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Administration and Scoring

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					     Administration and Scoring
                                  Presented by:

Debbie Oliver
RtI Coordinator for Stanly County Schools

Created by Amy Jablonski
Spring 2009 RtI Training
Union County Schools




                                                  1
Early Literacy Skills:
Administration and Scoring




                             2
Training Session Goals


   Learn how to administer and score Early Literacy
    Measures
      Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)
      Letter Sound Fluency (LSF)
      Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)
      Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)




                                                       3
   AIMSweb Early Literacy Measures

                    5 Big Ideas in
Test Name           Reading Area                What Students Do
                      Assessed
Letter Naming    Phonics             Say the names of visually presented
 Letter Naming                       Say the names of visually presented
Fluency                Phonics       letters for 1 minute
     Fluency                                   letters for 1 minute.

Letter Sound     Phonics             Say the sounds of visually presented
  Letter
Fluency Sound          Phonics
                                      Say the 1 minute
                                     letters forsounds of visually presented
     Fluency                                   letters for 1 minute.

Phonemic
    Phonemic     Phonological        Identify the specific phonemes in orally
                    Phonological       Identify the specific phonemes in
Segmentation
  Segmentation   Awareness           presented words for 1 minute
                     Awareness        orally presented words for 1 minute.
Fluency
     Fluency

 Nonsense                            Say the sounds of visually presented
Word Fluency          Phonics        Say the words for 1 minute
                                     non-real sounds of visually presented
                                          non-real words for 1 minute.
                                                                         4
    Recommended AIMSweb Early Literacy
    Benchmark Assessment Schedule
                Kindergarten                                     First Grade
     Fall            Winter           Spring           Fall          Winter        Spring

Letter Naming    Letter Naming    Letter Naming   Letter Name


                 Letter Sound     Letter Sound    Letter Sound
                 Fluency

                 Phonemic         Phonemic        Phonemic        Phonemic
                 Segmentation     Segmentation    Segmentation    Segmentation



                 Nonsense Words   Nonsense        Nonsense        Nonsense       Nonsense
                                  Words           Words           Words          Words



                                                                  R-CBM          R-CBM

                                                                                      5
Letter Naming
Fluency
(LNF)


                6
    Things You Need Before Testing
    Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)
Specific Materials:
  • Student copy of Letter
    Naming Fluency (not
    numbered)
  • Examiner copy of
    Letter Naming Fluency
    (numbered for easy
    scoring)
  • Clipboard to provide a
    hard surface for
    recording student
    answers
  • Stopwatch


                                     7
      Things You Need While Testing
      Letter Naming Fluency
Standard Directions
1) Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student.
2) Place the numbered copy in front of you, but shielded so the student cannot see
   what you record. THE STUDENT SHOULD BE SITTING ACROSS THE
   DESK/TABLE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR!
3) Say:
         “Here are some letters (point to the student copy). Begin here, (point to
         the first letter) and tell me the names of as many letters as you can. If
         you come to a letter you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any
         questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.”
4) Start you stopwatch. If the student fails to say the first letter name after 3
   seconds, tell the student the letter name and mark it as incorrect. Point to the
   next letter to indicate for the child to move on.



                                                                                 8
     Things You Need While Testing Letter
     Naming Fluency (Continued)
Standard Directions (Continued)
5)    If the student provides the letter sound rather than the letter name say,
      “Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes.” This
      prompt may be provided once during the administration.
6)    If the student does not get any correct letter names within the first 10 letters (1
      row), discontinue the task and record a score of 0.
7)    Follow along on your copy. Put a slash ( / ) through letter names given
      incorrectly.
8)    The maximum time for each letter is 3 seconds. If a student does not provide
      the next letter within 3 seconds, tell the student the letter name and mark it as
      incorrect. Point to the next letter and say, “What letter?”.
9)    At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ]) after the last letter and say,
      “Stop.”


