VEHICULAR WIRELESS NETWORKS AN OVERVIEW SEMINAR-TALK MOBILE SYSTEMS BY PASCAL MUTHER AGENDA Introduction Routing Reliability & Latency Security & Privacy Simulation Positioning Socio-Economic Challenges Future Research Summary Discussion INTRODUCTION I Vehicle Ad-hoc network (VANET) • Decentralized • No communication coordinator • No fix communication Infrastructure • Moving nodes (cars), somehow predictable • Using WiFi (IEEE 802.11) Cellular network alternative Increase safety, efficiency & ecology of traffic INTRODUCTION II Car-to-car communication • Information sharing • Lane change • Road conditions • Remote diagnostic • Intelligent Navigation systems • Traffic jams • Accidents Vehicle-to-Roadside communication • Speed advisory • Traffic Information • Speeding tickets INTRODUCTION III Intra-car communication • Wireless automotive sensor network (WANS) • Replacing cables • Opening new fields (e.g. Wheel pressure sensors) • Cost and weight reduction • Multimedia devices (not discussed) ROUTING I Standardsoftware without subnets • No routers and IP routing • ARP-Requests in whole net • mobility • Global DHCP-Server • Message overhead without subnets Standardsoftware with subnets • ARP limited to cluster • No global DHCP-Server • 3 running Protocols (IP, ARP, Flooding) with subnets ROUTING II Customized software • Efficiency • With or without subnets • Non standard Conclusion • No best solution • Customized software improves efficiency • For complex network structure customized software desirable • IP is not must, deliverable by hardware address RELIABILITY & LATENCY I Important for wireless automotive sensor networks (WANS) Limited time /area of relevance No TCP/IP needed Why ZigBee? • Closest suitable match • Cost • Power consumption • Data Rate Comparison of existing standards RELIABILITY & LATENCY II Interferences with Bluetooth? • same Frequency Range, ISM-Band (2.4 GHz) • Optional Bluetooth devices Conclusion • Without Bluetooth • nearly error-free • With Bluetooth • mostly acceptable performance • for some parts meshed networks (cable & wireless) recommended SECURITY & PRIVACY Reliable and safe Information needed • Networks of trust • encryption De- & Encryption cost Either message authentication or privacy SIMULATION I Environment • Traffic simulation • e.g. CARISMA • Hard to simulate real traffic behaviour • Network simulation • e.g. NS2 • Many different approaches and software • Application simulation SIMULATION II Approach I Approach III • Synchronisation at tx • Only estimation for • Equal position in traffic tx+1transmitted & network simulation • Wrong positions • Hopping points Approach IV Approach II • Head start for traffic • Position at tx and simulation estimation for tx+1 • Accurate positions • Gap between • Best choice estimation and real location SIMULATION III Coupling Approaches POSITIONING I Positioning with VANET • GPS is too expensiv • Not always possible (e.g. Buildings) • Fix WiFi-Infrastructure needed • Easy appraoch with WiFi-Infrastructure POSITIONING II Vehicle Tracking (VETRAC) • WiFi-Hotspots needed (fix) • Tracking nodes (vehicles) by their IP • Applications • Vehicle Tracking • Theft prevention SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES Market penetration High network effects Cost Competition in defining standards FUTURE RESEARCH I Internet Access • How to connect • Roadside infrastructure • C2C-Approach with multi-hop • Cellular systems • Possibilities • Information • City guide • entertainment FUTURE RESEARCH II Mobile Agents • Are everywhere (PDA, Cell, Notebook,…) • How to connect • possiblities SUMMARY Of economical & technical interest Evolving research area Dynamic movement as difficult challenge Different car-manufacturers are also involved in research Market penetration as a big problem Many problems to solve… … some are already solved QUESTIONS ??? BREAK DISCUSSION I Is VANET defining a new standard for the automobile industry? DISCUSSION II Are actual Network Protocols enough powerfull to support this new Networkstructure DISCUSSION III Isn’t it too expensive to build up so large public infrastructure paid by taxes? DISCUSSION IV Is it creating a new two-class society? Those who can use VANET and those who can‘t? DISUSSION V Can the VANET approach also be used in other areas as airports/planes or in hospitals? REFERENCES I S. Eichler et al.: Simulation of car-to car messaging: Analyzing the impact on road traffic, 13th Annual Meeting of the IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), September 2005. M. Ahmed, C.U. Saraydar, T. ElBatt, J. Yin, T. Talty, m. Ames: Intra-vehicular Wireless Networks, Globecom-Workshops, 2007, pp.1-9, 26-30 Nov. 2007. R. de Francisco, L. Huang, G. Dolmans, H. de Groot: Coexistence of ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks and Bluetooth inside a vehicle, Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2009. IEEE 20th International Symposion, pp. 2700-2704, 13-16 Sept. 2009. REFERENCES II S. Yoon, Ch. Qiao, R.S. Sudhaakar, J. Li, T. Talty: QoMOR: A QoS-aware MAC protocol using Optimal Retransmission for Wireless Intra-Vehicular Sensor Networks, Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments, 2007. pp. 121-126, 11 May 2007. M. Khanapurkar, P. Bajaj, D. Gharode: A Design Approach for Intelligent Vehicle Black Box Systems with Intra-Vehicular communication using LIN/Flex-ray Protocols, Industrial Technology, 2008. ICIT 2008. IEEE International Conference, pp. 1-6, 21-24 April 2008. A. Thangavelu, K. Bhuvaneswari, K. Kumar, K. Senthilkumar, S.N. Sivanandam: Location Identification and Vehicle Tracking using VANET (VETRAC), Signal Processing, Communication and Networking, 2007. ICSCN '07, pp.112- 116, 22-24 Feb. 2007. REFERENCES III H. Fussler, S. Schnaufer, M. Transier, W. Effelsberg: Vehicular ad-hoc networks: from vision to reality and back, Wireless on Demand Network Systems and Services, 2007. WONS '07, pp.80-83, 24-26 Jan. 2007. O. Urra, S. Ilarri, T. Delot, E. Mena: Mobile Agents in Vehicular Networks: Taking a First Ride, 8th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (PAAMS), pp. 118-124, 2010. C. Maihofer, M. Bechler: Design alternatives for IP in vehicles, Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Spring. The 57th IEEE Semiannual, vol.3, no., pp. 1783-1787 vol.3, 22- 25 April 2003 REFERENCES IV M.E. Zarki, S. Mehrota, G. Tsudik, N. Venkatasubramanian: Security Issues in a Future Vehicular Network, Symposiumm a Quarterly Journal in modern Literatures, pp. 270-274, 2002.