Tuition Assistance Overview

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					Adult Learning in Focus: The National
Landscape and a Picture of Oklahoma
            Presented by: Pamela Tate
             President & CEO, CAEL
                February 26, 2009
                    About CAEL

 CAEL is the Council for Adult and Experiential
 A 501(c)3 non-profit organization with almost 35
  years of lifelong learning and workforce
  development experience
 Mission to remove barriers so that adult learners
  can be successful in postsecondary education
  and training
 Offices in Chicago, Philadelphia, Denver, New
  York and Toronto
       CAEL’s Unique Integrator Role

                                      Workforce Learning
                                       and Development


Lifelong                                         Public
Learning                                         Policy
            Colleges             Government
               and                  and
           Universities          Community
                  Office Jobs

 The share of white collar office jobs has
  risen from 30 to 40 percent of all jobs since
 In 1973, only 38 percent of office workers
  had completed some kind of postsecondary
  education. Today, 69 percent of them
  have, while 37 percent have at least a
  bachelor’s degree.
       Education and Healthcare Jobs

 Since the 1970s, education and healthcare
  jobs have increased from 10 to almost 20
  percent of all jobs.
 The share of these jobs requiring at least
  some college has increased from fewer
  than half in the 1970s to more than 75
  percent today, with more than 52 percent
  requiring baccalaureate or graduate
             Technology Jobs

 Technology jobs have doubled from roughly
  4 to 8 percent of all jobs.
 In 1973, 63 percent of technology workers
  had completed at least some college, but
  today 86 percent have—and more than half
  have at least a bachelor’s degree.
                   Factory Jobs

 Number of factory workers with a high school
  diploma or less is shrinking as a result of
  productivity growth. These jobs have declined
  from more than 30 percent of all jobs to less than
  17 percent.
 Yet even as these jobs have been declining, the
  number of manufacturing workers with college
  educations is rising
 Manufacturing is going high-tech, and we need
  individuals in manufacturing who can design,
  finance and sell what we make. More than 36
  percent of manufacturing workers now have some
  college education.
           Natural Resources Jobs

 Even in natural resources jobs like farming,
  fishing, forestry and mining, which have
  been in decline, the share of college trained
  workers keeps increasing.
 Workers with at least some college hold 31
  percent of those jobs—in comparison, back
  in 1973 two thirds of the workers in these
  fields were high school dropouts.
        Oklahoma’s Occupational Projections

 175,000 jobs will be added to the economy
 Three industries will account for more than
  fifty nine percent of Oklahoma’s job growth
  • Education and health services
  • Professional and business services
  • Leisure and Hospitality
         Oklahoma’s Jobs: What Training and
               Education are Needed?

 102,000 of those jobs will require short
  term, moderate term or long term job
 Almost 62,500 of them (36%) will require at
  least some level of postsecondary
  vocational training, an Associate’s Degree,
  a Bachelor’s degree or higher
 This percentage is significantly lower than
  the national average of 74% that will require
  postsecondary credentials
               Adult Learning in Focus

 CAEL and NCHEMS released in 2008
  • National Report on current size and shape of
    adult learning provision, barriers to adult
  • Comparisons among 50 states
  • State by State profiles
  • Policy Framework
                      Percent of Adults Age 25-34 with College Degrees
                                (Associate and Higher), 2005
                                                                  United States                    %     OECD Counties
                                                                                                   54   Canada
                                                                                                   53   Japan
                                                                                 Massachusetts     52
                                                                                                   51   Korea
                                                                                     Minnesota     49
                                                                                      New York     48
                                                                     New Jersey – North Dakota     47
                                                     Connecticut – Nebraska – New Hampshire        45
                                                 Colorado – Maryland – South Dakota – Virginia     44
                                                                                Iowa – Vermont     43
                                                         Illinois – Pennsylvania – Rhode Island    42
                                                                       Washington – Wisconsin      41   Norway • Ireland • Belgium
                                                                                                   40   Denmark • Spain
                                                                    Kansas – Utah-Puerto Rico      39   France • UNITED STATES
                                                                                       Delaware    38   Australia • Finland
                         Georgia – Hawaii – Maine – Michigan – Montana – North Carolina - Ohio     37   Sweden • Luxembourg
                                                                  California – Florida – Oregon    36   Iceland
                                                                                        Missouri   35   Netherlands • United Kingdom
                                                                                         Indiana   34   Russian Federation
                                                                                     Mississippi   33   Estonia
                          Alabama – Alaska – Arizona – South Carolina – Tennessee – Wyoming        32
                                                                 Kentucky – Oklahoma – Texas       31   Switzerland • New Zealand
                                                              Idaho – Louisiana – West Virginia    30
                                                                                    New Mexico     28
                                                                                       Arkansas    27
                                                                                         Nevada    26   Poland
                                                                                                   25   Greece
                                                                                                   22   Germany
                                                                                                   20   Austria • Hungary
                                                                                                   19   Portugal
                                                                                                   18   Mexico • Chile
                                                                                                   16   Slovak Republic • Italy
                                                                                                   14   Czech Republic
                                                                                                   12   Turkey
Source: U.S. Census Bureau; OECD                                                                   10   Slovenia
         National Profile on Adult

