Concussion Document by xiagong0815


									Oregon Health and Science University
Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation
Sports Concussion Program
A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that interferes with normal brain function. It is usually caused by
a blow to the head, but may occur with a whiplash injury, or when the head strikes the ground. Only about 5-
10% of people are knocked unconscious with a concussion. Most are confused, dazed, or complain of a

The past decade has seen a revolution in the management of sports-related concussions. What was once
considered a relatively benign condition is now recognized as a critical medical issue with distressing,
potentially permanent consequences. Having one’s “bell rung” or being “dinged” has far more serious
consequences than were previously suspected. In 2004 and 2009 the leading experts in the area redefined
concussions and established guidelines for the evaluation, treatment, management and prevention of the

Concussion Facts

- A student does not have to lose consciousness (“knocked-out”) to suffer a concussion

- A concussion is a traumatic injury to the brain

- Concussion symptoms may last for several weeks to months following an injury

- Concussions can cause symptoms that interfere with school, work, and social life

- Special football helmets, soccer head gear, and mouth guards have not been scientifically proven to
 prevent concussions

- A student should not return to sports or activities when still having symptoms from a concussion as they

 are at risk for prolonging symptoms and further injury

What are the symptoms of a concussion?
A concussion may cause multiple symptoms. Many symptoms appear immediately after the injury, while
others can develop over the next several days or weeks. If any symptoms occur the student should not
return to play that day and not return until cleared by a physician. The symptoms may be subtle and are
often difficult to fully recognize. It is not unusual for symptoms to worsen with physical activity. In many
cases, even simple activities such as going to school, or reading a book may worsen symptoms.
Common symptoms may include:
- Headache                                               - Lack of energy, tiredness

- Difficulty concentrating                               - Dizziness, poor balance, lightheaded

- Easily confused                                        - Blurred vision

- Slowed thought processes                               - Sensitive to light and sounds

- Difficulty with memory                                 - Poor sleep

- Nausea                                                 - Mood changes-irritable, anxious, or sad

What to do if my child suffers a concussion?
The key to the proper management of a concussion is early recognition of the concussed student. Coaches,
teachers, administrators, teammates, officials, and parents must be able to recognize the subtle signs of a
concussion. However, the proper diagnosis cannot be made until a physician evaluates the student. Once a
diagnosis is made the student may be referred to OHSU Sports Medicine to help manage the injury. No two
concussions are alike and all will be managed individually to insure a safe return to activity and life.

Steps to a Safe Return

The Sports Concussion Program at OHSU offers a comprehensive approach to the evaluation of sports-
related concussions in youth, high school, and college students. We have developed a program that
emphasizes the significance of recognizing and properly diagnosing sports-related concussions. We also
design an individualized Return to Activity Plan to allow for safe return to sports and other activities.

Step 1. Complete cognitive rest. This may include staying home from school or limiting school hours (and
studying) for several days. Activities requiring concentration and attention may worsen symptoms and delay

Step 2. Return to school full-time.

Step 3. Light exercise. This step cannot begin until you are cleared by your physician for further activity. At
this point you may begin walking or riding an exercise bike. No weight-lifting.

Step 4. Running in the gym or on the field. No helmet or other equipment.

Step 5. Non-contact training drills in full equipment. Weight-training can begin.

Step 6. Full contact practice or training

Step 7. Play in game or participate in activity. Must be cleared by your physician before returning to activity

You should spend 1 to 2 days at each step before advancing to the next. If post concussion symptoms
occur at any step, you must stop the activity and contact us.

Depending upon the specific type and severity of the symptoms, you may be told to rest for 24 hours and
then resume activity at a level one step below where you were at when your symptoms occurred.

Questions or Concerns? Please feel free to contact us.
Dr. Jim Chesnutt, M.D.                               Ricky Rodriguez, ATC, CSCS
Director of Sports Medicine                          Certified Athletic Trainer/OHSU Concussion Team
OHSU Sports and Orthopedic Hotline

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