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Baroque

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					               Baroque
• 1600 to 1750
• Baroque was coined in 1750 as a
  derogatory term (meaning deformed
  pearl)
• “Filled Space”

• Italy was the most influential country for
  the entire period
        The two practices
• Giovanni Maria Artusi criticized
  Monteverdi's works especially Cruda
  Amarilli because of Monteverdi's
  unconventional approach to
  counterpoint
• Monteverdi characterized Zarlino's style
  as prima pratica and his own as
  seconda pratica
• In Monteverdi's seconda pratica,
   Cruda Amarilli (NAWM 53)
• Monteverdi
• Madrigal
• violates Zarlino’s rules
  – for the sake of expressing the text
 Characteristics of Baroque
           Music
• Rhythm
  – very regular or very free
• Texture
  – firm bass and florid treble, with
   unobtrusive harmony
          Basso Continuo
• notated treble and bass lines with
  numbers (figures) above the bass line
  (figured bass) to guide the person filling
  in the chords
  – The bass line was played by a sustaining
    instrument, such as bass viola da gamba,
    violoncello, bassoon
• Chords were played (realized) on
  keyboard or lute
              Harmony
• Dissonances helped direct the harmonic
  progressions toward cadences
• Major-minor tonalities developed

• Rameau's Treatise on Harmony, 1722,
  codified the harmonic system
             Early Opera
• Intermedi, or intermezzi
  – pastoral, allegorical, or mythological
    interludes
  – staged between acts of a play
  – “Madrigal Comedies”
  The Florentine Camerata
• early 1570s onward
• Count Giovanni Bardi
• Florence, Italy
      The Earliest Operas
• Ottavio Rinuccini (1562–621), a poet,
  and Jacopo Peri (1561–1633), a
  composer, collaborated on all-sung
  works
• Dafne, produced in Florence in 1598.
  Only fragments survive
• L'Euridice was set by Peri and also by
  Giulio Caccini; both settings were
  published
  Peri's Euridice (NAWM 52)
• Optional
• monody
• Prologue (NAWM 52a), was modeled
  on the strophic aria
Monteverdi's L'Orfeo (1607)
• First great opera
• based on Greek Mythology
• Recitative: Tu se morta
  – Basso Continuo
• Word Painting
•
         Opera in Venice
• Teatro San Cassiano
  – 1637
  – First Public Opera House
       Venice vs. Florence
• Florence: the text is the master of the
  music.
• Venice: the libretto merely supports the
  musical structure.
      Concertato Medium
• Italian concertare, to reach agreement:
• mingling of voices with instruments that
  are playing independent parts
       St. Mark's Cathedral
• the most prestigious place for a
  musician to work
• Divided choirs (cori spezzati)
• Giovanni Gabrieli
       In ecclesiis (NAWM 58)
•   Giovanni Gabrieli
•   “Grand Concerto”
•   cori spezzati
•   specified instruments
  Giacomo Carissimi (1605–
          1674)
• Latin oratorios
Heinrich Schütz (1585–1672)
• greatest German composer of the
  mid-seventeenth century
• Studied in Venice with Giovanni Gabrieli
• 1617–72, worked at the chapel of the
  elector of Saxony in Dresden
• His only surviving compositions were
  sacred:
NAWM 62, Saul, was verfolgst
         du mich
• Schutz
• Grand concerto for six solo voices, two
  four-voice choirs, and two violins with
  basso continuo (and possibly with
  instruments doubling the choruses)
  – rests
  – Echo effect between soloists and chorus
  – Contrasting forces
Instrumental Music
 Variations on a given melody
            or bass
• partita
• passacaglia
• chaconne
 Pieces in improvisatory style
   for solo keyboard or lute
• Toccata
               Sonata
• any composition for instruments
• The typical combination was two treble
  parts (usually violin) with basso
  continuo, usually called trio sonatas
            agréments
• ornamentation
   Johann Jakob Froberger
• French suite:
• allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue
          The toccata
• Frescobaldi
• Example: NAWM 65, Toccata No. 3
• Harpsichord

				
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posted:2/20/2012
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