 In the U.S., more than 59 million people, or
  30% of the adult population are untouched
  by postsecondary education
 In 35 states, over 60% of the population
  does not have an associates degree or
 Over 26 million adults in the U.S. currently
  have no high school diploma
                    National Perspective: How Can the U.S. Reach
                       International Competitiveness by 2025?

         Current Degree Production Combined with Population Growth
                           Vs. Best Performance*
             on the Student Transition and Completion Measures

Degrees* Produced from 2005 to 2025 with Current                                        41,860,914
   Rate of Production plus Population Growth

Degrees Needed to Meet Best Performance** (55%)                                                          63,127,642

                                                   0              20               40               60           80


          The performance gap is large and we need to increase the rate of
                     degree production in the U.S. by 50.8%.

                                                   * Degrees includes both Associates and 4-year degrees.
                                                   ** Best performance is the average of the top three states.

            Even Best Performance with Traditional College-Aged Students at Each
           Stage of the Educational Pipeline Will Leave Gaps in More than 30 States

          Texas                                                                                         1,333,645
       Florida                                                                  893,504
     California                                           560,688
  New Jersey                              320,720
    Tennessee                            307,956
      Nevada                           287,565
     Louisiana                   204,814
     Arkansas                   186,640
    Kentucky                  159,765
North Carolina              132,748
      Arizona              122,061
   Mississippi            115,120
         Ohio             114,375                    In order to reach international competitiveness by
South Carolina            112,681                  2025, the U.S. and 32 states can’t close the gap with
     Alabama              110,495
                                                       even best performance with traditional college
 West Virginia         74,752
       Alaska         65,853                        students. They must rely on the re-entry pipeline –
    Oklahoma          62,332                      getting older adults back into the education system and
      Oregon         53,995                                 on track to attaining college degrees.
     Michigan        53,574
 New Mexico         47,420
    Wisconsin       44,757
        Maine      39,436
        Idaho      37,706
     Montana       34,547
       Hawaii     28,659
      Georgia     25,326
     Wyoming      24,741
     Maryland     23,542
  Connecticut 10,875
      Missouri 8,898
       Indiana 2,788
                0                 300,000               600,000            900,000          1,200,000        1,500,000
            Oklahoma’s Challenge

 But of 2,208,389 working-age adults
  (18 to 64)….
  • 72.5 percent have not completed college
    (associate’s degrees or higher) This is much
    lower than the national average. Of these:
     537,154 have completed some college but no
     749,633 have completed just a high school diploma
      but have not entered college
           Oklahoma’s Challenge

 469,212 Oklahomans are living in families
  whose combined incomes are less than a
  living wage (twice the level of poverty)
 Almost 50,000 speak little or no English
 314,454 have not completed High School or
          Traditional Student Pipeline (What We Measure Well)

        High School                                                    Complete
                                       Enter College
         Students                                                       College

       HS Graduation and    College-Going Rates     Retention and
                                                                      Graduation Rates
         Dropout Rates                            Persistence Rates

    But What Happens to Those Who Fall Through the Cracks?

    High School            Residents Who Finish High School but
     Dropouts                Struggle to Earn a Living Wage?           Residents Who Complete
                                                                        Some College but No
Residents Entering with           Workers Who Need Retraining to
 English Deficiencies             Compete in the New Job Market
           Major Barriers to Adult

 Major Barriers to Adult Participation in all
  Learning Opportunities are Access,
  Affordability, and Aspiration:
  • Time and Place Barriers
  • Levels of Preparation for Participation &
  • Cost and Ability to Pay
  • Understanding Relevance and Getting
          Policies That Help Adult

