Linking universities with business and industry: A perspective from the United Kingdom (UK) Alan Jenkins, Professor Emeritus Oxford Brookes University (UK) About Alan Jenkins Started as a teacher/researcher on human geography mainly in the UK but also Canada and USA Moved into educational /faculty development mainly in the UK but experience in North America , Australia , New Zealand and Europe Main specialism –relations between teaching and research in universities and national systems : and institutional and national policies re teaching and research Recently consultant to UK national bodies : the Higher Education Academy and QAA Scotland Limited experience re direct links with industry but central to an institutional policy to make graduates more ‘enterprising’ and have written extensively on curriculum design and ‘enterprise’. www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/resources/publicati ons/DevelopingUndergraduate_Final.pdf Private discussions with those sitting near you What are the current links between the university and industry and business /industry Do you consider they need strengthening ? If so in what ways? What are the questions about the UK system and its links with industry and business that might interest you ? What aspects of the UK system do you think might be most relevant to Vietnam ? The final slide is … What –if any –of this is relevant to Vietnam /your institution? What if anything is now worth considering /proposing doing re Vietnam / your institution? What questions do you now want to put to me ? Higher Education and business in the UK: a contested relationship : Report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education – the Dearing Report. 1997 “The aim of higher education should be to sustain a learning society. The four main purposes which makeup this aim are: To inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life, so that they grow intellectually, are well equipped for work, can contribute effectively to society and achieve personal fulfillment To increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake and to foster their application to the benefit of the economy and society To serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge-based economy at local, regional and national levels; To play a major role in shaping a democratic, civilized, inclusive society.” ( emphasis added) One UK groups argument for strengthening UK /business linkages “ The future of the UK rests on developing a more knowledge intensive and value adding economy. Universities are central to this agenda as they are in the knowledge business. They develop the research, graduates and post-graduates that will power our future.” Council for Industry and Higher Education 2008 National and institutional strategies to strengthen university /business linkages National organisational changes National funding prioritises certain disciplines for teaching and research National Research funding and strategies The institution : make /require strategic changes in the curriculum The curriculum : involve professional bodies The curriculum : reshape how they are taught and assessed Institutional :Create formal and informal university /industry partnerships Rethink reward structures and appointments Key change in ‘location’ of UK higher education policy Long was part of the Ministry of Education which included schools ..and higher education in the same department Higher Education now part of Department for Business, Innovation and Skills Oct 2010: UK Government announces funding shift to STEM disciplines Oct 2010: UK Government announces funding shift to STEM disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics An end to virtually all state funding for teaching in the arts, humanities and social sciences after announcing a cut to higher education funding, excluding research, of 40 per cent Future state funding for teaching has been promised only for STEM disiplines . Require /encourage research that in part focuses on industry and impact Can be done at both national and institutional levels Prioritise research to STEM disciplines ie Science ,Technology … Require research to in part focus on impact UK : 2010 : Research Excellence Framework significant additional recognition will be given where high quality research has contributed to the economy, society, public policy, culture, the environment, international development or quality of life. http://www.hefce.ac.uk/research/ref/impact/ USA : National Science Foundation : since 2004 grants have to demonstrate impact http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2004/nsf042/bicexamples.pdf The Curriculum is a /the key area to intervene The curriculum is the area where universities can most directly intervene As an institution one can choose to make links with industry / enterprise /student future employment a key strategic priority Focus on certain disciplines Reshape how disciplines are taught and assessed to encourage employablity …. Curriculum design as controlling a set of different goals /forces Learning Outcomes and employability IF an institution is requiring /encouraging courses to be rewritten in terms of learning outcomes then make it a requirement that these in part focus on employability skills/graduate attributes that support employablity etc E.g. Http://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/ese/relatedpubs/Reflectio n%20and%20employability.pdf http://www.qaa.ac.uk/reviews/institutionalAudit/outcomes/PlacementL earning.pdf QAA Enhancement theme on employability Quality Assurance in Scotland funds and supports specific areas for development in institutions Enhancement Themes encourage academic and support staff, and students collectively to share current good practice and to generate ideas and models for innovation in learning and teaching. This model could be adapted at institutional level Number of projects in institutions and disciplines promoting employability http://www.enhancementthemes.ac.uk/themes/Employability/publi cations.asp University of Nottingham: Learning Outcomes and Key and Transferable Skills One of the focuses of activity in the Learning and Teaching Strategy 2007-12 is to ‘ Provide graduates of the University of Nottingham with the skills and experience that maximise their employability. ‘ Research has identified that employers, students and academics value the following key/transferable skills: • Oral and Written Communication • Team Work • Self Management • Problem Solving • Critical Thinking • Professionalism • Information Technology • Numeracy http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/courses-office/good-practice/learning-outcomes.htm Disciplinary variations Recent survey of UK academics – science and technology based –of their engagements with industry .. “Engagement was mainly individually motivated and that patterns of engagement differed from discipline to discipline Disciplines such as civil engineering required a tight integration between research and practice. In these areas, industrial practice might even be in advance of academic research, which is focused on probing causal mechanisms with which practising engineers may be less concerned. In other disciplines, the mechanisms of transfer and exchange between research and practice were one step removed as academics were working on challenges that could take many