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					Name: _________________________                    ESG Final Exam date: _________________________

                         Earth Science G: Final Exam Study Guide
The chapters that will be covered for the 1st Semester Final Exam are:

       Ch. 15, Ch. 16 (Sec 1-5), Ch. 17 (Sec 1-2), Ch. 19 (Sec, 1, 3-4), Ch. 20, Ch. 21



A.   VOCABULARY: Study all of the definitions for the vocab words in the 6 chapters listed above!
     Although NOT ALL of them would be on the exam, it would help you UNDERSTAND the
     information!



B.   STUDY THESE DIAGRAMS!


Layers of the Atmosphere                              3 Energy Transfers
Water Cycle          Fronts




Phases of the Moon   Eclipses




                                  SOLAR ECLIPSE




                                LUNAR (MOON) ECLIPSE
Our Solar System




                           H-R Diagram




                            GALAXIES




 SPIRAL            BARRED SPIRAL         IRREGULAR   ELLIPTICAL
C. Multiple Choice: Choose the best answer for each question. Check with Ms. Sandiego or Mr. Smith
   for the correct answers OR attend the Review Session before school on Fri, 1/8 and on Mon,
   1/11.

            SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 15 (TOTAL QUESTIONS ON EXAM = 16)

   1. The amount of mass in a given volume of air is its
          a. Pressure.
          b. Weight.
          c. Density.
          d. Property.

   2. The result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area is
          a. Air pressure.
          b. Air mass.
          c. Gravity.
          d. Density.

   3. An instrument that measures air pressure is a/an
          a. Thermometer.
          b. Anemometer.
          c. Psychrometer.
          d. Barometer.

   4. The type of barometer that contains liquid at the bottom end of its glass tube is called a/an
          a. Mercury barometer.
          b. Wet barometer.
          c. Aneroid barometer.
          d. Solid barometer.

   5. As air pressure decreases, density ___________________.
          a. Stays the same.
          b. Decreases then increases.
          c. Decreases.
          d. Increases.

   6. As you go up through the atmosphere, the density of the air ________________.
          a. Stays the same.
          b. Decreases then increases.
          c. Decreases.
          d. Increases.

   7. The layers of the Earth’s atmosphere are divided according to _________________.
          a. Changes in air pressure.
          b. Changes in temperature.
          c. Types of electromagnetic waves.
          d. Gases in the atmosphere.
8. The layer of the atmosphere in which Earth’s weather occurs is _____________.
       a. The stratosphere.
       b. The mesosphere.
       c. The ionosphere.
       d. The thermosphere.

9. The ozone layer is found in this second layer of the atmosphere.
       a. Thermosphere
       b. Stratosphere
       c. Mesosphere
       d. Troposhere

10. The trapping of heat by a planet’s atmosphere is called ______________.
        a. The Coriolis Effect.
        b. El Nino.
        c. The Greenhouse Effect.
        d. Global warming.




         SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 16 (TOTAL QUESTIONS ON EXAM = 30)

1. A form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space travels as _________________.
       a. Radiation.
       b. Electromagnetic waves.
       c. Visible light.
       d. Conduction.

2. The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves is ____________________.
       a. Radiation.
       b. Friction.
       c. Convection.
       d. Conduction.

3. About half of the sun’s energy is ______________ by the Earth’s surface that heats the land and
   water.
      a. absorbed
      b. radiated
      c. reflected
      d. scattered

4. The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance is called ____________________.
       a. air pressure
       b. density
       c. thermal energy
       d. incoming solar radiation
5. The direct transfer of heat between two substances by touching is called ___________.
       a. scattering
       b. radiation
       c. conduction
       d. convection

6. Through convection, heat is transferred by _________________.
       a. the sun’s energy
       b. touching
       c. absorption
       d. the movement of fluids

7. A local wind that blows from an ocean to land is called ______________.
       a. Wind-chill factor
       b. Land breeze
       c. Sea breeze
       d. Global wind


8. The ________________ makes winds curve due to Earth’s rotation.
       a. Greenhouse effect
       b. Coriolis effect
       c. Global wind
       d. Hurricane

