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Chromosomes

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					        Open Note Quiz – Page 1 of 2
Write out questions, leave space for answers.
1.    What is a Karyotype?
2.    What are Chromosomes?
3.    What is a Haploid Cell?
4.    What is a Diploid Cell?
5.    How many different types of chromosomes do we
      have?
6.    How many pairs of chromosomes do we have?
7.    How many total chromosomes do we have?
8.    Where do we get our chromosomes?
9.    What do our chromosomes tell us?
10.   What type of cells go through Meiosis division?
      Open Note Quiz – Page 2 of 2
Write out questions, leave space for answers.
11. What type of cells go through Mitosis division?
12. Which chromosomes determine our gender?
13. Explain the different variation of the gender
    chromosomes and how they would determine
    gender?
14. What is Mitosis?
15. What are the phases of Mitosis – in the correct
    order?
Karyotype
     An ordered
      arrangement of
      chromosomes in
      homologous pairs.




     WHAT ARE
     CHROMOSOMES??
              Chromosomes
• Rod-shaped
  structures, located in
  the cell nucleus, that
  are the carriers of
  hereditary messages.
Haploid
      Cells that have
       only one half
       of the
       homologous
       pair of
       chromosomes.
                  Diploid
Having a complete set
 of paired
 chromosomes for
 example the human
 cell has 23 pairs of
 chromosomes.
        Gender Chromosomes
The two Kinds of Chromosomes
 ( X & Y ) that determine the sex of
 the offspring.
             Cell Cycle


• The
  cell’s
  life
  span of
  growth
  and
  division
 1. For about what portion
     of the cell cycle is the
     cell in interphase?
 A. Less than ½ (50%)
 B. More than ¾ (75%)
 C. Less than ¾ (75%)
 D. More than 9/10 (90%)
2. If the phase during
    which DNA is replicated
    did not occur, what
    effect would this have
    on the cell cycle?
A. Mitosis would
    immediately follow S
B. G1 would immediately
    follow mitosis
C. Cytokinesis would
    immediately follow G2
D. G2 would immediately
    follow G1
Mitosis
    • The process by which
      the nucleus of a
      eukaryotic cell divides
      to form two nuclei,
      each containing a
      complete set of
      chromosomes.

       ANIMATION
                 Prophase
• The stage in mitosis
  in which
  chromosomes
  contract. The spindle
  formation occurs and
  the nuclear envelope
  disappears.
Metaphase
     • The second stage of
       cell division in which
       chromosomes lined
       up in the equator of
       the cell.
                Anaphase
• The stage in mitosis
  in which the
  chromatids separate
  and move to opposite
  poles of the spindle
  formation.

ANIMATION
Telophase
     • The last phase of
       mitosis in which the
       cytoplasm divides, a
       nuclear envelope
       forms around each
       new set of
       chromosomes, and
       the spindle
       disappears.
WHICH ARE WHICH?




 A     B           C        D


     PROPHASE ?        ANAPHASE ?
     METAPHASE ?       TELOPHASE ?
MITOSIS = ALL CELLS
EXCEPT REPRODUCTIVE
CELLS.
MEIOSIS = ONLY
REPRODUCTIVE CELLS




Meiosis
A type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes in
   each daughter cell is reduced to half the number of
   chromosomes of the parent cell.
MEIOSIS                  Chromosome number
                   8     before mitosis


                        Chromosome number
                  16    during mitosis before cell
                        division

         Chromosome
     8   number after cell       8
         division



 ?       ?                   ?           ?
               Huntington’s Disease
A neurological disorder
1. that leads to progressive
    NUMBER FAMILY MEMBERS.
   degeneration of brain
   cells. Huntington’s
    NUMBER recessive
2.Disease is a THE GENERATIONS.
   allele. Right is a
3.pedigree that shows a
    HOW MANY PEOPLE IN THIS FAMILY
   family passing this trait. FOR HUNTINGTONS
CARRY THE ALLELE
SHADED = Huntington’s allele (h)
DISEASE?
WHITE = No Huntington’s allele (H)

 4. HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE THE
 DISEASE?
                    Tumor
• Is a clump of cells
  that forms when cells
  start dividing without
  any restraints after
  the cell cycle
  mechanism fails or is
  damaged, that could
  lead to a disastrous
  end.
CREATE YOUR OWN SUPER HERO!
1. WORK WITH A PARTNER
2. MAKE A LIST OF 20 PHENOTYPES (with
    2 versions of each)
    hair type, hair color, eye shape, eye
    color, shape of head, horns?, wings?,
    fur?, height, body type, how many arms?,
    how many legs?, webbed toes?, up to 3
    super powers.
3. Flip a coin for each and create your
    superhero.
3. Draw and name your superhero.
Cancer
   • Is the term used to
     describe a disease
     characterized by
     uncontrolled cell
     division and growth
     as a result of
     malfunction of the cell
     cycle.
                 Mutation
A sudden genetic
  change resulting in
  a new characteristic
  that can be inherited
  by future
  generations.
          Sickle Cell Anemia
A disease caused by
  a mutation in the
  gene that codes
  for the blood
  protein
  hemoglobin.


                  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/D
                  iseases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html
Gamete
   • A haploid
     reproductive cell such
     as the egg and the
     sperm.
Crossing~Over
       • The exchange of
         segments of
         chromosomes that
         can occur when two
         chromosomes are in
         synapse.

				
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posted:2/20/2012
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