009

Document Sample
009 Powered By Docstoc
					Gief.ru                    Кафедра иностранных языков

                                 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
                          (составлено сотрудниками кафедры)

                              Контрольная работа №3

                      для студентов юридического факультета
                                заочного отделения

Формы контроля знаний
1.   Контрольные работы студентов- № 1,2,3 (сдаются один раз в семестр). Количество
контрольных работ устанавливается учебным планом института. Студенты ускоренной
формы обучения выполняют контрольные работы № 1, 2.
2.   Студенты, обучающиеся 5,5 лет, сдают зачет в II, III семестрах, а экзамен в IV
семестре.
3.   Студенты ускоренной формы обучения (3,5 года) сдают зачет во II семестре и
экзамен в III семестре.
Зачтенная контрольная работа является допуском к сдаче зачетов и экзамена.

Оформление контрольных работ
    Выполнять письменные контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради. На
обложке тетради напишите номер контрольной работы, вариант, свою фамилию, номер
группы, факультет, курс, номер вашего студенческого билета.
    Выбор варианта осуществляется по последней цифре номера вашего студенческого
билета.
Если номер вашего билета оканчивается на 0, 1, 2, 3, вы выполняете задания,
предложенные в первом варианте. Второй вариант выполняется студентами, номер
студенческого билета которых оканчивается на 4, 5, 6. И если последняя цифра номера
билета 7, 8 или 9, ваш вариант – третий.
    Контрольные работы должны выполняться чернилами, аккуратно, разборчивым
почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для
замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецензента.
    Контрольные работы должны выполняться строго в той последовательности, в
которой они даны.
    Выполненные контрольные работы своевременно направляйте для проверки в
институт (не позднее, чем за две недели до начала сессии).
    Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указаний или не полностью,
она возвращается без проверки.
Gief.ru                        Кафедра иностранных языков

Вариант 1
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык и определите форму сказуемого.
1)    The company which has dismissed most of its staff says it has debt of $274 million.
2)    Arguments over intellectual property rights and re-writing code have been doing the
rounds of the court system for years.
3)    He had a patent and had earned millions of dollars in royalties.
4)    In Britain, copyright exists as soon as a song is recorded on to tape or written on
manuscript.
5)    A court injunction forbade Clive Heywood to enter his wife’s house.
6)    Where there are two successive torts, the first tortfeasor`s liability is unaffected by the
second tort.
7)    I believe I am being overtaxed.
8)    Litigation is on the rise as consumers are becoming more conscious of their rights.
9)    The new law will strengthen safeguards against unfair dismissal.
10)   Could you contact Mrs. Smith’s guardians and tell them she has been admitted to
hospital?
2. Заполните пропуски подходящей формой вспомогательных глаголов do, be, have.
Переведите полученные предложения.
1)    ___ you realize that you will be liable for any debts incurred if you sign this agreement?
2)    We can’t agree, you ___ misinterpreting this agreement.
3)    The fine was unfair, they ___ acting in accordance with the regulations.
4)    My employer ___ broken the employment contract.
5)    They ___ signed a prenuptial agreement before the wedding ceremony.
6)    His income tax liability ___ calculated by referring to tax tables.
7)    Are you a higher rate taxpayer, or ____ you pay the basic rate?
8)    A debt counselor who ___ been helping the family says the lender has shown no
compassion.
3. Трансформируйте предложения в страдательный залог.
1)    They have changed the wording on the packing to comply with the new regulations.
2)    They paid $1 million in compensation because of those faulty components.
3)    There is a risk that they will cancel the contract unilaterally.
4)    The shareholders in a limited company elect a Board of Directors.
5)    Mrs. James is suing her husband for divorce.
6)    The United States sees intellectual property rights as sacred.
7)    They had examined all salaries before making changes.
Gief.ru                       Кафедра иностранных языков