                                                                                      9
What is a Correct Letter Name?



• A correctly named letter
• Confused I’s and L’s as a function of font
• Self Corrections



                                               10
What is an Incorrect Letter Name?


• Substitutions of a different letter for the
  stimulus letter (e.g., “P” for “D”)
• Omissions of a letter
• Stops or struggles with a letter for more than 3
  seconds

  Note: Skipped Row. If a student skips an
  entire row, draw a line through the row and
  do not count the row in scoring
                                                     11
Calculating and Reporting Scores
for LNF
 • Count the total number of letters the
   student read
 • Count the number of errors and subtract
 • Report the total number of letters
   named correctly
 • Report the total number of errors
 • Record correct/errors

                                             12
Examples for Calculating Scores
for LNF

Angela finished LNF at the 20th letter, so
she named 20 letters total
   • Angela also made 5 errors
   • Therefore, her recorded score is 15
     (20 – 5 = 15)

Recorded LNF Score is 15/5. Be sure to
record correct/errors.

                                             13
Practice Exercise 1 for
LNF




                          14
Practice Exercise 1 for LNF: Answer
Key




                                 15
Administration and
Scoring of Letter
Sound Fluency
(LSF)



                     16
  Things You Need Before Testing
  LSF
Specific Materials:


  • Student copy of Letter
    Sound Fluency (not
    numbered)
  • Examiner copy of
    Letter Sound Fluency
    (numbered for easy
    scoring)
  • Clipboard to provide a
    hard surface for
    recording student
    answers
  • Stopwatch

                                   17
Standard Directions for LSF
Standard Directions:

1)   Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student.
2)   Place the numbered copy in front of you, but shielded so the student
     cannot see what you record. THE STUDENT SHOULD BE SITTING
     ACROSS THE DESK/TABLE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR!
3)   Say:
            “Begin here, (point to the first letter) and tell me the sounds of
            as many letters as you can. If you come to a letter you don’t
            know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your
            finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.”
4)   Start your stopwatch. If the student fails to say the first letter sound after 3
     seconds, tell the student the letter sound and mark it as incorrect. Point to
     the next letter and say, “What sound?”.


                                                                                  18
     Standard Directions for LSF
     (Continued)
5)   If the student provides the letter name rather than the letter sound say,
     “Remember to tell me the sound the letter makes, not its name.”
     This prompt may be provided once during the administration.
6)   If the student does not get any correct letter sounds within the first 10
     letters (1 row), discontinue the task and record a score of 0.
7)   Follow along on your copy. Put a slash ( / ) through letter sounds given
     incorrectly. The maximum time for each letter is 3 seconds.
8)   The maximum time for each letter is 3 seconds. If a student does not
     provide the next sound within 3 seconds, tell the student the letter sound
     and mark it as incorrect. Point to the next letter and say, “What
     sound?”.
9)   At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ]) after the last letter and say,
     “Stop.”


                                                                                 19
What is a Correct Letter Sound?

• The most COMMON sound of the letter.
   • A pronunciation guide for the most common
     sounds is in the Appendix of the AIMSweb
     Training Workbook

• Confused I’s and L’s as a function of font
• Self Corrections




                                                 20
What is a Incorrect Letter Sound?

• Substitutions of a different letter sound for the
  stimulus letter (e.g., /puh/ for /D/)
• Omissions of a letter sound
• Stops or struggles with a letter sound for more
  than 3 seconds
Note: Skipped Row. If a student skips an entire row,
 draw a line through the row and do not count the row
 in scoring


                                                        21
Practice Exercise 1 - LSF




                            22
Practice Exercise 1 – LSF –
Answer Key




                              23
Administration and
Scoring of Phoneme
Segmentation
Fluency
(PSF)


                24
Things You Need for PSF

Specific Materials Arranged:
  • Examiner copy of
    Phonemic
    Segmentation Fluency
    (numbered for easy
    scoring)
  • Clipboard to provide a
    hard surface for
    recording student
    answers
  • Stopwatch



                               25
Standardized Directions for PSF
1)   Place the examiner copy in front of you, but shielded so the student
     cannot see what you record.
2)   Say:
     “I am going to say a word. After I say it, I want you to tell me all
     the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “Sam,” you would say /s/ /a/
     /m/. Let’s try one (1 second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop.”


         Correct Response                  Incorrect Response

            Very good.        The sounds in “mop” are /m/ /o/ /p/. Your
                              turn. Tell me the sounds in “mop”.


