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BEIJING

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					                                  BEIJING
       Beijing is a metropolis in northern China and the capital of the People's Republic of
China. Beijing is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways
passing through the city. It is also the focal point of many international flights to China.
Beijing is recognized as the political, educational, and cultural center of the People's
Republic of China. The best times to visit Beijing are spring (April and May are nicest) and fall
(September and October can be beautiful). Beijing or Peking means "northern capital". The
term Peking originated with French missionaries four hundred years ago and corresponds to
an older pronunciation. The city has been renamed several times: (Jin Dynasty) Zhongdu,
(Mongol Yuan Dynasty) Dadu, (Ming Dynasty) Hongwu, Beiping (Peiping)= ''northern peace’’,
Nanjing, Yanjing. October 1st 1949. Communist Party Of China, under the leadership of Mao
Zedong announced in Tiananmen the creation of the People's Republic of China and renamed
the city back to Beijing.
       Beijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China Plain, which
opens to the south and east of the city. Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the
city and northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert steppes. The
city's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, characterized by hot,
humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, dry winters that
reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone.
Television and radio: CCTV, Beijing Television(BTV), China Radio International, Radio 774.
Press: Beijing Evening News (Beijing Wanbao), The Beijing News (Xin Jing Bao), the Beijing
Star Daily, the Beijing Morning News, and the Beijing Youth Daily (Beijing Qingnian Bao),
Beijing Weekly, Beijing Today, Youth Daily, People's Daily, City Weekend, Beijing This Month,
Beijing Talk, That's Beijing, MetroZine.
Sports: Chinese Super League, Beijing Guoan, Chinese Football Association Jia League,
Beijing Hongdeng, Beijing Institute of Technology FC, Chinese Basketball Association,
Beijing Ducks, Women's Chinese Basketball Association, Beijing Shougang, Asia League Ice
Hockey, China Sharks, China Baseball League, Beijing Tigers.
                         The Forbidden City (Zijin Cheng)
   The Forbidden City was the Chinese
    imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to
    the end of the Qing Dynasty.
   It is located in the middle of Beijing, China,
    and now houses the Palace Museum.
   For almost five centuries, it served as the
    home of the Emperor and his household,
    as well as the ceremonial and political
    centre of Chinese government.
   The complex consists 980 surviving
    buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms and
    covers 720,000 square meters.
   Forbidden City, which is located north of
    the Tiananmen Square, and to whom is
    going through the same gate, UNESCO
    declared World Heritage in 1987. year.
   Building forbidden city started the 1406th
    year.
   It took 14 years and about 200,000
    workers to complete the complex.
   It is protected by UNESCO.
   Part of his name - Forbidden refers to the
    fact that no one could enter or leave the
    palace without the permission of the
    emperor.
   The design of the Forbidden City, from its
    overall layout to the smallest detail, was
    meticulously planned to reflect
    philosophical and religious principles, and
    above all to symbolize the majesty of
    Imperial power.
                      The Great Wall of China
 The Great Wall Of China is a
  series of stone and earthen
  fortifications in China, built,
  rebuilt, and maintained between
  the 5th century BC and the 16th
  century to protect the northern
  borders of the Chinese Empire
  from Xiongnu attacks during the
  rule of successive dynasties.
 It stretches over approximately
  6,400 km (4,000 miles) from
  Shanhaiguan in the east to Lop
  Nur in the west, along an arc that
  roughly delineates the southern
  edge of Inner Mongolia, but
  stretches to over 6,700 km (4,160
  miles) in total.
 It was guarded by more than one
  million men.
 Notable Areas: "North Pass" ,
  "West Pass" , "Pass".
                Beijing Kaoya- Beijing Duck

   Peking Duck: a delicious,
    lightly-smoked, rich meal
    complimented by pancakes,
    dipping sauce, vegetable
    filling and irresistible slivers
    of juicy meat, fat and crispy
    skin.
   Peking Duck is said to
    originate from Inner
    Mongolia and was first
    served in a Peking
    restaurant in 1855.
