Open Note Quiz – Page 1 of 2 Write out questions, leave space for answers. 1. What is a Karyotype? 2. What are Chromosomes? 3. What is a Haploid Cell? 4. What is a Diploid Cell? 5. How many different types of chromosomes do we have? 6. How many pairs of chromosomes do we have? 7. How many total chromosomes do we have? 8. Where do we get our chromosomes? 9. What do our chromosomes tell us? 10. What type of cells go through Meiosis division? Open Note Quiz – Page 2 of 2 Write out questions, leave space for answers. 11. What type of cells go through Mitosis division? 12. Which chromosomes determine our gender? 13. Explain the different variation of the gender chromosomes and how they would determine gender? 14. What is Mitosis? 15. What are the phases of Mitosis – in the correct order? Karyotype An ordered arrangement of chromosomes in homologous pairs. WHAT ARE CHROMOSOMES?? Chromosomes • Rod-shaped structures, located in the cell nucleus, that are the carriers of hereditary messages. Haploid Cells that have only one half of the homologous pair of chromosomes. Diploid Having a complete set of paired chromosomes for example the human cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Gender Chromosomes The two Kinds of Chromosomes ( X & Y ) that determine the sex of the offspring. Cell Cycle • The cell’s life span of growth and division 1. For about what portion of the cell cycle is the cell in interphase? A. Less than ½ (50%) B. More than ¾ (75%) C. Less than ¾ (75%) D. More than 9/10 (90%) 2. If the phase during which DNA is replicated did not occur, what effect would this have on the cell cycle? A. Mitosis would immediately follow S B. G1 would immediately follow mitosis C. Cytokinesis would immediately follow G2 D. G2 would immediately follow G1 Mitosis • The process by which the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell divides to form two nuclei, each containing a complete set of chromosomes. ANIMATION Prophase • The stage in mitosis in which chromosomes contract. The spindle formation occurs and the nuclear envelope disappears. Metaphase • The second stage of cell division in which chromosomes lined up in the equator of the cell. Anaphase • The stage in mitosis in which the chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the spindle formation. ANIMATION Telophase • The last phase of mitosis in which the cytoplasm divides, a nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes, and the spindle disappears. WHICH ARE WHICH? A B C D PROPHASE ? ANAPHASE ? METAPHASE ? TELOPHASE ? MITOSIS = ALL CELLS EXCEPT REPRODUCTIVE CELLS. MEIOSIS = ONLY REPRODUCTIVE CELLS Meiosis A type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell is reduced to half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. MEIOSIS Chromosome number 8 before mitosis Chromosome number 16 during mitosis before cell division Chromosome 8 number after cell 8 division ? ? ? ? Huntington’s Disease A neurological disorder 1. that leads to progressive NUMBER FAMILY MEMBERS. degeneration of brain cells. Huntington’s NUMBER recessive 2.Disease is a THE GENERATIONS. allele. Right is a 3.pedigree that shows a HOW MANY PEOPLE IN THIS FAMILY family passing this trait. FOR HUNTINGTONS CARRY THE ALLELE SHADED = Huntington’s allele (h) DISEASE? WHITE = No Huntington’s allele (H) 4. HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE THE DISEASE? Tumor • Is a clump of cells that forms when cells start dividing without any restraints after the cell cycle mechanism fails or is damaged, that could lead to a disastrous end. CREATE YOUR OWN SUPER HERO! 1. WORK WITH A PARTNER 2. MAKE A LIST OF 20 PHENOTYPES (with 2 versions of each) hair type, hair color, eye shape, eye color, shape of head, horns?, wings?, fur?, height, body type, how many arms?, how many legs?, webbed toes?, up to 3 super powers. 3. Flip a coin for each and create your superhero. 3. Draw and name your superhero. Cancer • Is the term used to describe a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division and growth as a result of malfunction of the cell cycle. Mutation A sudden genetic change resulting in a new characteristic that can be inherited by future generations. Sickle Cell Anemia A disease caused by a mutation in the gene that codes for the blood protein hemoglobin. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/D iseases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html Gamete • A haploid reproductive cell such as the egg and the sperm. Crossing~Over • The exchange of segments of chromosomes that can occur when two chromosomes are in synapse.
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