8)    I completed a tax return but I heard nothing more.
4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1)    Every business must operate within the legal framework of the country.
2)    An employer is not allowed to discriminate against an employee because of race or colour.
3)    Can you prove that you have a legal claim to the property?
4)    I think we should consult our lawyers before signing any agreement.
5)    They couldn’t prove that the accident was the result of his negligence.
6)    You ought to know the credit legislation to work in this area.
7)    We can’t use that name because it’s a registered trademark.
8)    The court must obtain the consent of the child’s parent or guardian.
9)    A possible future patent application has to be kept absolutely secret and confidential.
10)   Though schools could reclaim VAT, universities and students could not, nor could parents
buying books for children.
5. Заполните пропуски в тексте предложенными словами: discrimination, suit, damages,
clarify, case, punish, Supreme, race.
The US 1___ Court today hears a 2___ which could have a big impact on the size of 3___ paid
by US employers in employment discrimination lawsuits. The court agreed to hear the case,
Carole Kolstad vs. the American Dental Association (ADA), to 4___ what kind of employer
conduct will give rise to punitive damages - damages awarded to 5___ and deter an offender - in
lawsuits involving sex 6___. However, law employment experts said that the 7___ was also
likely to have a knock-on effect on 8___, age and other employment discrimination suits
brought under Title VII of the 1991 Civil Rights Act.
6. Прочитайте текст и определите, являются правдивыми или ложными следующие
утверждения.
The marriage of intellectual property (IP) and life sciences creates one of those niche practices
of law that most solicitors like to avoid. But two events recently brought home the importance of
this area of law.
First, the recommendation by the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority to permit
human cloning for 'spare parts' is likely to create a huge wave of research leading to a flood of
patent registrations and subsequent litigation.
Elsewhere in the market, the pharmaceutical companies Zeneca and Astra were deep in talks
about a merger. Both face the imminent end of the patent on several drugs, and need more
resources to plug the gaps. Patents are probably these companies' most important single
resource and the big pharmaceutical companies and life sciences firms jealously guard them.
Gief.ru                        Кафедра иностранных языков

Smaller research-based companies are not always so alert to the dangers and opportunities of
patent law. A recent report, commissioned by Taylor Joynsen Garrett from the London Business
School, says: 'There is evidence of a surprising lack of recognition of the importance of IP
protection.' Almost a third of companies think their investors 'understand little' or 'not at all' the
nature of their IP rights.
      Only two-thirds of companies said that when it came to IP, due diligence had been
undertaken by their investors where it was relevant before financing their most recent
investment.
The report is a wake-up call to smaller research-based companies to take the legal implications
of their work seriously. While there are bound to be ethical debates about the right to make
money out of this kind of activity, there is no question that larger companies will have little
hesitation in capitalizing on discoveries not properly protected. Experts believe that we are only
starting to scratch the surface of developments in this field. How it turns out will be shaped as
much by the application of the law as by the inventiveness of scientists. And though the
Biotechnology Directive excludes human cloning processes from patentability, commercial
companies will not stop doing the work, nor stop generating complex and puzzling legal issues.
1)    Solicitors like very technical and specialized areas of law.
2)    It is legal to clone humans for spare parts at present in the UK.
3)    Patents protect the formulae of drugs forever.
4)    Patent law is well understood by most small research companies in the UK.
5)    Big companies are likely to take advantage of poorly protected discoveries.
6)    The inventiveness of scientists will have to be matched by the changes in the law.
Найдите в тексте слова, обозначающие:
A.    something which someone has invented or has the right to make or sell, especially
something that cannot legally be copied by other people
B.    the joining together of two or more companies or organizations to form one larger one
C.    a possible future effect or result of an action, event, decision
D.    discussion of a particular subject that often continues for a long time and in which people
express different opinions
E.    the process of taking claims to a court of law
Gief.ru                      Кафедра иностранных языков

Вариант 1

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на неличные формы
глагола.
1)   The chief of police was forced to resign after allegations of corruption.
2)   There is still work to be done on maritime arms control.
3)   After embezzling funds he spent time in prison in the 80s.
4)   In 1974 IBM became the first American company to bar discrimination against gay
workers.
5)   US firms are alleged to have used bribery to win contracts.
6)   Finally, the question arises whether this application should have been made to the Court
of Appeal.
7)   He embezzled large amounts of money to finance his gambling.
8)   They accused the law enforcement authorities of having violated their civil rights by,
among other things, fabricating evidence.