years of research and could be far removed from potential application. Despite the different patterns of engagements, there was widespread consensus as to the leading motivating factors for academics to link up with industry - development of their research and additional research income.” http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20101029220436438 A UK nationally funded institutional centre for ‘enterprise’ York, Sheffield and Leeds Universities ( all research universities )- a nationally funded project http://wrcetle.wordpress.com/ The … enable students to develop enterprise skills so that they are equipped to make an impact in the future as social entrepreneurs, enterprising employees and successful business owners. Each of the three universities involved will have an Enterprise Zone: a dedicated enterprise teaching and learning facility that forms an institutional focal point for students, researchers and staff interested in enterprise….intends to expand embedded enterprise across the whole curriculum for all three universities, with a focus in social sciences, arts and humanities. ( emphasis added) Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning Durham University : founded 2007 An Enterprise Resource Centre …provide(s) advice, assistance and support to all of our internal stakeholders, students and all staff, who might be interested in exploring enterprise in its broadest sense. This encompasses developing skills, entrepreneurial attributes and behaviours through to establishing independent businesses or incorporating entrepreneurship in programme delivery, teaching and learning experiences. We are also actively engaging with external stakeholders such as the small business communities, policy makers, business support organisations and Enterprise Education and Business Development intermediaries http://www.dur.ac.uk/cel/ The curriculum : involve professional bodies In the UK , USA …many professional bodies specify /work with institutions to ensure that their degrees in certain disciplines help students obtain professional recognition for their degrees Eg Psychology UK http://www.bps.org.uk/membership/grades/grades_home.cfm Engineering USA http://www.science- engineering.net/america/engineering_accreditation.htm The Curriculum : Rethink final year research /capstone projects Most UK institutions have ( undergraduate) curriculum requirements that require a final year research project Internationally many institutions are rethinking the form of these final year projects http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/guides/ studentres.aspx http://insight.glos.ac.uk/tli/activities/ntf/creativehops/Page s/default.aspx Biology start up business final year project, University of Durham, UK Biology Enterprise is a collaborative venture between Durham Business School and the School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. This elective module for final year undergraduate students in the School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences aims to introduce science students to the key processes of business start-up and enhance their enterprising skills and behaviours. The module is project-orientated with self-selecting groups of students who generate an idea for a business opportunity that is based on a scientific discovery. Students use their knowledge and understanding of science to develop and research their idea into a technology that can be readily commercialised e.g. a diabetes breath tester, a biodegradable chewing gum. In parallel, the Business School teaches students the necessary skills and knowledge required to develop their idea into a successful business. This course offers science undergraduates an alternative to the traditional laboratory-based project and is useful for those seeking employment in business and commerce. ftp://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/events/dur05/przyborski.pdf Manchester University : An optional element in initial university teacher training /accreditation Learning Outcomes …..Fellows will be able to: • Design, teach and assess enterprise curricula to undergraduate, postgraduate and short-course students.. • Promote enterprise learning to students and staff within and beyond universities … • Undertake study and evaluation of enterprise, entrepreneurship and technology transfer.. • Mentor students through the technology transfer process from evaluation of business proposition through to establishment of a company http://www.mbs.ac.uk/aboutus/enterprise/p ost/ent-fellow.htm Edinburgh University -Research and Innovation Centre Edinburgh Research and Innovation (ERI), based at the University, helps promote and commercialise the University’s research. ERI has extensive experience of working with external organisations and can help postgraduate researchers build on research successes. ERI supports the first steps to market research and maximise commercial opportunities, whether it be through collaborative research, licensing your technology to another company, forming your own company or providing consultancy services. http://www.research-innovation.ed.ac.uk/ Cambridge University Science Park Established .. in 1970, Cambridge Science Park is the UK’s oldest and most prestigious science park. Home to over 100 companies and 1,650,000 sq ft of buildings, Cambridge Science Park continues to attract new businesses, from small start-ups and spin-outs to subsidiaries of multinational corporations. There is a restriction on the type of companies permitted access to the Cambridge Science Park. The majority of companies are involved in scientific research and development. There are a few companies that directly support the research and development occupiers and these include patent agents and venture capital funds. http://www.cambridgesciencepark.co.uk/ Rethink reward structures and appointments so that they in part reward selected staff who support links with industry etc Eg Professors of Practice: Newcastle University and Newcastle Science City Newcastle University Business School has four Professors of Practice, all with successful track records in business and industry and all running their own companies. They bring this commercial acumen and hands-on experience to Newcastle University. The Professors of Practice work part-time, allowing them to work both in their own enterprises and in the University. A crucial element of their role, and of those who support their role, is to build and encourage relationships with a wide variety of stakeholders. http://www.ncl.ac.uk/nubs/business/pops.htm National and institutional strategies to strengthen university /business linkages National organisational changes National funding prioritises certain disciplines for teaching and research National Research funding and strategies The institution : make /require strategic changes in the curriculum The curriculum : involve professional bodies The curriculum : reshape how they are taught and assessed Institutional :Create formal and informal university /industry partnerships Rethink reward structures and appointments The final slide is … What –if any –of this is relevant to Vietnam /your institution? What if anything is now worth considering /proposing doing re Vietnam / your institution? What questions do you now want to put to me ?
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