3)   “Ok. Here is your first word”
4)   Give the student the first word and start your stopwatch. If the student
     does not say a sound segment after 3 seconds, give the second word
     and score the first word as 0 segments produced.

                                                                                26
Standardized Directions for PSF
(cont’d)
5)   As the student says the sounds, mark the student’s response in the
     scoring column. Underline (___) each sound segment produced correctly.
     Put a slash (/) through sounds produced incorrectly.
6)   As soon as the student is finished saying the sounds, present the next
     word promptly and clearly.
7)   If the student does not get any sounds correct in words 1-5, discontinue
     the task and record a score of 0.
8)   The maximum time for each sound segment is 3 seconds. If the student
     does not provide the next sound segment within 3 seconds, give the
     student the next word. If the student provides the initial sound only, wait 3
     seconds for elaboration.
9)   At the end of 1 minute, stop presenting words and scoring further
     responses. Place a bracket (]) after the last segment produced. Add the
     number of sound segments produced correctly. Record the total number of
     sound segments produced correctly on the bottom of the scoring sheet.


                                                                                27
What is a Correct Segment?

• Complete segmentation (Ex.: “t . . r . . i . . ck”) (4 segments out of 4)

• Incomplete segmentation (Example: “tr. . .ick”) (2 segments out of 4)

• Overlapping segmentation (Example: “tri. . .ick”) (2 segments out of 4)

• Schwa sounds (Example: “tu. . .ru. . .i. . .ku”) (4 segments out of 4)

• Additions (Example: “t. . . r. . .i. . .ck. . .s”) (if separated from other
  sounds, but don’t count as a segment) (4 segments out of 4)
• Articulation and dialect; imperfect pronunciations due to dialect or
  articulation (Example: “r. . .e. . .th. . .t” for “rest”) (4 segments out of 4)

• Elongated Sounds (Example: “rrrrreeeeesssssttttt”) (4 segments) – this
  is professional judgment based on prior knowledge of student’s learning
                                                                                28
What is an Incorrect Segment?


 • Omissions (Example: “t. . .ick”) (2 segments out
   of 4)

 • No segmentation (Example: “trick”) (0
   segments out of 4)

 • Segment mispronunciation (Example: “t. . .r. . .i.
   . .ks”) (3 segments out of 4)


                                                        29
Practice Exercise 1:
PSF




                       30
Practice Exercise 1: PSF – Answer
Key




                                31
Administration and
Scoring of
Nonsense Word
Fluency
(NWF)


                     32
 Things You Need for Testing NWF
                             bim   lat
Specific Materials:


  • Student copy of
    Nonsense Word Fluency
    (not numbered)

  • Examiner copy of
    Nonsense Word Fluency
    (numbered for easy
    scoring)

  • Practice Examples

  • Clipboard to provide a
    hard surface for
    recording student
    answers

  • Stopwatch
                                     33
Standardized Directions for NWF
1)   Place the practice items in front of the child.

                      bim        lat

2)   Say:
             “Look at this word (point to the first word on the practice probe). It’s
             a make-believe word, not a real word. All the letters have sounds:
             (point to the letter “b”) /b/, (point to the letter “i”) /i/, (point to the
             letter “m”) /m/. Altogether the sounds are /b/ /i/ /m/ (point to each
             letter) or “bim” (run your finger fast through the whole word).
             Remember, it is a made up word. You can say the sounds of the
             letters, /b/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or you can say the whole word
             “bim” (run your finger fast through the whole word). Be sure to say
             any sounds you know. Ready? Let’s try one. Read this word the best
             you can (point to the word “lat”). Point to each letter and tell me the
             sound or tell me the whole word.”




                                                                                      34
Standardized Directions for NWF
(cont’d)
            Correct Response                              Incorrect Response
That’s right. The sounds are /l/ /a/ /t/ or   Watch me: (point to the letter “l”) /l/,
“lat”                                         (point to the letter “a”) /a/, (point to the
                                              letter “t”) /t/. Altogether the sounds are
                                              /l/ /a/ /t/ (point to each letter) or “lat” (run
                                              your finger fast through the whole
                                              word). Remember, you can say the
                                              sounds or you can say the whole word.
                                              Let’s try again. Read this word the best
                                              you can (point to the word “lat”).