2. Выберите правильный вариант подстановки и переведите полученные предложения.
1)   The painting believed / believing to be by Renoir turned out to be a very clever forgery.
2)   English judges have an important role in developing / developed case law and stated /
stating the meaning of Acts of Parliament.
3)   The Security Council of the United Nations is responsible for making sure / to make sure
that countries behave peacefully towards each other.
4)   They were arrested for making / made counterfeit computer chips.
5)   The market and the opportunities for fraud keep growing / to grow.
6)   In general, the American courts have no jurisdiction to deal / to be dealing with crimes
outside the USA.
7)   The decision still has to ratify / to be ratified by the Finance and Management Services
Committee.
8)   Actions bringing / brought to the court are usually tried without a jury.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в правильной форме, и переведите
полученные предложения.
1)   I wish I ___ (not buy) this T-shirt, I didn`t know it was a fake.
2)   If the laws ___ (not make) money, they ___ (not exist).
3)   If someone thinks that one of the countries is breaking the European Convention on
Human Rights, they ___ (complain) officially to the European Human Rights Commission.
4)   If the company lowers its prices, it ___ (not be) so vulnerable to counterfeiters.
5)   If I were you, I ___ (take) an appeal to the International Court of Arbitration.
Gief.ru                        Кафедра иностранных языков

6)    There ___ (be) less crime if the police ___ (have) more power in my country.
7)    If the case had not been submitted for international arbitration, they ___ (not avoid) a
more serious conflict.
8)    If you continue to sell fake goods, the police ___ (arrest) you.
4. Подставьте фрагменты и переведите полученный текст.
     The law is one of the most traditional areas of national life and the legal profession has
jealously protected its position against outside attack. Its main virtue is its independence 1___
and as such, a safeguard of civil liberties.
      The legal system for England and Wales (2___and Northern Ireland) does not have a
criminal or civil code, but is founded upon two basic elements: Acts of Parliament or statute law,
and common law 3___ based upon custom and reason. Common law has slowly built up since
Anglo-Saxon times 1,000 years ago, while Parliament has been enacting statutes since the
thirteenth century. Almost all criminal law 4___, while the greater part of civil law still depends
upon common law, the weight and guidance of previous similar decisions.
      European Community law also applies to Britain 5___ and it takes precedence over
domestic law. In 1997 Britain finally took steps to incorporate the European Convention on
Human Rights into domestic law.
A.    which is the outcome of past decisions and practices
B.    is now set out in Acts of Parliament
C.    from the system of government
D.    by virtue of its membership of the European Union
E.    there are separate ones for Scotland
5. Найдите соответствия.
                                     a special brand of a magistrates’ court which hears criminal
 1    RATIFY                   A     cases against children and young persons under 17 and
                                     deals with other matters concerning children
 2    JURISDICTION             B     someone who legally belongs to a particular country

                                     a period of time during which a legislative or judicial body
 3    CORRUPTION               C
                                     meets
                                     to give formal approval to something in order that it can
 4    CONSTITUTION             D
                                     become law
                                     dishonestly or illegally using power or authority to get
 5    NEPOTISM                 E
                                     money or an advantage
                                     the right to use an official power to make legal decisions, or
 6    JUVENILE COURT           F
                                     the area where this right exists
                                     a set of basic laws and principles that a country is governed
 7    CITIZEN                  G
                                     by
                                     the practice of giving jobs to members of your family when
 8    SESSION                  H
                                     you are in a position of power
Gief.ru                            Кафедра иностранных языков

6. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
      To most people, counterfeiting means 1___ currency. But counterfeiters are copying an
ever-widening range of 2___. For some time they have been churning out imitation designer
fashion, software and CDs. Now they are copying medicines, mobile phones, food and drink, car
parts and even tobacco. As long as there is a 3___ for a product the copycats will imitate it. New
technology has broadened the 4___ of goods that are vulnerable to copying. It has dramatically
improved their quality, as well as lowering their 5___ of production. Where once counterfeits
were cheap 6___ of the real thing, today their packaging and contents (especially for digital
products such as software, music CDs and DVDs) often mean they are almost indistinguishable
from the genuine article.
                 1     A    genuine      B   mock                C forged
                 2     A    services     B   products            C stuff
                 3     A    market       B   supply              C production
                 4     A    list         B   range               C collection
                 5     A    cost         B   price               C value
                 6     A    models       B   simulations         C imitations

