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A Brief Hybrid History


									             HYBRID CARS
• Introduction:
  what is a hybrid car?
• Brief history
• How they work?
• Pros and Cons
• Examples
• Future

• Jessica, Isaac, Brett
          What is a Hybrid Car?
• Uses 2 or more sources   • Gas-electric
  to provide power.        • Diesel-electric
                           • Hydrogen-electric

• Minimum requirements:    • 300+ miles before re-fuel
                           • Re-fuels easily
                           • Keeps up with traffic
              A Brief Hybrid History
Robert Anderson of Aberdeen Scotland built
the first electric vehicle.

German Dr. Ferdinand Porsche built his
second car as a hybrid. On battery alone it
could travel nearly forty miles.

Hybrid truck built that used a four-cylinder
gas engine to power a generator,
eliminating the need for both transmission
and battery pack.
            A Brief Hybrid History
U.S. Congress made laws with objectives to work with industry to improve
batteries, motors, controllers and other hybrid-electric components.

The USABC launched a program to produce nickel hydride (NiMH) batteries
which can accept three times as many charge cycles as lead-acid, and can
work better in cold weather.
•   1997
    Toyota Prius went on sale to the public

•   1999
    Honda released the two-door Insight,
    the first hybrid car to hit the market in
    the US.

•   2002
    Honda introduces the Honda Civic

•   2004
    Ford releases the Escape Hybrid, the
    first American and SUV hybrid.
      How a Hybrid Car Works
• Combine power from a gasoline engine and a battery
  powered, electric motor.
• Battery charged in two ways:
      -gasoline engine
      -turning wheels
• Power split device - used
  to split the output from
  the engine.

• Continuously variable
  distribution of power –
  more efficient engine.

• Excess energy recharges

• Low speeds and stop and
  go traffic – electric engine
  takes over.

• Computer controlled
  power switching.

     •   Gas Engine
     •   Fuel Tank
     •   Electric Motor
     •   Generator
     •   Batteries
     •   Transmission
    Hybrids on the Market (as of 2006)
• Vehicles                        • MPG
•    Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid   •   18/21
•    Ford Escape Hybrid
                                  •   36/31
•    GMC Sierra Hybrid
                                  •   18/21
•    Honda Accord Hybrid
                                  •   30/37
•    Honda Insight       
•    Honda Civic Hybrid           •   60/66
•    Lexus RX Hybrid              •   49/51
•    Mercury Mariner Hybrid       •   33/28
•    Toyota Highlander Hybrid     •   33/29
•    Toyota Prius                •   33/28
                                  •   60/51
Toyota Prius
                 Regeneration (Braking)

•Moderate breaking

•Wasted friction rerouted to

•Large motor acts as a generator
for recharging.

•Driver slams on the break,
regeneration cycle bypassed.
         Regeneration (Excess Capture)

•Vehicle slows down or
encounters a decline.

•Small motor works as a
generator powered by the wheels.
                     Engine Drive + Charge

•Highway cruising.

•Unused electricity sent to battery
            Engine & Motor Drive + Charge

•Most common method for when
hills are climbed.

•Excess electricity generated by
small motor.

•Surplus sent to battery-pack.

•More electricity stored at top
than when starting.
            Full Power or Gradual Slowing

•Merging on a highway

•Max thrust is needed.

•Battery-pack joins in

•Large motor sends more thrust

•gradual slowing - reduces gas – no
noticeable change in distributed
                               Engine Heat

•When hybrid system is cold

•Engine will run to create heat for
catalytic converter

•Vehicle not moving – small motor
uses engine to recharge.

•Same method used when the
heater is needed.
                      Stand-By or Gliding

•System at rest

•No needed power at wheels

•Stopped or gliding

•Engine - off or idling.

• Released to the US in 2000

• Best Possible Mileage

• Many unique attributes
  What makes this car the best?
• Light weight aluminum body

• Small, efficient engine

• Advanced aerodynamics (.25)

• Regenerative breaking

• Perfect combination of gas and

• 60/66
What is under the hood?
            •   124 lbs
            •   1-L
            •   3 CYL
            •   67-73 HP
            •   600
            •   Honda’s VTEC
            •   Integrated Motor Assist
            •   Nickel-metal-hydride
            •   5 Speed or CVT
             Pros and Cons
• Pros                   • Cons
• Increases gas mileage •    Not as fast
• Better for environment •   Fewer choices by
• Less moving parts to •     Minimal space
  wear out               •   More expensive
• Higher efficiency      •   Possible long recharge
          Hybrids of the Future
• "plug-in" hybrid

• pure-electric vehicles
  over short distances
  (up to 60 miles)

• average American
  driver travels about 30
  miles a day so hybrids
  could be recharged

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