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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE

   What is meaning of word computer?
   The word computer has been derived from Latin word “compute”, which means to
   calculate, to analyze, to count, to solve.


                    C.P.U                 Monitor




   C.P.U                              Monitor


                                                                               Speaker
                       C.P.u
   speaker




   What is definition of computer?
      Computer is an electronic machine which accepts the data through input devices
   and processes it with the help of C.P.U (Central processing unit) and finally gives us
   result through output devices, that is called the definition of computer.
   What are input devices?
   Input devices are used to give the data to the computer.
                                                              ‫ا‬
       ‫ُھي پارٽس جن جي مدد سان اسان ڪمپيوٽر ۾ ڊيٽا وجھندا آھيون‬
   Example:
       Keyboard
       Mouse
       Scanner
       Microphone
       Joystick etc




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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE


Keyboard: It is an input device that allows you to type words or numbers into the
computer system.




Mouse: - A mouse controls a pointer that is displayed on the monitor. The mouse
pointer usually appears in the shape of an arrow.


Scanner:-A scanner reads or scans the information you have on a piece of paper
into the computer. The information can be text or graphics.
Microphone:-You speak into a microphone so that verbal information is captured
into the computer system. The captured voice can be played back by the computer.
Joystick: - joystick is the most popular input device that is used to play computer
games.
What are output devices?
Output devices are used to get the result from the computer.
‫اهي پارٽس جن جي مدد سان ڪمپيوٽر اسان کي ڊيٽا ڏيندو آهي‬
Example:-
    Monitor
    Printer
    Speakers etc
Monitor: - A monitor displays information from the computer system.
Printer: - It is an output device that is used to print out the data on paper.
Speaker: - A speaker is used to transmit sound from the computer to you. It allows
you to listen to music or sound on the computer.



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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
What is C.P.U?
C.P.U stands for Central processing unit. It is a part of computer system which
controls the different devices attached to the computer system and manipulate
(process) the data according to the program.
What is Hardware?
 All physical parts of computer which we can touch and see are called hardware.
 ‫اھي شيون جن‬
Example:-Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse etc.
What is software?
Computer programs are called software. We can see but can not touch them.
There are two types of software
   (1)    Application software
   (2)    System software
    (1) Application software:-
   Application software is used to help the people to do some specific work.
   Example:-Ms-word, Ms-Excel etc.
    (2) system software:-
   System software is used to increase the computer efficiency.
Example;-Operating system (win XP, win 2000 etc)
What is data?
Collection of facts and figures is called data.
                   OR
The raw, unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, images, and sounds are called
data.
There are three types of data.
   (1) Alphabetic data
   (2) Numeric data
   (3) Alpha numeric data
   (1) Alphabetic data:-
           Alphabetic data consists on characters (A to Z)
   Example: - Ayaz, Karachi, etc
   (2) Numeric data:-
           Numeric data consists on digits (0 to 9)
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Example: - 143, 530, 3 etc


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   (3) Alpha Numeric data:-
            Alpha numeric data is combination of alphabetic and numeric data
   Example: - Seat NO: 14                 Flat No: 115 etc

           Alphabetic     Numeric      Alphabetic    Numeric

              Alpha numeric            Alpha numeric

What is information?
    Meaningful data is called information
           Types of computer
   There are three types of computer
   (1) Analog computer
   (2) Digital computer
   (3) Hybrid computer




   1. Analog computer:-
                     Analog computer is used for measuring purpose.
   Example:-Gas meter, Electric meter
   2. Digital computer:-
                Digital computer is used for multipurpose
   Example: - P.C (personal computer)
   3. Hybrid computer:-
         Hybrid computer is combination of Analog and digital computer.
   Example:-Modern Petrol pump
   What is Bit?
     Bit stands for Binary digit. It is the smallest unit of memory. It represents two
   digits 0 or 1 as on or off


         Off On

   What is Nibble?
         Collection of four bits is called nibble.