7. Прочитайте текст и определите, являются правдивыми или ложными следующие
утверждения.
      New York used to be the city that never sleeps. These days it's the city that never smokes,
drinks or does anything naughty (at least, not in public). The Big Apple is quickly turning into
the Forbidden Apple.
      If you wanted a glass of wine with your picnic in Central Park, could you have one? No
chance. Drinking alcohol in public isn't allowed. If you decided to feed the birds with the last
crumbs of your sandwich, you could be arrested. It's illegal. If you went to a bar for a drink and a
cigarette, that would be OK, wouldn't it? Er ... no. You can't smoke in public in New York City.
      What's going on? Why is the city that used to be so open-minded becoming like this? The
mayor of New York is behind it all. He has brought in a whole lot of new laws to stop citizens
from doing what they want, when they want. The press are scandalised. Even the New York
police have joined the argument. They recently spent $100,000 on a “Don't blame the cop”
campaign. One New York police officer said, 'We raise money for the city by giving people fines
for breaking some very stupid laws. It's all about money.'
      The result is a lot of fines for minor offences. Yoav Kashida, an Israeli tourist, fell asleep
on the subway. When he woke up, two police officers fined him because he had fallen asleep on
two seats (you mustn't use two seats in the subway). Elle and Serge Schroitman were fined for
blocking a driveway with their car. It was their own driveway.
Gief.ru                       Кафедра иностранных языков

      The angry editor of Vanity Fair magazine, Gray don Carter, says, 'Under New York City law
it is acceptable to keep a gun in your place of work, but not an empty ashtray.' He should know.
The police came to his office and took away his ashtray.
      But not all of New York's inhabitants are complaining. Marcia Dugarry, 72, said, 'The city
has changed for the better. If more cities had these laws, America would be a better place to live.'
Nixon Patotkis, 38, a barman, said, 'I like the new laws. If people smoked in here, we'd go home
smelling of cigarettes.'
      Recent figures show that New York now has fewer crimes per 100,000 people than 193
other US cities. And it's true - it's safer, cleaner and more healthy than before. But let's be
honest - who goes to New York for its clean streets?
1.    Some activities have recently become illegal in New York.
2.    Most of the new laws were introduced by the mayor of New York.
3.    The police like the new laws.
4.    Minor offences are not fined.
5.    Still a part of New Yorkers are happy because of the new laws.
6.    Statistics show that there has been in increase in the number of crimes in New York.
Gief.ru                          Кафедра иностранных языков

Вариант 2

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на неличные формы
глагола.
1)      The county courts only hear cases concerning statute law.
2)      The magistrates' courts can choose to hear cases with or without a jury.
3)      Having initiated the lawsuit the plaintiff expected a legal remedy - money damages.
4)      English judges are not free to reach any decision they like in a case, they must follow the
rules laid down in previous cases which bind the court.
5)      Santo was convicted of bribing tax inspectors in Italy.
6)      A child is considered legally incapable of committing a crime.
7)      To interpret the words of statute, English courts must first construe the words of the
enactment literally.
8)      Having lost the case of first instance and the appeal to the High Court, the appellant won
her case in the Court of Appeal.

2. Выберите правильный вариант подстановки и переведите полученные предложения.
1)      Young people accused / accusing of crimes are tried by a special court called / calling the
juvenile court.
2)      The European Court of Human Rights established / establishing by the European
Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms was set up in
Strasbourg in 1959.
3)      There are three basic components provided / providing the effective work of the FBI.
4)      Some forgery techniques are virtually impossible to detect/ to be detected.
5)      Judges reach a decision based / basing only on evidence presented / presenting to them
by the parties to the dispute.
6)      Interpol is an international corporation founded / founding in 1923.
7)      He alleged that the manager had tried to bribe / bribing him during a business lunch in
1993.
8)      He was arrested since he was found guilty of murdering / to murder a man.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в правильной форме, и переведите
полученные предложения.
1)      If anyone ___ (to be) arrested he or she must be brought before a court with a minimum
delay.
2)      He will send the love letters to her husband unless she ___ (to give) him $500.
3)      If they hadn't given him the sack, he ___ (not to light) a fire on the factory.
4)      The jury ___ (to be discharged) if they cannot agree.
    Gief.ru                         Кафедра иностранных языков

    5)     If a burglar ___ (not to be injured), the man would not have been arrested.
    6)     If the parties indicate that a statement is to be regarded as a term, the court ___ (to
    implement) their intention.
    7)     If a party ___ (to have) doubts about the arbitrator's independence, it would challenge
    him.
    8)     The defendant ___ (to pay) compensatory damages and punitive damages if the plaintiff
    was successful.

