Linking Teaching and Research by yangxichun

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									Linking universities with business
and industry: A perspective from
the United Kingdom (UK)

Alan Jenkins, Professor Emeritus Oxford Brookes University
(UK)
About Alan Jenkins

Started as a teacher/researcher on human geography mainly in the UK but also Canada
       and USA
Moved into educational /faculty development mainly in the UK but experience in North
       America , Australia , New Zealand and Europe
Main specialism –relations between teaching and research in universities and national
       systems : and institutional and national policies re teaching and research
Recently consultant to UK national bodies : the Higher Education Academy and QAA
       Scotland
Limited experience re direct links with industry but central to an institutional policy to
       make graduates more ‘enterprising’ and have written extensively on curriculum
       design and ‘enterprise’.
www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/resources/publicati
ons/DevelopingUndergraduate_Final.pdf
Private discussions with those sitting near
you

What are the current links between the university and
    industry and business /industry
Do you consider they need strengthening ? If so in what
    ways?
What are the questions about the UK system and its links
    with industry and business that might interest you ?
What aspects of the UK system do you think might be most
    relevant to Vietnam ?
The final slide is …

What –if any –of this is relevant to Vietnam /your
   institution?

What if anything is now worth considering
   /proposing doing re Vietnam / your institution?

What questions do you now want to put to me ?
Higher Education and business in the UK:
a contested relationship :
Report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education – the Dearing Report. 1997


“The aim of higher education should be to sustain a learning society. The four main
       purposes which makeup this aim are:
To inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential
       levels throughout life, so that they grow intellectually, are well equipped for work, can
       contribute effectively to society and achieve personal fulfillment
To increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake and to foster their
       application to the benefit of the economy and society
To serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge-based economy at local, regional and
       national levels;
To play a major role in shaping a democratic, civilized, inclusive society.” ( emphasis added)
One UK groups argument for strengthening
UK /business linkages

“ The future of the UK rests on developing
a more knowledge intensive and value adding
economy. Universities are central to this agenda as
they are in the knowledge business. They develop
the research, graduates and post-graduates
that will power our future.”
Council for Industry and Higher Education 2008
National and institutional strategies to
strengthen university /business linkages

National organisational changes
National funding prioritises certain disciplines for teaching and research
National Research funding and strategies
The institution : make /require strategic changes in the curriculum
The curriculum : involve professional bodies
The curriculum : reshape how they are taught and assessed
Institutional :Create formal and informal university /industry
     partnerships
Rethink reward structures and appointments
Key change in ‘location’ of UK higher
education policy

Long was part of the Ministry of Education
   which included schools ..and higher
   education in the same department

Higher Education now part of Department
   for Business, Innovation and Skills
Oct 2010: UK Government announces funding
shift to STEM disciplines


Oct 2010: UK Government announces funding shift to
    STEM disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering
    and Mathematics
An end to virtually all state funding for teaching in the arts,
    humanities and social sciences after announcing a cut
    to higher education funding, excluding research, of 40
    per cent
Future state funding for teaching has been promised only
    for STEM disiplines .
Require /encourage research that in part
focuses on industry and impact
Can be done at both national and institutional levels
Prioritise research to STEM disciplines ie Science ,Technology …
Require research to in part focus on impact
UK : 2010 : Research Excellence Framework significant additional recognition
      will be given where high quality research has contributed to the
      economy, society, public policy, culture, the environment, international
      development or quality of life.
      http://www.hefce.ac.uk/research/ref/impact/
USA : National Science Foundation : since 2004 grants have to demonstrate
      impact http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2004/nsf042/bicexamples.pdf
The Curriculum is a /the key area to
intervene

The curriculum is the area where universities can most
    directly intervene
As an institution one can choose to
make links with industry / enterprise /student future
    employment a key strategic priority
Focus on certain disciplines
Reshape how disciplines are taught and assessed to
    encourage employablity ….
Curriculum design as controlling a set of
different goals /forces
Learning Outcomes and employability

IF an institution is requiring /encouraging courses to be rewritten in
       terms of learning outcomes then make it a requirement that these
       in part focus on employability skills/graduate attributes that
       support employablity etc
E.g.
Http://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/ese/relatedpubs/Reflectio
       n%20and%20employability.pdf
http://www.qaa.ac.uk/reviews/institutionalAudit/outcomes/PlacementL
       earning.pdf
QAA Enhancement theme on employability

Quality Assurance in Scotland funds and supports specific areas for
      development in institutions
Enhancement Themes encourage academic and support staff, and students
      collectively to share current good practice and to generate ideas and
      models for innovation in learning and teaching.
This model could be adapted at institutional level


Number of projects in institutions and disciplines promoting
      employability
http://www.enhancementthemes.ac.uk/themes/Employability/publi
      cations.asp
University of Nottingham: Learning Outcomes
and Key and Transferable Skills
 One of the focuses of activity in the Learning and Teaching Strategy 2007-12 is to ‘ Provide graduates of the University
          of Nottingham with the skills and experience that maximise their employability. ‘
 Research has identified that employers, students and academics value the following key/transferable skills:
 •        Oral and Written Communication
 •        Team Work
 •        Self Management
 •        Problem Solving
 •        Critical Thinking
 •        Professionalism
 •        Information Technology
 •        Numeracy


 http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/courses-office/good-practice/learning-outcomes.htm
Disciplinary variations

Recent survey of UK academics – science and technology based –of their engagements with industry ..


“Engagement was mainly individually motivated and that patterns of engagement differed from
         discipline to discipline
Disciplines such as civil engineering required a tight integration between research and practice. In these areas,
industrial practice might even be in advance of academic research, which is focused on probing causal mechanisms
with which practising engineers may be less concerned.
In other disciplines, the mechanisms of transfer and exchange between research and practice were one step removed
as academics were working on challenges that could take many years of research and could be far removed from
potential application.