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  What is byte?
         The most common measurement unit is byte. Byte is collection of 8 bits.
  Byte stores a single character like A-Z or 0-9 or any special symbol like @, #, %,
  etc
                          Categories of byte


        1024 KB = 1MB                              KB = Kilo byte
        1024 MB = 1 GB                              MB = Mega byte
        1024 GB = 1TB                               GB = Gega byte
                                                   TB = Tera byte
                       Introduction to Windows
  Ms-windows is also known as GUI (Graphical User Interface) based operating
  system. It is also product of Microsoft Company. It is graphical operating system.
  It is in rectangular shape.
  There are three features of windows
  (1)Control Hardware
  (2) Run a program
  (3) Organized information


  (1) Control Hardware:-
          Windows controls different resources of your computer system, such as
  Keyboard, printer, Monitor etc.
  (2) Run a program:-
                Windows starts program (Application software) such as Ms-Word,
  Ms-Excel etc.These application soft wares let you write letters, applications,
  analyze numbers. You can listen to music, play games and even so many
  movies.
  (3) Organized information:-
         Windows provides ways to organize and manage files stored on your
  computer, you can use windows to create shortcut, copy, move delete or rename
  your files.


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   What is desktop?
           The screen that is displayed on the monitor when the computer starts up.
   All items and icons on the screen are considered to be on your desktop and are
   used to interact with computer.
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                                    ‫ڪ‬              ‫ء‬
.‫ڊيسڪ ٽاپ جو مطلب آھي تـ ھڪ اھڙي جا ِ جتي توھان سڀ ُجھـ ھڪ ئي وقت ۾ رکي سگھو ۽ ڏسي سگھو‬

   There are four elements of desktop
   (1) Icons (2) Wallpaper (3) Task bar (4) Start button.




   Icons


Wallpaper      of
Desktop




Start button


                       Name of program opened             Task bar
    (1) Icons:-
       Graphic objects on the desktop used to represent programs and other
   programs. Few of them are real icons of desktop, such as “My computer”, ” My
   documents”,” My network places”,” My Recycle bin”. You can remove, rename,
   create short cut show or hide and open icons but you can not remove only real
   icons of desktop.
   (2) Wallpaper:-
             It is known as graphical paper of desktop and it makes desktop colorful.
   (3) Taskbar: - Task bar is also known as communication bar. Through this bar
       you can communicate with all programs of computer. When you open any
       kind of program then name of that program is also shown on this bar.

   (4) Start button:-

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          It is also known as start menu button; through this button we can start
   any kind of program. It is also a key button of all programs.




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To set date and time of the system through date and time properties




Creating a new folder:

   (1) Click right button of the mouse
   on the desktop
   (2) Choose option new
   (3) Choose option new folder and click on it
   (4) Give any name to the folder
   (5) Click on desktop anywhere




What is Pentium?
   Pentium is the name given to the latest microprocessor chip. So as a computer
consisting of a Pentium chip called a Pentium.


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Turn Off Computer . . .



A left-click on the Turn off computer... item will open the   Turn off the computer
options dialog box. All computers should have at least three options. Your
computers will have a Restart, Turn Off, and Stand By as Administrator choice




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   VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
   Microsoft Word
      This is a word processing application that helps to create or edit text document,
   desing, drawing, notes, newspaper, books, pamphlets, reports, and all kind of
   graphic and color wor




   Standard Toolbar:-

New    save   search   print preview   Cut, copy, paste Undo Hyperlink Insert   table Columns document Map       Zoom




 Open E-mail print      spelling and grammar   Format        Redo      Tables and    Excel     drawing   paragraph      Help
                                                Painter                  Borders     Worksheet            mark




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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Formatting toolbar:-The formatting toolbar is the easiest way to change many
attributes of text. If the toolbar as shown below isn’t displayed on the screen, select
View      Toolbars and choose formatting.




Drawing Toolbar:-The Drawing Toolbar provides many commands for creating and editing
graphics. The toolbar is located at the bottom of the Power Point screen or it can be activated
by selecting View|Toolbars|Drawing from the menu bar.




             Menus of Ms-Word
(1)File Menu
New=Ctrl+N:-It is used to create a new, blank file.
Open=CtrlO:-It is used to open or finds a file.
Close:-It is used to close the active file without exiting the program.
Save=Ctrl+S:-It saves the active file with its current file name, location, and file
format.
Save As=F12:-It saves the active file with a different file name, location, or file
format
Save As Web Page:-It Saves the file in HTML format (a Web page), so that it can
be viewed in a Web browser.
Search: - It finds files, Web pages, and Outlook items based on the search criteria
you enter.

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   Versions:-It Saves and manages multiple versions of a document in a single file.