    4. Подставьте фрагменты и переведите полученный текст.
                                         The Federal Judiciary (The USA)
           The third branch of government, in addition to the legislative (Congress) and executive
    (President) branches, is the federal judiciary. Its main instrument is the Supreme Court, which
    watches over 1___. It determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance 2___.
    Congress has the power to fix the number of judges sitting in the Court but 3___ given to the
    Supreme Court by the Constitution itself. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight
    associate justices. They are nominated by the President but must 4___. Once approved, they
    hold office as Supreme Court justices for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be
    appealed to any other court. Neither the President nor Congress 5___. In addition to the
    Supreme Court, Congress has established 11 federal courts of appeal and, below them, 91 federal
    district courts.
    A.     be approved by the Senate
    B.     the other two branches
    C.     it cannot change the powers
    D.     with the Constitution
    E.     can change their decision

    5. Найдите соответствия:
                                    the lowest courts of first instance with limited civil and
1        INSIDER TRADING       A    criminal jurisdiction, generally composed of 2-7 lay justices of
                                    the peace (not professional lawyers)
         BINDING                    a formal agreement, especially between countries, about
2                              B
         PRECEDENT                  particular rules or behaviour
                                    A copy of an original document or valuable object intended to
3        SUPREME COURT         C
                                    deceive people
                                    using knowledge of a particular company or situation not
4        COUNTY COURT          D
                                    available to other people in order to buy or sell shares
                                    the main civil court with limited jurisdiction in a certain area of
5        CONVENTION            E
                                    England or Wales
                                    a judicial decision which future courts must follow when
6        FRAUD                 F
                                    deciding similar cases
    Gief.ru                        Кафедра иностранных языков

       MAGISTRATES’                the most important court of law in some countries or some
7                              G
       COURT                       states of the US
                                   a method of illegally getting money from a person or
8      FAKE                    H
                                   organization
    6. Выберите правильный вариант.
          In civil actions, most American courts are authorized to choose among legal and equitable
    1___. The distinction means less today than in the past but is still worth understanding. In 13th
    century England, "courts of 2___" were authorized to decree monetary remedies only. If a
    defendant's breach of 3___ cost the plaintiff $50, such court could order the defendant to pay
    that sum to the plaintiff. These damages were sufficient in many instances, but not in others,
    such as a contract for sale of a rare artwork or a specific parcel of land. During the 13th and 14th
    centuries, "courts of 4___were formed. These tribunals fashioned equitable remedies like
    specific 5___, which compelled parties to perform their obligations, rather than to merely
    forcing them to pay damages for the injury caused by their nonperformance. By the 19th
    century, most American 6___ had eliminated the distinction between law and equity. Today
    with rare exceptions, U.S. courts can award either legal or equitable remedies as the situation
    requires.
                      1    A   remedies        B   rulings          C   decisions
                      2    A   justice         B   law              C   state
                      3    A   contract        B   rule             C   promise
                      4    A   equity          B   law              C   justice
                      5    A   remedies        B   law              C   performance
                      6    A   citizens        B   jurisdictions    C   lawyers

    7. Прочитайте текст и определите, являются правдивыми или ложными следующие
    утверждения.
          The British judicial branch is very complex and is composed of dozens of different courts
    of jurisdiction with grandiose names like the “Queen's Bench”, the “Chancery Division” and the
    “Crown Court”. Depending on which branch the judge belongs to, he could wear one of many
    different costumes. Unlike many other countries which limit their judges to wearing only red or
    black, in Britain judges wear almost every color. There are judges with blue robes, green robes,
    and even purple and pink ones.
          There are several constants, however. All upper court justices in Britain wear the famous
    “full bottomed” powered wigs while lower court judges wear the shorter "barrister" wig. This is a
    holdover from the time when judges were members of the aristocracy, and it was considered
    fashionable for important people to show off their social status by wearing long flowing wigs.
    Once a year there is a special ceremony in Westminster Abbey during which all of the nation's
Gief.ru                       Кафедра иностранных языков

