GRAMMAR by xumiaomaio

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 12

									                                            Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                           Date _______________
                                                                   Period ___
                            GRAMMAR TEST – OPEN BOOK

                           WRITING COMPLETE SENTENCES

                      Sentences, Sentence Fragments, Phrases, Clauses




Read all directions carefully: Identifying and correcting sentences for completeness
helps the developing writer! Carefully read the information and complete the exercises to
follow. This completed information and practice packet will earn a TEST grade. All
answers and information are REQUIRED to be PRINTED (zero points will be earned
otherwise!!!) Use your Grammar & Writing books for additional information, examples
and review (refer to/use the Index for page identifications!)

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1. Definition of a sentence: A sentence is a word group that has a subject and a verb and
expresses a complete thought.



Print   the definition of a sentence (provided above) in the space provided:



___________________________________________________________________________________

2. Definition of a sentence fragment: A sentence fragment is a word group that does not
have all the basic parts of a complete sentence. A fragment does not express a complete
thought. It is missing some important information.



Print the complete definition of a sentence fragment (directly above) in the space
provided:




______________________________________________________________________________________




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                                                          Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                         Date _______________
                                                                                 Period ___


3. To“test” whether or not you have written a complete sentence or a sentence fragment,
always ask yourself the following three (3) questions:

             a.   Does the group of words have a subject?

             b.   Does the group of words have a verb?

             c.   Does it express a complete thought?



Print the   sentence fragment “test” questions above in the space provided:

             a.   ______________________________________________________

             b.   ______________________________________________________

             c.   ______________________________________________________



4. Definition of a subject and a predicate in a sentence: A sentence consists of two parts:
the subject and the predicate. The subject names the person, place, thing or idea spoken
about in the sentence. The predicate says something about the subject.



Print the complete definition of a subject and a predicate (above) in the space provided:



______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________




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                                                  Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                 Date _______________
                                                                         Period ___


5. Make each of the following fragments a sentence by adding a subject (print only!):



           a.   ____________________________ was howling at the moon.



           b.   _____________________________ can make the pizza.



           c.   ____________________________ is needed for this recipe.



           d.   Was _______________ the person who won the tennis match?



           e.   _____________________ stood on the stage singing.



           f.   _________________________ were late to science class.



           g.   Buzzing around the room was _________________________.



           h.   In the middle of the yard grew _____________________________.



6. Make each of the following fragments a sentence by adding a predicate (print only!):



           a.   Adam’s poetry and short stories _______________________________.




                                                                                          3
                                                    Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                   Date _______________
                                                                           Period ___




           b.   Logan, Caleb and Carson ______________________________________.



           c. Laura and Darrius’ cousin
           _______________________________________.



           d. This particular novel
           ____________________________________________.



           e. Brooke’s realistic way of presenting life
           _____________________________.



7. Determine whether the groups of words below are fragments or sentences. Circle
“yes” if it’s a complete sentence or Circle “no” if it is a sentence fragment:

           a.   Was the best basketball player in the United States. (yes/no)



           b.   Annie Oakley with “Buffalo” Bill Cody’s Wild West show. (yes/no)



           c.   As it fell through the air ninety feet away. (yes/no)



   8. What (if anything) is missing in the sentences to follow? If the item is a complete
   sentence write “C” next to it. If the subject is missing write “S.” If the verb is
   missing write “V.” If the item has a subject and a verb, but doesn’t express a
   complete thought, write “I.”


   a.   Truman Capote was an American author. ______




                                                                                        4
                                                          Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                         Date _______________
                                                                                 Period ___



    b.   Was born in New Orleans in 1924. _______


    c.   Grew up in Alabama. _________


    d.   Because he hated attending boarding schools. ________


    e.   Breakfast at Tiffany’s probably his most famous novel. ______


    f.   When he moved to New York City. ____


    g.   “A Christmas Memory” was made into a television movie. ____


    h.   His characters lively and eccentric. ________


    i.   Is one of his most moving stories. __________


    j.   Spent six years researching his nonfiction book In Cold Blood. ____



9. Definition of a phrase: A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject and
a verb. There are three (3) kinds of phrases that can easily be mistaken for complete
sentences: verbal phrases, appositive phrases and prepositional phrases.



Print the (above) definition of a phrase in the space provided:



______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                         5
                                                          Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                         Date _______________
                                                                                 Period ___




    10. Definition of an appositive and an appositive phrase: An appositive is a word that
    identifies or explains the noun or pronoun that it follows. An appositive phrase is a
    phrase made up of an appositive and its modifiers and is only a fragment.



Print the (above) definition of an appositive and an appositive phrase in the space provided:



______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________


 Below is an appositive fragment, as well as a complete sentence containing an appositive
phrase.



    a.   A twenty-five-year-old soldier. (fragment)



    b. Colonel Shaw, a twenty-five-year-old soldier, commanded the 54th
    Massachusetts Regiment. (sentence)



Rewrite (print) sentence “b” containing the appositive phrase in the space below and underline the
appositive phrase:



______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                     6
                                                          Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                         Date _______________
                                                                                 Period ___




    11. Identify the appositives in the next two sentences by underlining them. Also,
    print the appositive phrases in the space provided:



    a.   Mike, the best mechanic in the garage, worked on my car.



(Write ONLY THE APPOSITIVE!) ________________________________________



    b. In two years I will graduate from Madison High School, a red brick building
    with a golden dome.



(Write ONLY THE APPOSITIVE!) _________________________________________



 12. Definition of a clause: A clause is a group of words that contains a verb and its
subject and is used as part of a sentence. All clauses have a subject and a verb, but not
all of them express a complete thought. Those that do express a complete thought are
called independent clauses. Clauses that do not make complete sense by themselves are
called dependent (subordinate) clauses.



