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									GLAGOLI (VERBS)
DEFINICIJA

 Glagol je vrsta reči koja označava neku radnju,
  stanje ili zbivanje:
 David goes to school every day.

 It is raining.

 The stars are bright.
GRAĐENJE GLAGOLA

 Prosti: cut, read, sit
 Složeni: fulfill, oversleep, undergo

 Izvedeni od drugih vrsta reči: shorten, moralize,
  beautify
 Glagoli se grade pomocu sledecih prefiksa:

 1. be- stavlja se ispred imenica, prideva i
  glagola: befriend, belittle
 2.de- stavlja se ispred glagola i imenica:
  decode, depopulate
 3. dis- daje glagolu negativno znacenje:
  disbelieve, dislike, disagree
 4. en-/em- stavljaju se ispred imenica, prideva i
  glagola da obrazuju glagole: encourage,
  encircle, embody, embed
 5. inter- dodaje se glagolima: interchange,
  intermingle
 6. mis- daje glagolima negativno značenje:
  misbehave, misapply, mismanage
 7. re- daje glagolima značenje ‘ponovo nešto
  uraditi’: reappear, rebuild, rewrite
 8. un- daje glagolima suprotno značenje:
  uncover, undress, unlock
 Sufiksi za izvođenje glagola su:
 1. –en, dodaje se pridevima i imenicama:
  harden, lessen, shorten, frighten
 2. –fy, obično se dodaje rečima latinskog
  porekla: satisfy, signify, beautify
 3. –ize, obično se dodaje rečima grčkog,
  latinskog i francuskog porekla: apologize,
  civilize, organize, sympathize
OSOBINE GLAGOLA

 Stanje (voice)
 Način (mood)

 Vreme (tense)

 Broj (number)

 Lice (person)

 Vid (aspect)
STANJE (VOICE)

 Aktivno (active voice)
 Pasivno (passive voice)

 Ako je subjekat i vršilac radnje – aktivno stanje

 They sell bread in this shop.

 Ako subjekat trpi radnju – pasivno stanje

 Bread is sold in this shop.
NAČIN (MOOD)
 Indikativ ili pokazni (the indicative mood)
 Konjuktiv (the subjunctive mood)
 Imperativ ili zapovedni (the imperative mood)
 Indikativ – konstatuju se činjenice ili postavljaju
  pitanja o realnim sadašnjim, prošlim i budućim
  radnjama:
 I agree with you.
 They arrived last night
 Will you come early?
 Konjuktiv – iskazuje zamišljena stanja ili radnje
  (želje, pretpostavke, sumnje, itd.)
 I wish I were with them.
 If I had time I should learn Chinese.
 Suppose she came late.
 Imperativ – iskazuje naredbe ili molbe:
 Turn off the TV.
 Help me, please.
VREME (TENSE)
 Glagolski oblik koji označava kada se nešto
  dešava.
 Sadašnja vremena: Present Simple
  /Continuous, Present Perfect Simple
  /Continuous
 Prošla vremena: Past Simple / Continuous,
  Past Perfect Simple / Continuous
 Buduća vremena: Future Simple /Continuous,
  Future Perfect Simple / Continuous
LICE I BROJ (PERSON & NUMBER)
 Bezlični glagolski oblici (non-finite forms)
 Lični glagolski oblici (finite forms)
 Bezlični: infinitiv, particip i gerund.
 Nemaju lice i broj.
 Npr. to write, written i writing.
 Lični: slažu se sa subjektom u licu i broju:
 He is a teacher.
 They are teachers.
VID (ASPECT)

 Govori o trajanju radnje:
 Simple tenses: He went out and sat on the
  grass.
 Continuous tenses: He was sitting on the grass
  when I went out.
GLAVNI I POMOĆNI GLAGOLI
(MAIN & AUXILLIARY VERBS)
 Glavni glagoli – nosioci značenja radnje
 Pomoćni glagoli – za građenje raznih glagolskih
  oblika
 Did you see the film last night?

 ‘see’ – main verb

 ‘did’ - auxilliary
POMOĆNI I NEPOTPUNI GLAGOLI
   12 glagola koji služe kao pomoćni:
   Be
   Have
   Do
   Shall
   Will
   Can
   May
   Must
   Ought
   Need
   Dare
   Used
 Samo be, have i do imaju sve oblike, a ostali
  imaju jedan ili dva oblika:
 Shall (should)

 Will (would)

 Can (could)

 May (might)

 Need, ought, dare, used imaju samo 1 oblik.
 Neki od ovih glagola se ne upotrebljavaju uvek
  kao pomoćni, nego mogu biti i glavni glagoli u
  rečenici:
 I have three children.

 The book is on the shelf.

 I do all the housework.

