VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 23 POSTED ON: 2/19/2012
HYBRID CARS • Introduction: what is a hybrid car? • Brief history • How they work? • Pros and Cons • Examples • Future • Jessica, Isaac, Brett INTRODUCTION: What is a Hybrid Car? • Uses 2 or more sources • Gas-electric to provide power. • Diesel-electric • Hydrogen-electric • Minimum requirements: • 300+ miles before re-fuel • Re-fuels easily • Keeps up with traffic A Brief Hybrid History 1839 Robert Anderson of Aberdeen Scotland built the first electric vehicle. 1898 German Dr. Ferdinand Porsche built his second car as a hybrid. On battery alone it could travel nearly forty miles. 1910 Hybrid truck built that used a four-cylinder gas engine to power a generator, eliminating the need for both transmission and battery pack. A Brief Hybrid History 1976 U.S. Congress made laws with objectives to work with industry to improve batteries, motors, controllers and other hybrid-electric components. 1991 The USABC launched a program to produce nickel hydride (NiMH) batteries which can accept three times as many charge cycles as lead-acid, and can work better in cold weather. • 1997 Toyota Prius went on sale to the public • 1999 Honda released the two-door Insight, the first hybrid car to hit the market in the US. • 2002 Honda introduces the Honda Civic Hybrid • 2004 Ford releases the Escape Hybrid, the first American and SUV hybrid. How a Hybrid Car Works • Combine power from a gasoline engine and a battery powered, electric motor. • Battery charged in two ways: -gasoline engine -turning wheels • Power split device - used to split the output from the engine. • Continuously variable distribution of power – more efficient engine. • Excess energy recharges battery. • Low speeds and stop and go traffic – electric engine takes over. • Computer controlled power switching. PARTS: • Gas Engine • Fuel Tank • Electric Motor • Generator • Batteries • Transmission Hybrids on the Market (as of 2006) • Vehicles • MPG • Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid • 18/21 • Ford Escape Hybrid • 36/31 • GMC Sierra Hybrid • 18/21 • Honda Accord Hybrid • 30/37 • Honda Insight • Honda Civic Hybrid • 60/66 • Lexus RX Hybrid • 49/51 • Mercury Mariner Hybrid • 33/28 • Toyota Highlander Hybrid • 33/29 • Toyota Prius • 33/28 • 60/51 Toyota Prius Regeneration (Braking) •Moderate breaking •Wasted friction rerouted to system •Large motor acts as a generator for recharging. •Driver slams on the break, regeneration cycle bypassed. Regeneration (Excess Capture) •Vehicle slows down or encounters a decline. •Small motor works as a generator powered by the wheels. Engine Drive + Charge •Highway cruising. •Unused electricity sent to battery Engine & Motor Drive + Charge •Most common method for when hills are climbed. •Excess electricity generated by small motor. •Surplus sent to battery-pack. •More electricity stored at top than when starting. Full Power or Gradual Slowing •Merging on a highway •Max thrust is needed. •Battery-pack joins in •Large motor sends more thrust •gradual slowing - reduces gas – no noticeable change in distributed power Engine Heat •When hybrid system is cold •Engine will run to create heat for catalytic converter •Vehicle not moving – small motor uses engine to recharge. •Same method used when the heater is needed. Stand-By or Gliding •System at rest •No needed power at wheels •Stopped or gliding •Engine - off or idling. HONDA INSIGHT • Released to the US in 2000 • Best Possible Mileage • Many unique attributes What makes this car the best? • Light weight aluminum body • Small, efficient engine • Advanced aerodynamics (.25) • Regenerative breaking • Perfect combination of gas and electric. • 60/66 What is under the hood? • 124 lbs • 1-L • 3 CYL • 67-73 HP • 600 • Honda’s VTEC • Integrated Motor Assist • Nickel-metal-hydride • 5 Speed or CVT Pros and Cons • Pros • Cons • Increases gas mileage • Not as fast • Better for environment • Fewer choices by comparison • Less moving parts to • Minimal space wear out • More expensive • Higher efficiency • Possible long recharge times Hybrids of the Future • "plug-in" hybrid • pure-electric vehicles over short distances (up to 60 miles) • average American driver travels about 30 miles a day so hybrids could be recharged overnight Sources http://www.john1701a.com/prius/prius-how_details.htm http://www.hybridcars.com/history.html http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm http://www.allabouthybridcars.com/suv-hybrid-autos.htm
"A Brief Hybrid History"