Print the above definition of a clause in the space provided below:

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                            7
                                                    Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                   Date _______________
                                                                           Period ___




    13. Re-print the following independent clauses below:



    a.   The outfielders were missing easy fly balls.



    b.   The infielders were throwing wildly.



________________________________________________________________________


    14. To show the relationship between these two ideas, we can combine them as
    independent clauses in a single sentence:



The outfielders were missing easy fly balls, and the infielders were throwing wildly.



Re-print the sentence above:



_____________________________________________________________________________________




Independent clauses may also be joined by the conjunctions but, or, nor, for and yet.


Fill in the correct conjunction in the spaces provided to join the independent clauses
below and make them into sentences:



    a.   Should we go for a walk, ______ is it too hot outside?




                                                                                         8
                                                         Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                        Date _______________
                                                                                Period ___




   b.   Amber was not tired, _______ her tennis partner Samantha was.



15. A subordinate (dependent) clause cannot stand by itself. It “depends” on more
information to complete its meaning. Subordinate actually means “lesser in rank or
importance.”

Sample subordinate (dependent) clauses:

        who spoke to our class yesterday

        that many students are eligible for scholarships

        because no students have applied for them



Words such as if, when, although, since and because always make the clause they
introduce sound unfinished. Re-print the sentences below that contain the dependent
clauses listed above. Also underline each dependent clause:


   a. The woman who spoke to our class yesterday informed us of financial aid for
   college applicants.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

   b.   She said that many students are eligible for scholarships.



   c.   Some scholarships are still available because no students have applied for them.

_____________________________________________________________________
16 -25. Identifying sentences and fragments. If a group of words is a sentence write “S”
in the space provided at the end of the sentence. If it is NOT a sentence write “F” for
fragment.

   1.    Willa Cather was born in Back Creek Valley, in North Carolina. ____




                                                                                           9
                                                            Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                           Date _______________
                                                                                   Period ___




   2.    In 1883, when she was ten years old. ____

   3.    Her family moved to the treeless prairie of Nebraska. ______

   4.    Fascinated by the wild, rolling planes. ______

   5.    She tracked buffalo and collected prairie flowers. _____

   6.    Listened to the stories and neighboring settlers. _____

   7.    They told memorable tales about the harsh struggles of the homesteaders. _____

   8.    In her first novel, O Pioneers! ______

   9.    She describes how farmers turned the unruly plains into neat fields of wheat and corn. _____

   10.   After high school in the village of Red Cloud, Nebraska. _______


26-35. Identify the independent and dependent (subordinate) clauses. Phrases in bold are
either independent or dependent (subordinate) clauses. In the space provided at the end of
each sentence write an “I” for independent clause or an “S” for a subordinate/dependent
clause:

   1.  The Brooklyn Bridge, which spans the strong tides of the East River between Brooklyn and
   Manhattan, is one of the engineering wonders of the world. __________

   2.    Massive granite towers that are supported by pneumatic caissons are its most remarkable
   features. _______

   3.   The bridge was designed and built by John Washington Roebling, a father-and-son
   engineering team who were pioneers in the use of steel-wire cables. _________

   4.  Because of the steel-wire cables used in its construction, the bridge is a graceful structure that
   resembles a spider’s web. _________

   5.    That the bridge combines strength and beauty remains a tribute to the Roebling family. _____

   6.   The Roebling’s discovered that construction work could be both slow and dangerous.
   _______

   7.  Although she was not an engineer, Nora Roebling assisted in the efforts to complete the bridge.
   _____




                                                                                                            10
                                                           Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                          Date _______________
                                                                                  Period ___
   8.   Because at times they were required to work underwater in airtight chambers, many
        workers, including Washington Roebling, suffered from caisson disease. ____________




   9.  Sailors, who were used to working at great heights, were hired to string the miles of cable.
   _____

   10. John Roebling’s foot was injured in an accident, and he died before the bridge’s completion.
   ______


36. - 45. More sentence fragment identifications! If a group of words below is a
sentence, write an “S” in the space provided next to it. If it is NOT a sentence, write an
“F” in the space provided next to it.

   1.   She attended the recently established University of Nebraska in Lincoln. ______

   2.   Although she was first interested in science. _______

   3.   She discovered her talent for writing. ________

   4.   Stories and reviews by Willa Cather soon appeared in the local newspapers of Lincoln. _____

   5.   At first, her writing was relatively unnoticed. ______

   6.   She worked for several years as a schoolteacher and then as a magazine editor in New York City.
   ____

   7.   Although she relished the glamour of New York City. ______

   8.   She never lost touch with the sights and sounds of her childhood in the Midwest. _____

   9.   My Antonia describes Nebraska’s open spaces as well as its grueling challenges. _____

   10. In this novel a boy grows up and leaves the Midwest yet holds a deep reverence for the past.
   ____


46.-50. Identifying appositive phrases. (a) Re-write the appositive phrases in the space
provided. ONLY re-write the appositives. (b) Circle the word that each appositive
modifies. This is a TWO-PART exercise per sentence. DO NOT rewrite the entire
sentence!:

   a.   Soccer, my favorite sport, is very popular in South America.

________________________



                                                                                                      11
                                                    Name __________________________
LANGUAGE ARTS                                                   Date _______________
                                                                           Period ___




   b.   Pelé, the internationally famous soccer star, is from Brazil.

_____________________

   c.   Renzo, my friendly and soft-spoken student, speaks fluent Spanish.

_________________________

   d. Megan, a friend of Michelle’s, will visit her over the summer vacation.
_________________________




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