Week-2- Chapter-1 Intro Computer Science

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Week-2- Chapter-1 Intro Computer Science Powered By Docstoc
					Introduction to Information
Technology



Prepared By: Saba Mustafa
What is Information Technology

What is it, and what can it do?
What is a Information Technology?
•    [Wikipedia] Information technology (IT) is "the study,
     design, development, implementation, support or
     management of information systems". Information
     technology is a general term that describes any
     technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store,
     communicate, and/or disseminate information.

•    [Information Technology Association of America (ITAA)]
    • IT is the study, design, development, implementation,
        support or management of computer-based
        information systems, particularly software applications
        and computer hardware. IT deals with the use of
        electronic computers and computer software to
        convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and
        securely             retrieve              information.
What is a Information Technology? (Contd.)
• In the broadest sense, information
  technology refers to both the hardware
  and software that are used to store,
  retrieve, and manipulate information. At
  the lowest level you have the servers with
  an operating system. Installed on these
  servers are things like database and web
  serving software. The servers are
  connected to each other and to users via
  a network infrastructure. And the users
  accessing these servers have their own
  hardware, operating system, and
  software tools.
Introducing Computer Science




Prepared By: Saba Mustafa
About Computers…

What is it, and what can it do?
What is a Computer?
•   [Norton] A Computer is an electronic device
    that processes data, converting it into
    information that is useful to people
•   [Wikipedia] A Computer is a programmable
    device, usually electronic in nature, that can
    store, retrieve and process data
•   [The American Heritage Dictionary]
     1. A device that computes… especially a programmable
        electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical
        or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or
        otherwise processes information
     2. One who computes
What is a computer?




              Processing /
     Input                   Output
              Computation
     Computer System:
• Hardware - physical parts of the computer
• Software - instructions to the computer
• Data - raw facts the computer can manipulate
• People - also known as users
Computer Hardware - any part
of the computer you can touch.
  • Processor
  • Memory
  • Input and Output Devices
  • Storage Devices
            Some types of hardware devices.

                                  Output
      Processor

Memory




Input and
  output                               Storage

               Input
Software - electronic instructions to
the computer. Also referred to as a
“program.”
Two types:
 • System Software
 • Application Software
     System Software:
• Operating Systems
 •   Windows 95
 •   Windows 98,2000,2003,2005,2007
 •   Windows Vista
 •   Linux
 •   MAC OS X
 •   OS/2
Application Software:

• Word Processing       •Entertainment
• Spreadsheets          •Educational
• Graphics              •Communications
• Databases             •Presentation
Application software and system software
 work together to provide useful output.
Software brings a computer to life.
Types of Computers:

 • Supercomputer
 • Mainframe
 • Minicomputer
 • Microcomputer

                      Mainframe computer
                               Microcomputer

Supercomputer




                Minicomputer
Who Uses Computers ?
• Military        • Musicians
• Doctors         • Filmmakers
• Educators       • Attorneys
• Engineers       • Bankers
• Architects      • Architects
A medical team using “robodoc” to assist in surgery.
Musicians can use MIDI technology
 to compose and edit their work.
Computers for Individual users

 • Desktop computer
 • Workstations
 • Notebook computers
 • Tablet Computers
 • Handheld computers
                          Mainframe computer



 • Smart phones
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Desktop computer
   • Easy to use and efficient
   • Use in schools, homes, offices
   • Large in size with variety in
                                      Desktop computer
     specifications
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Workstations
   • Specialized single-user
     computers
   • Use by scientist, engineers and
                                       Workstations
     animators
   • Greater-than-average speed
   • Perform sophisticated task
     more efficiently
   • Large & high-resolution
     monitors
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Notebook computers
   • Also called Laptops
   • Smaller in size
                                  Notebook computers
   • Easily portable
   • Belongs to the category of
     Mobile devices
   • Docking stations
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Tablet Pcs
   • Lighter than laptops
   • Portable and full-featured
     computers                    Tablet Pcs


   • Accept input from a
     special pen- stylus or
     digital pen
   • Belongs to the category of
     Mobile devices
   • Docking stations
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Tablet PCs
   • Lighter than laptops
   • Portable and full-featured
     computers                    Tablet Pcs


   • Accept input from a
     special pen- stylus or
     digital pen
   • Belongs to the category of
     Mobile devices
   • Docking stations
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Handheld PCs
   • Fit in hand.
   • PDA
                               PDA
   • Featured with cellular
     telephones, cameras,
     music players.
Computers for Individual users (Contd.)

 • Smart Phones
   • Cellular phones
   • Features like: web, e-mail
     access & special software    Smart Phones
Is the Abacus a Computer?
  Not really a computer, but rather a computing aid
Computers Everywhere
• Not just Desktops, Workstations, Tablet PCs,
  Handheld PCs (PDAs), Servers, Mainframe
  computers, Minicomputers
• But also…
  • Cell phones
  • Alarm Clocks
  • Microwave Ovens
  • Lighting control in a building
  • Washing Machines
Summary
• At a low (processor) level, computer are pretty
  dumb and have to be told exactly what to do
• However, with intelligently written computer
  programs, computers can behave quite
  intelligently
• A computer is simply a device that computes,
  taking some input, processing it, and producing
  some output
• Computers can come in all sorts of forms, and not
  just the types you may be familiar with

				
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