                                                                                        35
Standardized Directions for NWF
(cont’d)
1) Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student.
2) Place the numbered copy in front of you, but shielded so the
   student cannot see what you record. THE STUDENT SHOULD BE
   SITTING ACROSS THE DESK/TABLE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR!
3) Say:
       “Here are some more make-believe words (point to the
        student probe). When I say “begin”, start here (point to the
        first word), go across the page (point across the page), and
        read the words the best you can. Remember, you can tell
        me the sound of the letter or read the whole word. Put
        your finger under the first word. Ready, begin.”
4) Start your stopwatch. If the student does not respond with a sound
   after 3 seconds, tell the student the sound and say, “next sound?”


                                                                  36
Standardized Directions for NWF
(cont’d)

5) If the student does not get any sounds correct in
   words 1-5, discontinue the task and record a score of
   0.
6) Follow along on the examiner copy of the probe and
   underline each phoneme the student provides
   correctly. Put a slash (/) over each phoneme read
   incorrectly or omitted.
7) At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ]) after the
   last letter and say, “Stop.”



                                                            37
What is a Correct Letter Sound?

• Correct letter sounds
• Correct words
• Self Corrections (within 3 seconds)
• Sounds Produced Out of Order
• Blended Letter Sounds




                                        38
What is an Incorrect Letter Sound?


 • Incorrect letter sounds
 • Omission of a letter sound
 • Stops or struggles with a nonsense word
   for more than 3 seconds




                                             39
Practice Exercise 1 for
NWF




                          40
Practice Exercise 1for NWF – Answer
Key




                                41
Summary


You now have the building blocks to begin AIMSweb
Early Literacy Measures:
   • Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) - Phonics
   • Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) - Phonics
   • Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) –
     Phonological Awareness
   • Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) - Phonics


                                                    42
Administration and
Scoring of AIMSweb Early
Numeracy Measures



                       43
   CBM Early Numeracy – What
   Does It Assess?
Students perform different early numeracy tasks related to
later important math outcomes
   1. Students orally count for one minute
   2. Student identify numbers for one minute
   3. Students identify the bigger number from a pair of numbers
   4. Students identify the missing number from a sequence of
      numbers




                                                                   44
              CBM Early Numeracy
              Measures
     Students perform different early numeracy tasks related to later
                      important math outcomes.


Measure                          Test              What is Scored
                             Arrangement
Oral Counting (OC)            Individual         Correct Oral Counts

Number Identification (NI)    Individual           Correct Number
                                                    Identifications
Quantity Discrimination       Individual           Correct Quantity
(QD)                                               Discriminations
Missing Number (MN)           Individual       Correct Missing Numbers




                               Workbook p. 7                            45
Recommended Early Numeracy
Benchmark Assessments
                Kindergarten                                      First Grade


     Fall          Winter          Spring               Fall         Winter          Spring

Oral Counting   Oral Counting   Oral Counting     Oral Counting   Oral Counting   Oral Counting


Number ID.      Number ID       Number ID         Number ID       Number ID       Number ID


Number          Number          Number            Number          Number          Number
Discrim.        Discrim.        Discrim.          Discrim.        Discrim.        Discrim.



Missing         Missing         Missing           Missing         Missing         Missing
Number          Number          Number            Number          Number          Number




                                           Workbook p. 12                                     46
Administration and Scoring
of Oral Counting (OC)




                             47
      Things You Need for Testing
      Oral Counting (OC)
Specific Materials:
  • Examiner copy of
    Oral Counting for
    scoring

  • Clipboard

  • Stopwatch




                        Workbook p. 15   48
     Standardized Directions for
     Oral Counting (OC)
1)   Place the examiner copy on a clipboard and position so the student
     cannot see what the examiner records.
2)   Say these specific directions to the student:

            “When I say start I want you to start counting aloud from 1
            like this 1, 2, 3 until I tell you to stop. If you come to a
            number you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Be sure to do your
            best counting. Art there any questions? Ready, Start.”
3)   Start you stopwatch. If the student fails to say “1” after 3 seconds, say
     “1” and continue.
4)   Follow along on the examiner copy. Score according to scoring rules.
     After one minute has expired, place a bracket after the last number said
     and say “Stop.”