Despite the different patterns of engagements, there was widespread consensus as to the leading motivating factors
for academics to link up with industry - development of their research and additional research income.”


http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20101029220436438
A UK nationally funded institutional centre
for ‘enterprise’
York, Sheffield and Leeds Universities ( all research universities )- a nationally
      funded project http://wrcetle.wordpress.com/


The … enable students to develop enterprise skills so that they are equipped to
      make an impact in the future as social entrepreneurs, enterprising
      employees and successful business owners. Each of the three
      universities involved will have an Enterprise Zone: a dedicated
      enterprise teaching and learning facility that forms an institutional
      focal point for students, researchers and staff interested in
      enterprise….intends to expand embedded enterprise across the whole
      curriculum for all three universities, with a focus in social sciences,
      arts and humanities. ( emphasis added)
Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning
Durham University : founded 2007
An Enterprise Resource Centre …provide(s) advice, assistance and support to all of our
      internal stakeholders, students and all staff, who might be interested in exploring
      enterprise in its broadest sense. This encompasses developing skills,
      entrepreneurial attributes and behaviours through to establishing independent
      businesses or incorporating entrepreneurship in programme delivery, teaching and
      learning experiences.
We are also actively engaging with external stakeholders such as the small business
      communities, policy makers, business support organisations and Enterprise
      Education and Business Development intermediaries




http://www.dur.ac.uk/cel/
The curriculum : involve professional
bodies

In the UK , USA …many professional bodies specify /work with
     institutions to ensure that their degrees in certain disciplines help
     students obtain professional recognition for their degrees


Eg Psychology UK
     http://www.bps.org.uk/membership/grades/grades_home.cfm


Engineering USA http://www.science-
     engineering.net/america/engineering_accreditation.htm
The Curriculum : Rethink final year
research /capstone projects

Most UK institutions have ( undergraduate) curriculum
    requirements that require a final year research project
Internationally many institutions are rethinking the form of
    these final year projects
http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/guides/
    studentres.aspx
http://insight.glos.ac.uk/tli/activities/ntf/creativehops/Page
    s/default.aspx
Biology start up business final year project,
University of Durham, UK


Biology Enterprise is a collaborative venture between Durham Business School and the
       School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. This elective module for final year
       undergraduate students in the School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences aims
       to introduce science students to the key processes of business start-up and
       enhance their enterprising skills and behaviours. The module is project-orientated with
       self-selecting groups of students who generate an idea for a business opportunity that is
       based on a scientific discovery. Students use their knowledge and understanding of science
       to develop and research their idea into a technology that can be readily commercialised e.g. a
       diabetes breath tester, a biodegradable chewing gum. In parallel, the Business School
       teaches students the necessary skills and knowledge required to develop their idea into a
       successful business. This course offers science undergraduates an alternative to the
       traditional laboratory-based project and is useful for those seeking employment in
       business and commerce.
ftp://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/events/dur05/przyborski.pdf
Manchester University : An optional element
in initial university teacher training /accreditation

Learning Outcomes …..Fellows will be able to:
•    Design, teach and assess enterprise curricula to undergraduate,
     postgraduate and short-course students..
•    Promote enterprise learning to students and staff within and beyond
     universities …
•    Undertake study and evaluation of enterprise, entrepreneurship and
     technology transfer..
•    Mentor students through the technology transfer process from evaluation
     of business proposition through to establishment of a company

http://www.mbs.ac.uk/aboutus/enterprise/p
     ost/ent-fellow.htm
Edinburgh University -Research and
Innovation Centre

Edinburgh Research and Innovation (ERI), based at the University,
     helps promote and commercialise the University’s research.
ERI has extensive experience of working with external organisations
     and can help postgraduate researchers build on research
     successes.
ERI supports the first steps to market research and maximise
     commercial opportunities, whether it be through collaborative
     research, licensing your technology to another company, forming
     your own company or providing consultancy services.
http://www.research-innovation.ed.ac.uk/
Cambridge University Science Park

Established .. in 1970, Cambridge Science Park is the UK’s oldest and most prestigious
      science park.
Home to over 100 companies and 1,650,000 sq ft of buildings, Cambridge Science Park
      continues to attract new businesses, from small start-ups and spin-outs to
      subsidiaries of multinational corporations.
There is a restriction on the type of companies permitted access to the Cambridge
      Science Park. The majority of companies are involved in scientific research and
      development. There are a few companies that directly support the research and
      development occupiers and these include patent agents and venture capital funds.


http://www.cambridgesciencepark.co.uk/
Rethink reward structures and appointments so that they
in part reward selected staff who support links with
industry etc

Eg Professors of Practice: Newcastle University and Newcastle Science City
Newcastle University Business School has four Professors of Practice, all with
      successful track records in business and industry and all running their
      own companies. They bring this commercial acumen and hands-on
      experience to Newcastle University.
The Professors of Practice work part-time, allowing them to work both in their
      own enterprises and in the University. A crucial element of their role,
      and of those who support their role, is to build and encourage
      relationships with a wide variety of stakeholders.
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/nubs/business/pops.htm
National and institutional strategies to
strengthen university /business linkages

National organisational changes
National funding prioritises certain disciplines for teaching and research
National Research funding and strategies
The institution : make /require strategic changes in the curriculum
The curriculum : involve professional bodies
The curriculum : reshape how they are taught and assessed
Institutional :Create formal and informal university /industry
     partnerships
Rethink reward structures and appointments
The final slide is …

What –if any –of this is relevant to Vietnam /your
   institution?

What if anything is now worth considering
   /proposing doing re Vietnam / your institution?

What questions do you now want to put to me ?

								
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