judges assemble to commemorate the start of the legal year. On formal occasions such as that,
all judges wear “full bottomed” wigs.
      Most British judges also wear a special stiff white "cross" collar. The exact origins of this
collar are obscure, but some have speculated it was supposed to represent the twin tablets of the
Ten Commandments that were carried by Moses. The same collar is worn by high-ranking clergy
within the Anglican church, so it clearly has some form of religious origins.
      Britain’s highest-ranking judicial official, and de facto Chief Justice is the Lord Chancellor.
He wears a special gold and black robe, or at least he used to.
1)    In Britain judges wear formal costumes of different colors.
2)    Judges are free in their choice of wigs.
3)    Once a year all judges wear “full bottomed” wigs.
4)    The length of the wig shows how important a judge is.
5)    There are some similar traits in the judge's costume and the clergy's garment.
6)    The costume of the highest- ranking official used to differ from upper and lower courts
judges' costumes.
Gief.ru                        Кафедра иностранных языков

                                          Вариант 3

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на неличные формы
глагола.
1)    The court agreed to hear the case, taking into consideration the importance of the matter.
2)    Arbitration is a recognized way of resolving international commercial disputes.
3)    The trademark should clearly guarantee that the goods bearing it had originated under the
control of a single company.
4)    Having reached such a verdict, the judge set a precedent.
5)    In the UK prime-ministerial powers are defined and regulated by constitutional
conventions, not by statute law.
6)    We have discussed the terms to be included in the letter of credit.
7)    He insisted on the bank being involved in money laundering.
8)    The Minister presented the new bill to the House of Commons for reading and debate.

2. Выберите правильный вариант подстановки и переведите полученные предложения.
1)    Sums of money which are spent to pay fees to lawyers are calling/ called legal expenses.
2)    Many British voters are in favour of changing/ to change the electoral system.
3)    He was accused of fraudulently used/ using a stolen credit card.
4)    They need produced/ to produce the whole set of contractual documentation.
5)    Generally you are assumed/ assuming to be innocent until shown by a court otherwise –
the prosecution has to prove/ proving your guilt.
6)    The courts in the USA have the power of declaring/ declare legislation unconstitutional.
7)    After being convicted/ convicting of a serious crime, a criminal is imprisoned.
8)    Set up/ setting up after World War I, The League of Nations was supposed to regulate
disputes between nations.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в правильной форме, и переведите
полученные предложения.
1)    If they ___ (accept) our terms, we ___ (sign) the contract. It will be important for the
company.
2)    If I ___ (be) you, I ___ (not/become) a sole trader, as I wouldn’t like to bear the risk
alone.
3)    They ___ (not/make) huge profits, if they ___ (not/ be involved) in counterfeiting goods.
Now they own a corporation with $9 billion in assets.
4)    We have no option but to inform you that we ___ (place) the matter in the hands of our
solicitors unless we ___ (receive) a cheque for £3500 within 7 days of the date of this letter.
Gief.ru                          Кафедра иностранных языков

5)    I wish I ___ (have) authority and ___ (can) make laws to save buildings of historical
interest.
6)    Now we can’t guarantee the same repayment amount each month. If there ___ (be) an
increase of the bank base rate, your monthly repayment ___ (go up).
7)    If only I ___ (gather) enough testimony! The charge was dismissed because of insufficient
evidence.
8)    There could be much more confusion in the legal system, if basic laws and principles ___
(not/be) written in the Constitution.