   The original recipe for
    Peking Duck includes a
    description of how to build
    and fire the oven for
    smoking the bird!
                        Tiananmen Square
   The heart of modern China beats in
    Tiananmen Square, the symbol of the
    People's Republic and the center of
    Beijing's landmarks.
   The flagstones of Tiananmen cover a
    staggering 440,000 square meters,
    enough space to allow a million
    people to gather there.
   The Tiananmen Gate Tower sites at
    the north, the Five-Star Red Flag flies
    high on the square, the Monument to
    the People's Heroes dominates the
    center, the Great Hall of the People
    and the Museum of the Chinese
    Revolution and the Museum of
    Chinese History to the east and west
    of it, as well as The Chairman Mao
    Memorial Hall and the Qianmen gate,
    sit in the south of the square.
   Over several hundred years, in front
    of the Tiananmen, many democracy
    meetings and demonstrations are
    held.
   Five Star Red Flag-the Chinese
    national flag, flies high in the sky
    above the Square.
                                Summer Palace
   It is one of the best parks in the city.
   Originally it was a retreat for
    emperors to escape the scorching
    summer heat of Beijing.
   The Summer Palace is huge, most of
    it being taken up by Kunming Lake.
   The dirt that was dug up to make the
    lake was piled up and made into
    Longevity Hill.
   On top of Longevity Hill are several
    Buddhist temples, which, on clear
    days, offer good views of the lake.
   Small boats are available for rent and
    you can motor or paddle about the
    lake.
   Another part of the park, called
    Suzhou street, which is supposed to
    be a model of what the city of Suzhou
    looked like in the Qing Dynasty.
   The “street”encircles a short canal,
    which you can go up and down in a
    gondola-like boat.
                                Temple Of Heaven
   Built between 1409 and 1420, the
    Temple of Heaven is one of Beijing"s
    most impressive parks in terms of
    Heaven is one of Beijing"s most
    impressive parks in terms of
    architecture, color and significance.
   The Temple is basically a huge
    communications terminal which the
    Emperor used to communicate directly
    with Heaven.
   Several times a year, the Emperor
    would come here to pray for good
    harvests, enough rain and other
    heavenly boons.
   The construction of the Temple is based
    around the number nine, the largest of
    the single digits, which is divine in
    Chinese numerology.
   The Temple consists of four basic parts:
    the Round Altar, the Echo Wall, the
    Imperial Vault of Heaven, and the Hall of
    prayer for Good Harvests.
   The Round Altar is where the Emperor
    would report on the status of the
    country to Heaven.
   The Altar is constructed in the middle,
    anything you say is amplified several
    times.
   This is because when the Emperor was talking with Heaven,
    his voice was supposed to be amplified so that it was as if
    his voice was as loud as the collective voice of a whole
    nation.
   The Echo Wall is a round structure which if you whisper
    along the inner wall, your voice can be heard all the way
    around the other side.
   However, there is always a crowd of people whispering(and
    shouting) so it is very hard to get the desired effect.
   Supposedly the Emperor would use this method to secretly
    confer with Inner Court members.
   The Imperial Vault of Heaven and the Hall of Prayer for
    Good Harvests are both structures which were places of
    worship for the Emperor.
   The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests is remarkable
    because it is a 38-meter-tall building which does not have a
    single nail holding it together.
   The original was burnt down in 1889 but has been faithfully
    reconstructed.
   The hall has 28 wooden pillars supporting a 39-meter tower
    of three conical roofs, covered with blue glazed tiles, to
    reflect the color of the sky.
   The wooden walls are richly decorated, inside and out.
   To the west of the complex is the Hall of Abstinence, where
    the emperors would prepare themselves for the solemn
    occasion by spending a night fasting (and without
    concubines!).
   If you go to the Temple of Heaven in the early morning , you
    can see groups of people practicing all types of kung fu and
    taiji.
   You can also practice with them if you are so inclined. This
    is another good activity for the jetlagged.
                                Ming Tombs

   Otherwise known as the “13 Tombs”,
    this is the burial site of 13 out of 17
    emperors of the Ming Dynasty.
