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Biology Timelines


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									                                                                                      Bioinforrmatics And Life Sciences

Some important events in the History Of Bioinformatics And Computational
Biology: - TIMELINE

1.   1859 – The “On the Origin of Species”, published by Charles Darwin that introduced theory of
     genetic evolution – allows adaptation over time to produce organisms best suited to the

               "A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life." - CD

Did You Know: When Darwin was awarded the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1865, it was for his
achievements as a biologist and naturalist rather than for his controversial theory of evolution.]

2.   1869 - The DNA from nuclei of white blood cells was first isolated by Friedrich Meischer.

3.   1911 - The first genetic map was constructed by Alfred Sturtevant, who mapped the locations of
     several fruit fly genes.

Did you know: This first genetic map, which remains a fundamental construct of genomics, was deduced in a
single night by Sturtevant at the early age of 19.

4.   1926 - Thomas Hunt Morgan published the "theory of the gene" based on Mendelian genetics.

Did you know: Morgan was a many-sided character who was, as a student, critical and independent. His early
published work showed him to be critical of Mendelian conceptions of heredity, and in 1905 he challenged the
assumption then current that the germ cells are pure and uncrossed and, like Bateson was sceptical of the view
that species arise by natural selection.

5.   1933 - A innovative technique called electrophoresis, is introduced by Arne Tiselius for
     separating proteins in solution.

Did you know: Arne Tiselius received the 1948 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing new methods of
separating and detecting colloids.

6.   1951 – Linus Pauling and Corey propose the structure for the alpha-helix and beta-sheet.

7.   1952 - Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins performed X-ray crystallography studies of DNA,
     providing crucial information that led to the elucidation of the structure of DNA.

Did you know: The credit (or lack of it) given to Franklin for her work has been discussed in great detail since
her death; many of Franklin's supporters feel that Watson and Crick were unfairly given credit that Franklin
deserved. Because Franklin died in 1958, she was ineligible to be included in the Nobel Prize for Medicine which
Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins shared in 1962

8.   1953 - Watson and Crick propose the double helix model for DNA based on x-ray data obtained
     by Franklin and Wilkins.

9.   1955 - The sequence of the first protein to be analyzed, bovine insulin, is announced by F. Sanger.

                                                                                 Bioinforrmatics And Life Sciences

Did you know: Frederick Sanger won two chemistry prizes - in 1958 for finding the structure of the protein
insulin and 1980 for work on the base sequence of DNA.

10. 1956 - Francis Crick and George Gamov worked out the "Central Dogma" to explain protein
     synthesis from DNA: the DNA sequence codes for amino acid sequences and genetic information
     flows in one direction - from DNA to mRNA to protein.

11. 1958 - The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is formed in the US.

Did you know: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) formed by the Department of Defense (DoD) was
emerged out of fear that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) had advanced in technology by
launching Sputnik in 1957. The US envisaged a future attack from the USSR and thus formed (ARPA) later
renamed as DARPA(The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).

12. 1962 – The Ramachandran Plot was introduced by GN Ramachandran who decided to use this
     information to examine the various polypeptide conformations then known and also to develop a
     good 'yardstick' that could be used for examining and assessing any structure in general, but
     peptides in particular.

Did you know: Ramachandran was born in the town of Ernakulam, Kerala, India. He joined Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore in 1942 in the Electrical Engineering Department. He completed his master's and doctoral
thesis under the supervision of Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman and later died of stroke at the age of 78 while
sufferring from Parkinson’s disease.

13. 1967 - The first evolutionary trees from protein sequences were set up by WM Fitch and E
     Margoliash. This study was called Phylogenetics.

Did you know: In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phyle = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from
genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species,

14. 1970 - The details of the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence comparison are published.

15. 1973 - The Brookhaven Protein Data Bank(PDB) is announced.

Did you know: When the PDB was originally founded it contained just 7 protein structures. Since then it has
undergone an approximate exponential growth in the number of structures, which does not show any sign of
falling off.

16. 1975 - Microsoft Corporation is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.

17. 1978 - Genentech successfully produced human insulin using recombinant DNA technology in
     E. coli.

18. 1982 - The Smith-Waterman algorithm for sequence alignment is published.

19. 1985 - The FASTP/ FASTN algorithm is published.

20. 1987 - Perl (Practical Extraction Report Language) is released by Larry Wall.

                                                                                     Bioinforrmatics And Life Sciences

                     "And I don't like doing silly things (except on purpose)."
                                           -- Larry Wall

21. 1988 - National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) founded at NIH/NLM.

22. 1990 - Human Genome Project launched
     BLAST program introduced by S. Karlin and S.F. Altshul.
      Tim Berners-Lee, a British scientist invented the World Wide Web in 1990.
Did you know: Among the names which Tim considered before calling his creation the World Wide Web he came
up with TIM - an acronym for 'The Information Mine.'.

Did you know: The HGP’s estimated cost of was $13 billion was planned for completeion in 15 years, but was
completed in 13 years in 2003 due to rapid technological advances.

23. 1991 - Linus Torvalds announces a Unix-Like operating system which later becomes Linux.

Did you know: Linus Torvalds, creator of the 'Linux' operating system, was a leading advocate of the 'open
source' movement, a communal approach to software development. "Software is like sex," he once explained.
"It's better when it's free!"

24. 1992 - The Institute for Genome Research (TIGR), associated with plans to exploit sequencing
     commercially through gene identification and drug discovery, was formed.

25. 1993 - The Sanger Centre, a genome research institute with the purpose to further the knowledge
     of genomes, was crated in Hinxton, UK.
                            -   The EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, the centre for research
                                and service for bioinformatics was established in Hinxton, UK

Did you know: In 1962 Leo Szilard, Victor F. Weisskopf, James D. Watson and John Kendrew meet in Geneva to
discuss possibility of establishing an international laboratory for molecular biology that later became the EMBL
Institute 31 years later.

26. 2001 - The human genome (3,000 Mbp) is published.

Future goals of molecular biology and bioinformatics research
27. 2010
     Completion of the 2010 Project: to understand the function of all genes within their cellular,
     organismal and evolutionary context of Arabidopsis thaliana

28. 2050
     To complete of the first computational model of a complete cell, or maybe even already of a
     complete organism.



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