9. Towering clouds with flat tops that often produce thunderstorms are called ______________.
      a. Stratus clouds
      b. Cirrocumulus clouds
      c. Nimbostratus clouds
      d. Cumulonimbus clouds

10. Types of precipitation include ______________.
       a. Rain, thunder, hurricanes, snow
       b. Rain, tornadoes, hail, snow
       c. Rain, lightning, flood, snow
       d. Rain, sleet, hail, snow



         SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 17 (TOTAL QUESTIONS ON EXAM = 22)

1. The air mass that comes to Hinsdale from Canada in December is _____________.
       a. Maritime polar (mP)
       b. Maritime tropical (mT)
       c. Continental polar (cP)
       d. Continental tropical (cT)
2. Air masses from the Gulf of Mexico are called ___________________.
       a. Maritime polar (mP)
       b. Maritime tropical (mT)
       c. Continental polar (cP)
       d. Continental tropical (cT)

3. Masses of cool, humid air that often bring fog & rain are of this type of air mass.
      a. Maritime polar (mP)
      b. Maritime tropical (mT)
      c. Continental polar (cP)
      d. Continental tropical (cT)

4. This forms when a cold air mass runs into a slowly moving warm air.
       a. Cold front
       b. Warm front
       c. Stationary front
       d. Occluded front

5. This forms when two cooler air masses meet in the middle and the warm air mass is cut off.
       a. Cold front
       b. Warm front
       c. Stationary front
       d. Occluded front

6. After this front passes through an area, the weather is usually warm and humid.
       a. Cold front
       b. Warm front
       c. Stationary front
       d. Occluded front

7. The swirling center of low air pressure is called a/an _________________.
       a. Eye of the hurricane
       b. Tornado alley
       c. Cyclone
       d. Anticyclone


8. A storm surge is __________________.
       a. A storm that begins over warm ocean water.
       b. The result of the overflow of rivers or streams, which cover surrounding land.
       c. The region of the US where storms are likely to occur.
       d. A “dome” of water that sweeps across the coast where the hurricane lands.

9. Any violent disturbance in the atmosphere is _______________.
      a. A storm
      b. A catastrophe
      c. An anticyclone
      d. A stationary front
10. In the United States, the global winds that commonly move air masses are __________.
         a. Horse latitudes and doldrums
         b. Prevailing Westerlies and Trade winds
         c. Prevailing Westerlies and Jet Streams
         d. Horse latitudes and Jet Streams




         SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 19 (TOTAL QUESTIONS ON EXAM = 31)

1. How long does it take for the moon to make one rotation on its axis?
      a. 18 days
      b. 30 days
      c. 27.5 days
      d. 20.5 days

2. How long does it take for the moon to make one revolution around the Earth?
      a. 18 days
      b. 30 days
      c. 27.5 days
      d. 20.5 days

3. The seasons on Earth are caused by these 2 things: ______________.
       a. Day and night
       b. Solstice and equinox
       c. Tilted axis and revolution
       d. Tilted axis and rotation

4. During the equinoxes, _____________________.
       a. Neither end (north or south pole) is tilted toward the sun.
       b. Only the North Pole is tilted toward the sun.
       c. There are longer days and shorter nights.
       d. The Southern Hemisphere receives more energy from the sun.

5. During the summer solstice, __________________.
       a. It is summer in the Southern Hemisphere.
       b. It is summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
       c. It is winter in the Northern Hemisphere.
       d. It is autumn in the Southern Hemisphere.

6. This is the moon phase where a solar eclipse occurs.
       a. Full
       b. Half or First Quarter
       c. Waning Crescent
       d. New
7. This surface feature of the moon was described as “large round pits” by Galileo.
       a. maria
       b. craters
       c. highlands
       d. rays


8. The _________________ is the darkest part of the moon’s shadow.
       a. umbra
       b. penumbra
       c. corona
       d. lunar flare

9. Which theory best describes how scientists think the moon formed?
      a. Earth’s gravity captured an asteroid from space
      b. Earth’s gravity captured on of the moons of a smaller planet near by
      c. The moon formed when the Earth formed
      d. A large object hit the Earth and broke pieces of that formed the moon


10. Spring tides occur at these 2 phases of the moon.
        a. Waxing half and waning half
        b. New moon and full moon
        c. Waxing gibbous and full
        d. New moon and waning gibbous




         SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 20 (TOTAL QUESTIONS ON EXAM = 32)


1. The inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars) _________________.
       a. All have many moons.
       b. All have rings.
       c. All are small and have rocky surfaces.
       d. All have abundant liquid water.