4. Подставьте фрагменты и переведите полученный текст.
      Arbitration is a procedure for the resolution of disputes 1 ___ through the appointment of
an arbitrator, an independent, neutral third person who hears and considers the merits of the
dispute and 2 ___ called an award. The process is similar to the litigation process as 3 ___.
However, the parties choose their arbitrator and the manner in which the arbitration will
proceed. The advantages of arbitration over court adjudication include the following:
     Expertise of the decision-maker: the parties can choose an arbitrator who has expert
knowledge of the law, business or trade 4 ___.
     Law cost: Arbitration is not expensive if the process is kept simple.
     Speed: Arbitration can be arranged within days, weeks or months.
     Duration: Arbitration doesn’t 5 ___ litigation.
a)    renders a final and binding decision
b)    take as long as
c)    on a private basis
d)    in which the dispute has arisen
e)    it involves adjudication

5. Найдите соответствия:
                               a formal written agreement between two or more countries or
1    BRIBERY               A
                               governments

2    GOVERNMENT B              the crime of producing a document or money that is not genuine

                               dishonestly giving money to someone to persuade them to do
3    FORGERY               C
                               something to help you

4    STATE                 D   illegal ways of paying less tax

5    DISPUTE               E   the government or political organization of the country

6    TREATY                F   a serious argument or disagreement
Gief.ru                          Кафедра иностранных языков

7   SOVEREIGN           G       the group of people who govern the country

8   TAX EVASION         H       self-governing and not ruled by any other state

6. Выберите правильный вариант.
     A trial may be defined broadly and comprehensively as a judicial examination of the issues
between 1___. Although some variations may exist, trials are usually held before a 2 ___ sitting
alone, a referee, or a judge and a jury. The counsels for the prosecution and for the 3 ___ make
opening statements to the jury, outlining what each sees as the nature of the case and what each
hopes to prove as the 4 ___ proceeds. Next, the counsel for the prosecution presents the case by
calling 5 ___, questioning them, and permitting them to be cross-examined by the counsel for
the defence. The counsel for each side then makes a closing argument to the jury, summarizing
the evidence in a light most favourable to their respective clients. The function of the jury is to
determine the facts of the case, whereas the function of the judge is to determine the applicable
6 ___ and to oversee the parties’ presentation of the facts to the court. After the judge has
instructed the jury on the applicable law, the jury will retire to deliberate in private until it
reaches a just verdict, which will then be announced in open court.
                    1       A     parties        B   people         C   states
                    2       A     queen          B   judge          C   court
                    3       A     defence        B   protection     C   help
                    4       A     punishment B       arbitration    C   trial
                    5       A     detectives     B   witnesses      C   jury
                    6       A     bill           B   treaty         C   law

7. Прочитайте текст и определите, являются правдивыми или ложными следующие
утверждения.
     State securities regulators around the US are concerned about the explosion in illicit
investment schemes now flourishing on commercial bulletin board services and the informal
web of computer networks that make up the Internet. Households that already have access to
online services are being exposed to hundreds of fraudulent and abusive investment schemes
including stock manipulations, pyramid scams and Ponzi schemes.
     Cyberspace, as the online world is known, has the potential to educate investors and help
them become better consumers. Any computer and modem is a few keystrokes away from
research data and financial news. However, State securities regulators emphasise that the
problem of illicit and abusive online investment schemes has the potential to spread like wildfire
through the Internet, using increasingly popular commercial bulletin board services, live
discussion groups (chats), e-mail, and information web pages, all of which can maintain the
Gief.ru                       Кафедра иностранных языков

anonymity of cyberspace. This is exploited to the hilt by those who promote fraudulent
investment schemes.
      New frauds are emerging, too. According to Internet Fraud Watch, complaints about fraud
on the Internet have risen 600% since 1997, and online auction complaints were the number
one fraud complaint only one year later, a dramatic rise. The majority of payments in these
fraud cases were made offline, by cheque or money order sent to the company. 'Requesting cash
is a clear sign of fraud. Pay the safest way. If possible, pay by credit card because you can dispute
the charges if there is a problem,' says the Director of Internet Fraud Watch. IFW recommends
that buyers use escrow services: they take payment from the buyers and only pass money along
to the sellers after verification that the goods or services were satisfactory. Some auction
companies have programmes to insure transactions.
1.    The number of fraud cases in the Internet has decreased over the last few years.
2.    Anonymity is important for criminals, committing cyberspace fraud.
3.    Households get exposed to fraudulent schemes if they use online services.
4.    The majority of payments in the fraud cases were made online.
5.    If you are a victim of a scam on the Internet, you can inform IFW.
6.    An escrow service is a safe way of paying for Internet transactions.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:2/20/2012
language:
pages:16