   However, the only one you can get a
    good look at is the tomb of Emperor
    Wanli, who reigned from 1537 to
    1620.
   This tomb was unearthed in 1956.
   There are two others that have been
    uncovered, but the rest remain
    illusive.
   The best part of the Ming Tombs is
    the road there.
   The spirit Way is the path leading to
    the mouth of the tomb.
   Along the path are bizarre, mythical
    stone monsters standing guard.
   To get to the tomb itself, you have to
    walk down many flights of stairs till
    you are deep inside the mountain.
   But the actual tomb chambers are a
    little disappointing.
   It's just a couple of stone rooms,
    excavated treasures.
                  Hutong
   According to linguistic experts,
    "hutong" originally meant "well"
    in the Mongolian, Uygur and
    Manchu languages.
   A hutong is an ancient city alley
    or lane typical in Beijing, where
    hutongs run into the several
    thousand.
   The main buildings in the hutong
    were almost all quadrangles--a
    building complex formed by four
    houses around a quadrangular
    courtyard.
   The quadrangles varied in size
    and design according to the
    social status of the residents.
   The ordinary people's
    quadrangles were simply built
    with small gates and low houses.
   Hutongs, in fact, are
    passageways formed by many
    closely arranged quadrangles of
    different sizes.
     Lama Temple = The Yonghe Temple = Palace of Peace
                       and Harmony
   Is a temple and monastery of the Geluk
    School of Tibetan Buddhism located in the
    northeastern part of Beijing.
   The building and the artworks of the
    temple combine Han Chinese and Tibetan
    styles.
   Building work on the Yonghe Temple
    started in 1694 during the Qing Dynasty.
   The Yonghe Temple is arranged along a
    north-south central axis, which has a
    length of 480m.
   Along the axis, there are five main halls
    which are separated by courtyards: the
    Hall of the Heavenly Kings (Tian Wang Dian
    or Devaraja Hall), the Hall of Harmony and
    Peace (Yonghegong), the Hall of
    Everlasting Protection (Yongyoudian), the
    Hall of the Wheel of the Law (Falundian),
    and the Pavilion of Ten Thousand
    Happinesses (Wanfuge).
   The Hall of the Heavenly Kings is the
    southernmost of the main halls, it served
    originally as the main entrance to the
    monastery.
   In the center of the hall stands a statue of
    the Maitreya Buddha, along the walls
    statues of the four Heavenly kings are
    arranged
                                 Beihai Park
   Beihai Park is an extremely popular
    attraction among Beijingers and
    tourists.
   It is very large, about 68.2 hectares,
    and almost two-thirds of the park is a
    lake.
   The park sits in the Beijing’s center,
    used to be the royal garden of the Jin,
    Yuan, Ming and Qing Emperors.
   Besides the lake, the main things to
    see in Beihai are the Round City,
    which contains a jade vase from the
    time of Kublai Khan; the Temple of
    Eternal Peace, the Nine Dragon
    Screen, which is really a
    5-meter-high, 27-meter-long wall
    covered with glazed tiles carved into
    nine intertwining dragons;and the
    White Pagoda on Gem Island in the
    center of the lake.
   You can paddle around in a bizarre
    assortment of boats.
   Within Beihai is also the famous
    Fangshan Restaurant, the best known
    of the Imperial Court style restaurants
    where you can eat Qing Dynasty type
    food, for a pretty penny.
                         Capital Museum
   The former Capital Museum,
    which was located in the
    Confucius Temple, started its
    planning stage in 1953 and
    formally opened to the general
    public in 1981.
   The museum is a five-storey
    mansion, catering for a maximum
    of 13 concurrent exhibitions,
    which can be seen in about 5
    hours at the cost of 30 Yuan per
    visitor.
   The architectural design concept
    of the Capital Museum is based
    on human and cultural heritage
    to serve the community and
    underlines the harmonious
    integration of past and present,
    history and modernism, art and
    nature.
   The construction of the Capital
    Museum itself is a piece of
    architectural artwork integrating
    both classical and modern
    beauty.

				
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