs out). Collect as much
      food in your stomach as possible until the teacher says stop.
   6. Anyone who is not responsible enough to maintain safe behavior at all times will no
      longer participate in the activity and will become and observer.
   7. When the teacher says “STOP,” students will empty their stomachs and count the
      contents. Record the data in the Individual Data Table. Clean up food items
   8. Repeat the activity with another food item until all items have been recorded.
   9. Play one more round in which all food is available.
Data
Individual’s data:
Type of Beak         # of Paper Clips    # of Rubber Bands   # of Toothpicks   # of Macaroni



Class Data- Average the data together for each beak type
Type of Beak         Avg # of Paper       Avg. # of Rubber   Avg # of          Avg # of Macroni
                     Clips                Bands              Toothpicks
Spoon

Binder Clip

Tweezers

Scissors


Record your Qualitative Data:
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Graphing the Data
   1. In this experiment, what is the dependent variable?

   2. What is the independent variable?

   3. Explain why it is better to use the data from the entire class averaged together when assessing
      results or creating a graph, rather than only using your own data?



   4. For this experiment, is it better to use a bar graph or a line graph to display the data?


   5. Create an appropriate graph for class data for this experiment. (On graph paper provided)




Analysis

       1. What did you notice about your behavior and the behavior of other “birds?” Was the
          behavior of the birds similar to those in the real world?




       2. Which type of beak was best adapted for each type of food? Which beak was least adapted
          to each type of food?




       3. Obviously, most habitats have more than one food type available. This was simulated by the
          last step in the procedure. What was your strategy when all food items were available? How
          did this different from your strategy in the previous scenario?



       4. What if the paper clips were high-protein beetles that were 4 times more nutritious than
          any other food items? How would your strategy change?
       5. What would happen if all the bird types in this activity flew to an island where no birds had
          been before and the only food available was macaroni? Which birds would be the most
          successful and the least successful?



       6. If we came back to this same island (from #5) in 150 years, what should we expect to see?
          (what type of birds will live on the island?)




Conclusion
How does the lab simulation provide support for the theory of evolution?

				
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