2. The outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune) _________________.
       a. Are much larger than Earth and are made mainly of hydrogen & helium.
       b. Are about the same size as Earth and are made mainly of hydrogen & helium.
       c. Are about the same size as Earth and are made mainly of iron.
       d. Are much larger than Earth and are made mainly of iron.
3. According to Kepler, planets move in ______________________________.
      a. Circular orbits around Earth.
      b. Circular orbits around the Sun.
      c. Elliptical orbits around Earth.
      d. Elliptical orbits around the sun.


4. Pluto is now considered a/an ______________________.
       a. Planetismal.
       b. Dwarf planet.
       c. Asteroid.
       d. Comet.

5. Which of these planets would receive the most heat energy from the sun?
      a. Earth
      b. Saturn
      c. Venus
      d. Pluto

6. The asteroid belt is located between the planets _________________.
       a. Mercury and Venus.
       b. Mercury and Jupiter.
       c. Mars and Jupiter.
       d. Saturn and Jupiter.

7. The outer layer of the sun that looks like a white halo around it is called the _____________.
       a. Chromosphere.
       b. Corona.
       c. Photosphere.
       d. Solar flare.

8. This model of the solar system placed the Earth at the center.
       a. Geocentric model
       b. Copernican model
       c. Heliocentric model
       d. Kepler model

9. A comet’s tail usually ______________.
       a. Stretches across most of the sky.
       b. Consists of 2 tails—a gas tail & a dust tail.
       c. Point away from the sun.
       d. All of the above.

10. A chunk of rock or dust that has entered Earth’s atmosphere could also be called ___________.
        a. A meteoroid
        b. A meteor
        c. A meteorite
        d. An asteroid
          SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CHAPTER 21 (TOTAL QUESTIONS ON EXAM = 19)

1. Reflecting telescopes differ from refracting telescopes in having _____________.
       a. No eyepiece lens.
       b. Two large objective lenses.
       c. A mirror instead of an objective lens.
       d. One large objective lens.

2. In the visible spectrum, which group of colors is in the correct order?
        a. Green, red, yellow, violet, orange, blue
        b. Red, orange, green, blue, yellow, violet
        c. Blue, orange, violet, yellow, red, green
        d. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet

3. A star that is very hot but dull in brightness is most likely a ____________.
       a. Supergiant star.
       b. White dwarf star.
       c. Red giant star.
       d. Main sequence star.


4. At the present time, the sun is in this stage of its life cycle.
       a. Protostar
       b. Main sequence
       c. Red giant
       d. Planetary nebula


5. The absolute brightness of a star depends on its _____________.
       a. Distance and temperature
       b. Size and temperature
       c. Color and temperature
       d. Distance and color


6. What color are the coolest stars?
     a. Blue-white
     b. Yellow
     c. Red
     d. Orange


7. A light-year is _______________.
        a. 365 days.
        b. The distance light travels in a year.
        c. The distance from Earth to Proxima Centauri.
        d. The amount of light the sun produces in a year.
8. A star cluster that has a loose, disorganized appearance and contains younger stars is _______.
       a. An open cluster
       b. An irregular cluster
       c. A globular cluster
       d. A binary cluster

9. Nuclear fusion ____________.
      a. Starts when the gas and dust from a nebula gets so hot and dense.
      b. Has to occur in order for a star to be born.
      c. Occurs when hydrogen atoms combine to form helium.
      d. All of the above.

10. The graph used by astronomers to classify stars is called ____________.
        a. Parallax diagram.
        b. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
        c. A spectrograph.
        d. A constellation classifier.

				
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