                                  Workbook p. 16                                 49
Oral Counting (OC) Scoring
Rules
Rule 1: If a student says the number that comes next in their
sequence, score the number as correct.

    Example: Student says . . . .12, 13, 14. . . . Scoring is 3 correct.

Rule 2: If a student repeats a sequence, score the sequence as
correct.

    Example: Student says 7, 8, 7, 8, 9. Scoring is 3 correct.

Rule 3: If a student self-corrects, score the number as correct.

    Example: Student says 1, 2, 3, 5 oh 3, 4, 5. Scoring is 5 correct




                             Workbook p. 17                            50
     Oral Counting (OC) Scoring
     Rules (cont’d)
Rule 4: If a student hesitates with a number for 3 seconds, tell the
student the number and score the number on which the student
hesitated as incorrect. You may tell the student only one number
during testing.
    Example: Student says 12, 13, .…(3 seconds) examiner says
    “14”. Score 14 as incorrect and continue testing. Student
    continues to count and comes to 28, 29, . . . (3 seconds) examiner
    says "stop” and discontinues testing.
Rule 5: If a student skips a number while counting, score the number
as incorrect and continue testing.
    Example: Student says 6, 7, 9. Score 8 as incorrect and continue
    testing.



                               Workbook p. 17                          51
Calculating and Reporting
Oral Counting (OC) Scores

• Count the total number of numbers the
  student counted
• Count the number of errors and subtract
• Report the total number of correct oral
  counts




                                            52
Practice Exercise:
Oral Counting (OC)




          Workbook p. 17   53
Practice Exercise: Oral Counting
(OC) Answer Key




                             Counted to 34
                             Had 11 errors
                             OC Score = 23 (34 - 11)


            Workbook p. 18                             54
Accuracy of
Implementati
on (AIRS)




               55
Administration and Scoring
of Number Identification (NI)




                                56
    Things You Need for Testing
    Number Identification (NI)
Specific Materials:
  • Examiner copy of
    Number
    Identification for
    scoring
  • Student copy of
    Number
    Identification for
    Scoring
  • Clipboard
  • Stopwatch



                         Workbook p. 15   57
 Standardized Directions for Number
 Identification (NI)
1) 1. Place the student copy in front of the student.
2) 2. Place the examiner copy on a clipboard so the student
   cannot see what the examiner records.
3) 3. Say these specific directions to the student:
          “Look at the paper in front of you. It has a number
          on it (demonstrate by pointing). What number is this?”
Example 1 (show sample page with number “8”)
              Correct Response                        Incorrect Response

       “Good. The number is 8. Look at         “This number is 8 (point to 8).
       the number next to 8 (demonstrate       What number is this? Good.
       by pointing). What number is            Let’s try another one. Look at the
       this?”                                  number next to 8 (demonstrate by
                                               pointing). What number is this?”



                              Workbook p. 16                                        58
Standardized Directions for NI
(Cont’d)
Example 2 (Show student sample page with number “4”)

          Correct Response                     Incorrect Response

   “Good. The number is 4.” (Turn       “This number is 4 (point to 4).
   the page).                           What number is this? Good.”
                                        (Turn the page).



  “The paper in front of you has numbers on it. When I say
  start, I want you to tell me what the numbers are. Start here
  and go across the page (demonstrate by pointing). If you
  come to a number you don’t know, I’ll tell you what to do.
  Are there any questions? Put your finger on the first one.
  Ready, start.”


                             Workbook p. 16                               59
 Standardized Directions for NI
 (Cont’d)
4) Start your stopwatch. If the student fails to answer the first problem
   after 3 seconds, tell the student to “try the next one.”
5) If the student does not get any correct within the first 5 items,
   discontinue the task and record a score of zero.
6) Follow along on the examiner copy. Put a slash (/) through any
   incorrects.
7) The maximum time for each item is 3 seconds. If a student does
   not provide an answer within 3 seconds, tell the student to “try the
   next one.”
8) At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket (]) around the last item
   completed and say “Stop.”