 Do you need money?
 Kad se upotrebe kao pomoćni, svi navedeni
  glagoli imaju neke zajedničke karakteristike:
 1. Građenje odričnih oblika: pomoću rečce ‘not’

 Do not (don’t); are not (aren’t); have not
  (haven’t)
 2. Građenje upitnih oblika: inverzijom

 Is he here?

 Shall I open the window?
 3. Kratki odgovori (short answers): da bi se izbeglo
  ponavljanje glavnog glagola
 Can you speak English? –Yes, I can.
 Who speaks English in this class? –I do.
 4. Kratka pitanja (question tags): ‘zar ne?’
 You have read this book, haven’t you?
 She won’t come tomorrow, will she?
 5. Isticanje u potvrdnim rečenicama: ‘zaista’
 He does work hard.
 I do like this warm weather.
PODELA POMOĆNIH GLAGOLA

 a) to be, to have, to do – imaju sve oblike;
 b) shall (should), will (would), can (could), may
  (might), must, ought, need, dare, used –
  nemaju sve oblike – nepotpuni glagoli
 Nepotpuni glagoli ne dobijaju nastavak ‘s’ u
  trećem licu jednine prezenta. Iza njih ide
  infinitiv bez ‘to’
 Shall do; will play; can swim, etc.
GLAGOL TO BE

 Može da bude:
 a) glagol punog značenja:

 There is only one apple on the tree.

 Where have you been?

 b) glagol nepotpunog značenja:

 He is a major.

 The roses in my garden are all red.
 Upotrebljava se kao pomoćni glagol da obrazuje:
 a) sa participom sadašnjim, trajna vremena:

 The girl was singing.

 We shall be seeing him tomorrow.

 b) sa participom prošlim, pasivna vremena:

 We were asked to go there.

 A new cinema is being built in our neighbourhood.
 Konstrukcija ‘to be + to + infinitiv’ upotrebljava
  se:
 a) da pokaže da je nešto unapred ugovoreno ili
  određeno, da nešto može ili treba da se dogodi,
  da izrazi naredbu ili zabranu:
 They are to arrive by the nine o’clock train.

 The article is to appear in the Sunday issue.

 He was nowhere to be found.
 b) da pokaže da je nešto neizbežno ili
  predodređeno:
 They were never to meet again. (Nije im bilo
  suđeno da se ponovo sretnu)
 I was only to learn later about his departure.
  (Sudbina je htela da tek kasnije saznam za
  njegov odlazak.)
GLAGOL TO HAVE (IMATI)

 Potvrdni oblik   Upitni oblik           Odrični oblik
 I have           Do I have?             I don’t have
 You have         Do you have?           You don’t have
 He/she/it has    Does he/she/it have?   He/she/it doesn’t have

 We have          Do we have?            We don’t have
 They have        Do they have?          They don’t have
   Glagol to have je takođe važan, jer ima značenje imati,
    posedovati:
   I have a dog.
   They have a house.
   He has a new car.
   Važno!!! U trećem licu jednine (he/she/it) oblik glasi has.
   Ovaj glagol se takođe javlja u kombinaciji s imenicama, i
    tada menja svoje značenje:
   Have breakfast/lunch/dinner
   Have a shower/a bath
   Have a good time
   In the morning he has a shower, and then he has breakfast.
 Have lessons
 Have trouble

 Have a look

 Have a pleasant journey

 Have a safe trip
 To have ima još jedan oblik, a to je have got.
  Znači takođe “imati”, ali je drugačiji što se tiče
  forme (upitni i odrični oblik). Have got ne može
  da menja svoje značenje u kombinaciji s
  drugim rečima: *He has got a shower ne znači
  “on se tušira”, već “on ima tuš”.
 Međutim, I have a new car i I have got a new
  car imaju isto značenje.
HAVE GOT
 Glagol to have kao pomoćni koristi se za
  građenje Present Perfect Simple/Continuous i
  Past Perfect Simple/Continuous:
 They haven’t arrived yet.

 I’ve been driving for hours now.

 When they arrived, he had already left.

 I had been studying whole day yesterday.
HAVE TO - MORATI

 Have to upotrebljava se u značenju ‘morati’-
  obaveza koja proističe iz pravila
 Do you have to be in your office at seven?

 I have to write a seminar paper for next week.

 You have to turn left at the crossroads.
CAUSATIVE ‘HAVE’

 Have + obj + particip prošli – causative have
 Označava nešto što subjekat nije sam uradio,
  nego je dao da se uradi.
 (U srpskom se ne označava uvek razlika između
  onog što smo sami uradili i što smo dali da se
  uradi.)
 We had our photographs taken.

 When did you have your hair cut?
GLAGOL TO DO
 Može da se upotrebi kao glavni glagol:
 What are you doing here?
 It won’t do you any harm.
 Do me a favour, will you?
 He is doing well.
 Kao pomoćni glagol upotrebljava se za Present
  Simple (do/does) i Past Simple (did):
 Do you like travelling by plane?
 Did you go out to dinner last night?

								
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