 Address Affordability: Reduce the Cost of
  Postsecondary Learning for Adults

 Raise Awareness about the Need for Adult

 Address Accessibility: Put Postsecondary
  Learning within Reach of Adults

 Make the Right Connections: Advising, Career
  Pathways, Education Pathways, Articulation and
           Federal Financial Aid

 Pell Grants are technically available to less
  than half-time students, but do not allow
  these students to count living expenses as
  part of cost of education
 Pell Grants cannot be used for non-credit
 Federal loans are available only to students
  attending half-time or more
                                                                                                                                                             Wisc Virgin ia
                                                                                                                          No Aid to Part-Time Students

                                                                                                                                                             Te xah Dakota
Proportion of Need-Based Aid Distributed to Part-Time

                                                                                                                                                             Ohio Dakota
                                                                                                                                or Missing Data

                                                                                                                                                             Nort h Caro lin a
                                                                                                                                                             Nort hd a
                                                                                                                                                             Miss iana
                                                                                                                                                             Lo uisas
                                                                                                                                                             Ida h gia
                                                                                                                                                             Geo rware
                                                                                                                                                             Dela ma
                                                                                                                                                             Alab on
                                                                                                                                             0.0             Ore g sas
                  Students 2004-05

                                                                                                                                           1.0               Arka York
                                                                                                                                          1.5                New Jersey
                                                                                                                                         2.0                 New u ri
                                                                                                                                         2.0                 Miss na
                                                                                                                                         2.0                 Ind ia esse e
                                                                                                                            4.0                              Te nnland
                                                                                                                           4.5                               Ma ry sylva nia
                                                                                                                          5.0                                Mo n e          a
                                                                                                                          5.0                                Ma in Carolin
                                                                                                                        6.0                                  Sout ii
                                                                                                                      7.0                                    Haw ecticut
                                                                                                                      7.0                                    Conn ak
                                                                                                                                                             Alas         a
                                                                                                                                                                    h om
                                                                                                                      7.1                                    Oklania          s
                                                                                                                                                             Virgi achuse tt

                                                                                                                                                                                   Source: NCHEMS Student Financial Aid Survey
                                                                                                                  9.0                                        Ma ss    ont
                                                                                                           11.0                                              Verm ado        ire
                                                                                                           11.0                                              Colo Hampsh
                                                                                                          11.7                                               New ing ton
                                                                                                        13.0                                                 Was e Islan d
                                                                                                      14.0                                                   Rhodg an
                                                                                                    15.0                                                     Mich a
                                                                                                   16.0                                                      Flo ri u cky
                                                                                                 17.0                                                        Kent rnia
                                                                                              18.8                                                           Calif na
                                                                                          21.5                                                               Arizo  ming
                                                                                   25.0                                                                      Wyo s
                                                                                  26.0                                                                       Illino aska
                                                                           28.8                                                                              Nebr Me xico
                                                                          30.0                                                                               New esota
                                                         41.4                                                                                                Minn









              State-Based Aid

 Most states do not provide grant aid to less
  than half-time students
 Some states provide grants to students in
  short-term, intensive, non-degree programs
  that do not qualify for federal aid
 Almost all states have early aid application
  deadlines that may disadvantage adults
  with multiple obligations
      Other Sources of Assistance

 Tuition Assistance Programs (employer
 Lifelong Learning Accounts
 529 plans
 TANF & WIA—subject to state program
  plans and definitions and interpretation of
  regulations (about 40% of these funds are
  currently used for education and training
  across the states)
           Affordability Solutions

 Document aid that is available to adult learners
  and make that easily available to students
 Ensure resources for part-time and less than part-
  time study
 Investigate and promote new financing strategies
  such as Lifelong Learning Accounts
 Encourage higher education institutions to review
  and re-work procedures to meet needs of these
  students (flexible payment plans, for example)
          Accessibility Solutions

States can:
 Encourage/incentivize better transfer/bridge
  processes between noncredit and for-credit
 Create better pathways between two- and
  four-year institutions
 Encourage prior learning assessment and
  accelerated degree programs
          Accessibility Solutions

 Provide incentive funding to encourage
  institutions to improve their services and
  programs for adult learners
 Change reimbursement formulas for public
  institutions so that there are no
  disincentives to serving adult and other
  nontraditional learners
           Aspiration Solutions

 Foster partnerships between industry and
  higher education so that adults can see
  career possibilities
 Raise awareness of the benefits of
  education for employability and earnings
 Create and disseminate educational
  pathways to jobs in high demand
       CAEL Contact Information

Pamela Tate,
President and CEO, CAEL

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