                               Workbook p. 16                          60
  Number Identification Scoring
  Rules
Rule 1: If a student correctly identifies the
number, score the item as correct (1-point).

Rule 2: If the student states any number other
than the item number, score the item as
incorrect.

Rule 3: If the student hesitates or struggles with
a number for 3 seconds, tell the student to “try
the next one” and score the item as incorrect.

                     Workbook p. 17                  61
Number Identification Scoring
Rules (Cont’d)
Rule 4: If a student skips a number, score the
number as incorrect.

Rule 5: If a student skips an entire row, mark each
number in the row as incorrect by drawing a line
through the row on the examiner score sheet.

Rule 6: If the student misses 5 items consecutively
discontinue testing.


                      Workbook p. 17              62
Practice Exercise
for NI




              Workbook p. 17   63
Answer Key for NI Practice




     Identified 22 numbers
     Had 8 errors
     NI Score = 14 (22 – 8)


                      Workbook p. 18   64
Administration and Scoring
of Quantity Discrimination (QD)




                                  65
    Things You Need for Testing
    Quantity Discrimination (QD)
Specific Materials:
  • Examiner copy of
    Quantity
    Discrimination for
    scoring
  • Student copy of
    Quantity
    Discrimination for
    Scoring
  • Clipboard to provide
    a hard surface for
    recording student
    answers
  • Stopwatch
                           Workbook p. 15   66
Standard Directions for
Quantity Discrimination (QD)
1.    1. Place the student copy in front of the student.
2.    2. Place the examiner copy on a clipboard and position so the student
      cannot see what the examiner records.
3.    3. Say these specific directions to the student:
             “Look at the piece of paper in front of you. The box in front of
             you has two numbers in it (demonstrate by pointing). I want
             you to tell me the number that is bigger.”
Example 1 for Sample Items
              Correct Response                         Incorrect Response

     “Good. The bigger number is 7. Now       “The bigger number is 7. You should
     look at this box (demonstrate by         have said 7 because 7 is bigger than
     pointing). It has two numbers in it.     4. Now look at this box (demonstrate
     Tell me the number that is bigger.”      by pointing). It has two numbers in it.
                                              Tell me the number that is bigger.”


                                   Workbook p. 16                                  67
Standard Directions for Quantity
Discrimination (Cont’d)
  Example 2 for Sample Items

            Correct Response                    Incorrect Response

     “Good. The bigger number is 4.”      “The bigger number is 4 . You
     (Turn the page).                     should have said 4 because 4 is
                                          bigger than 2. (Turn the page).


    “The paper in front of you has boxes on it. In the boxes are two
    numbers. When I say start, I want you to tell me the number in the
    box that is bigger. Start here and go across the page (demonstrate
    by pointing). If you come to a box and you don’t know which
    number is bigger, I’ll tell you what to do. Are there any
    questions? Put your finger on the first one. Ready, start.”



                               Workbook p. 16                               68
Standard Directions for Quantity
Discrimination (Cont’d)
4) Start your stopwatch. If the student fails to answer the first problem
   after 3 seconds, tell the student to “try the next one.”

5) If the student does not get any correct within the first 5 items,
   discontinue the task and record a score of zero.

6) Follow along on the examiner copy. Put a slash (/) through any
   incorrects.

7) The maximum time for each item is 3 seconds. If a student does not
   provide an answer within 3 seconds, tell the student to “try the next
   one.”

8) At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket (]) around the last item
   completed and say “Stop.”


                                Workbook p. 16                         69
  Quantity Discrimination Scoring
  Rules
Rule 1: If a student states the bigger number, score the item
as correct.

Rule 2: If the student states both numbers, score the item as
incorrect.

Rule 3: If the student states any number other than the bigger
number, score the item as incorrect.

Rule 4: If a student hesitates or struggles with an item for 3
seconds, tell the student to “try the next one.” Score the item
as incorrect.
                            Workbook p. 17                    70
           Quantity Discrimination
           Scoring Rules (Continued)
Rule 5: If a student skips an item, score the item as
incorrect.

Rule 6: If a student skips an entire row, mark each item
in the row as incorrect by drawing a line through the row
on the examiner score sheet.

Rule 7: If a student misses 5 items consecutively,
discontinue testing.




                          Workbook p. 17                    71
Quantity Discrimination
Practice Exercise




               Workbook p. 17   72
Quantity Discrimination
Practice Answer Key




          Attempted 5 items
          Had 5 errors - DISCONTINUED
          QD Score = 0 (0 – 5)

              Workbook p. 18            73
Administration and Scoring
of Missing Number (MN)




                             74
  Things You Need for Testing
  Missing Number (MN)
Specific Materials:
  • Examiner copy of
    Missing Number for
    scoring
  • Student copy of
    Missing Number for
    Scoring
  • Clipboard to
    provide a hard
    surface for
    recording student
    answers
  • Stopwatch


                         Workbook p. 15   75
Standard Directions Missing
Number (MN) Administration
1) Place the student samples copy in front of the student.
2) Place the examiner copy on a clipboard and position so the student
   cannot see what the examiner records.
3) Say these specific directions to the student:
          “The box in front of you has two numbers in it (point to the
          first box). I want you to tell me the number that goes in the
          blank. What number goes in the blank?.”
Example 1: ___ 2 3
                    Correct Response                      Incorrect Response

            “Good. 1 is the number that goes       “The number that goes in the box
            in the blank Let’s try another one     is 1. See 1, 2, 3 (demonstrate by
            (point to the second box). What        pointing). 1 goes in the blank.
            number goes in the blank?”             Let’s try another one (point to the
                                                   second box). What number goes in
                                                   the blank?”

                                  Workbook p. 16                                 76
Standard Directions Missing
Number5(Cont’d)
 Example 2: 6 ___
         Correct Response                     Incorrect Response

  “Good. 7 is the number that goes     “The number that goes in the
  in the blank.” (Turn the page).      blank is 7. See 5, 6, 7
                                       (demonstrate by pointing). 7 goes
                                       in the blank.” (Turn the page).


  “The piece of paper in front of you has boxes with numbers in
  them. When I say start, you are going to tell me the number that
  goes in the blank for each box. Start with the first box and go
  across the row (demonstrate by pointing). If you come to one you
  don’t know, I’ll tell you what to do. Are there any questions? Put
  your finger on the first one. Ready, start.”


                            Workbook p. 16                                 77
Standard Directions Missing
Number (Cont’d)
4) Start your stopwatch. If the student fails to answer the first
   problem after 3 seconds, tell the student to “try the next
   one.”
5) If the student does not get any correct within the first 5 items,
   discontinue the task and record a score of zero.
6) Follow along on the examiner copy. Put a slash (/) through
   any incorrects.
7) The maximum time for each item is 3 seconds. If a student
   does not provide an answer within 3 seconds, tell the student
   to “try the next one.”
8) At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket (]) around the last
   item completed and say “Stop.”
                             Workbook p. 16                       78
  Missing Number Scoring Rules
Rule 1: If a student correctly states the missing
number, score the item as correct.

Rule 2: If a student incorrectly states the missing
number next, score the item as incorrect by placing
a slash through the number on the examiner score
sheet.

Rule 3: If a student hesitates or struggles with an
item for 3 seconds, tell the student to “try the next
one” (demonstrate by pointing). Score the item as
incorrect.
                       Workbook p. 17               79
Missing Number Scoring Rules
(cont’d)
Rule 4: If a student skips an item, score the item
as incorrect.

Rule 5: If a student skips an entire row, mark each
item in the row as incorrect by drawing a line
through the row on the examiner score sheet.

Rule 6: If a student misses 5 items consecutively,
discontinue testing.


                      Workbook p. 17                 80
Missing Number Practice
Exercise




            Workbook p. 17   81
Missing Number Practice
Answer Key




           Attempted 11 items
           Had 8 errors
           MN Score = 3 (11 – 8)

               Workbook p. 18      82
             Answer Keys
•      You now have the building blocks to begin
    AIMSweb Early Numeracy Assessment for
    monitoring the acquisition of numeracy skills.
•


    Early Numeracy Measures:
    •   Oral Counting (OC)
    •   Number Identification (NI)
    •   Quantity Discrimination (QD)
    •   Missing Number (MN)


                                                     83
Time for Questions


                     84

				
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