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   Web Page Preview:-It allows you to preview the current file as a Web page in your
   browser so that you can see how it will look before publishing it.
   Page Setup:-It Sets margins, paper source, paper size, page orientation, and other
   layout options for the active file.
   Print Preview: - It shows how a file will look when you print it.
   Print:-It Prints the active file or selected items. To select print options, on the File
   menu, click Print.
   Properties:-It displays the property sheet for the active file.
       (1) Edit menu
       Undo=Ctrl+Z:-Reverses the last command or deletes the last entry you typed.
       Repeat =Ctrl+y:-Repeats your last command or action, if possible.
       Cut =Ctrl+x:-It Removes the selection from the active document and places it on
       the Clipboard.
       Copy=Ctrl+C:-It is used to Copy the selection to the Clipboard.
       Office Clipboard:-It displays the contents of the Office Clipboard.
       Paste=Ctrl+V:-It is used to insert the contents of the Clipboard at the insertion
       Point, and replaces any selection.
      Paste Special:-Pastes, links, or embeds the Clipboard contents in the current file
in the format you specify.
     Paste as Hyperlink:-Inserts the contents of the Clipboard as a hyperlink at the
insertion point, replacing any selection.
   Clear (Formats, Contents)
        (1)Formats:-Removes only the formatting from your selection; the content and
   comments are unchanged.
       (ii) Contents=Del:-Deletes the selected text and graphics.
       Select all=ctrl+A: - Selects all text and graphics in the active window, or selects
       all text in the selected object.
       Find=Ctrl+F:-It Searches for the specified text or formatting.
       Replace=Ctrl+H:-It is used to replace one character or text to an other.
       Go To=Ctrl+G: - It moves the insertion point to the item you want to go to. You
       can move to a page number, comment, footnote, bookmark, or other location.
       (2) View menu

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  Normal:-Switches to normal view, which is the default document view for most
  word-processing tasks, such as typing, editing, and formatting.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
  Web Layout:-Switches the active document to Web layout view, which is an
  editing view that displays your document as it will appear in a Web browser.
  Print Layout:-Switches the active document to print layout view, which is an
  editing view that displays your document as it will print.
  Outline:-Switches to outline view, in which you can examine and work with the
  structure of your file in classic outline form.
  Task Pane:-It displays the task pane, an area where you can create new files,
  search for information, view the contents of the clipboard, and perform other
  tasks.
  Toolbars:-Shows or hides toolbars.
  Ruler:-Displays or hides the ruler, which you can use to position objects, change
  paragraph indents, page margins, and other spacing settings.
  Show     Paragraph Marks:-Displays nonprinting characters such as tab
  characters, paragraph marks, and hidden text.
  Document Map:-Turns on or off the Document Map, a vertical pane along the
  left edge of the document window that outlines the document structure.
  Header and Footer:-Adds or changes the text that appears at the top and
  bottom of every page or slide.




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   Markup: -Displays or hides comments and tracked changes such as insertions,
   deletions, and formatting changes.




VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Full Screen:-It hides Displays or hides comments and tracked changes such as
insertions, deletions, and formatting changes most screen elements so that you can
view more of your document
Zoom:-Controls how large or small the current file appears on the screen
(3) Insert menu
   Break:-Inserts a page break, column break, or section break at the insertion
   point.


Page Numbers:-Inserts page numbers that automatically update when you add or
delete pages.




   Date and Time:-Adds the date and time to your document using the format you
   choose.
   AutoText:-Creates or inserts an AutoText entry.
   Field:-Inserts a field at the insertion point. Use fields to insert a variety of
   information automatically and to keep the information up-to-date.
   Symbol:-Inserts symbols and special characters from the fonts that are installed
   on your computer.
   Comment:-Inserts a comment at the insertion point.
   Number:-Adds the number to your document.
Reference (Footnote, caption, cross-refeence):-
(I) Footnote=Inserts a footnote or endnote into the active document. The note
reference mark is inserted at the insertion point.
(ii) Caption= Inserts captions for tables, figures, equations, and other items.

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(iii) Cross-reference=Inserts a cross-reference to an item in a document.




VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Picture: - It is used to insert any picture
(clipart, word art, auto shapes etc)
Diagram:-Creates an organization chart or a
cycle,     radial,   pyramid,     Venn,      or   target
diagram in your document.
Text Box:-Draws a text box with horizontal
text direction where you click or drag. Text
boxes help you arrange text and add text to
graphics.
File:-Inserts all or part of the file you select, into the active file at the insertion point.
Object:-Inserts an object, such as a drawing, WordArt text effect, or an equation at
the insertion point.
Bookmark:-Creates bookmarks, which you can use to mark selected text, graphics,
tables, or other items.
Hyperlink=Ctrl+K:-Inserts a new
hyperlink or edits the selected
hyperlink.
(5) Format menu
Font:-Changes          the   font     and
character spacing formats of the
selected text.
Paragraph:-Changes              paragraph
indents,      text    alignment,      line
spacing, pagination, and other
paragraph        formats     in     the
selected paragraph.
Bullets and Numbering:-Adds
bullets or numbers to selected



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paragraphs and modifies the bullets and numbering format.
Borders and Shading:-Adds borders and shading to selected text, paragraphs,
pages, table cells, or pictures.

VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Columns:-Changes the number of columns in a document or a section of a
document.
Tabs:-Sets the position and alignment of tab stops and determines the type of
leader character for each tab stop.
Drop Cap: - Formats a letter, word, or selected text
with a large dropped capital letter.
Text Direction:-Rotates selected text in table cells so
you can read it from bottom to top or from top to bottom.
Change Case:-Changes the capitalization of selected
text




Microsoft word             Sentence case
microsoft word             Lowercase
MICROSOFT WORD             UPPER CASE
mICROSOFT wORD             tOGGLE CASE


Background: - Sets any color, fill effect or printed water mark to your document as
a background
Theme:-Applies a new or different theme, or removes a theme in a Web page,
document, e-mail message, or data access page
Frames:-frames are often used to make information easier to access or to show the
contents of a Web site that has multiple pages.
AutoFormat:-Analyzes the content of the active file and then automatically formats
the file.




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Styles and Formatting:-Displays the Styles and Formatting task pane, where you
can reapply formatting easily, create styles, and select all text with the same
formatting.
Reveal Formatting:-Displays the Reveal Formatting task pane, where you can get
formatting information about, change formatting of, and compare formatting between
text selections.
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(6)Tools menu
Spelling and Grammar=F7:-Checks the active document for possible spelling,
grammar, and writing style errors, and displays suggestions for correcting them.
Word Count:-Counts the number of pages,
words, characters, paragraphs, and lines in
the active document.
AutoSummarize:-Automatically
summarizes the key points in the active
document.
Speech:-Sets up and customizes speech
recognition for dictating text, as well as
selecting menu, toolbar, and dialog box
items.
Track Changes=Ctrl+Shift+E:-Marks changes in the current document and keeps
track of each change by reviewer name.
Compare and Merge Documents:-Compares the current document with any
document you select, gives you the option to
merge the two documents.
Protect Document:-Prevents changes to all
or part of an
online form or document except as specified.
Tools    on      the   Web:-Connects   you   to
Microsoft Office Tools on the Web for
information about integrated eServices that
are available.
Macro:-It is used to record a series of actions as a macro.
Templates and Add-Ins:-Attaches a different template to the active document,
loads add-in programs, or updates a document's styles.

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AutoCorrect Options:-Sets the options used to correct text automatically as you
type, or to store and reuse text and other items you use frequently.
Customize:-Customizes toolbar buttons, menu commands, and shortcut key
assignments.
Options:-Modifies settings for Microsoft Office programs such as screen
appearance, printing, editing, spelling, and other options.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
   (1) Table menu
Draw Table:-Inserts a table where you drag in the document. After you drag to
insert the table, drag inside the table to add cells, columns, or rows.




Insert:-It is used to insert a table, rows, columns or cells in your table.
Delete:-It is used to delete table, rows, columns or cell.
Select:-It is used to select table, rows, columns or cell.
   Merge Cells:-combines the contents of selected adjacent cells into a single cell.
Split Cells: - splits the selected cells into the number of rows and columns you enter.
Split Table:-Divides a table into two separate tables and inserts a paragraph mark
above the row that contains the insertion point.
Table AutoFormat:-Automatically applies formats, including predefined borders and
shading, to a table. Automatically resizes a table to fit the contents of the table cells.
AutoFit:-Automatically adjusts the width of columns in the table, based on the
amount of text you type.
Heading Rows Repeat:-Designates the selected rows to be a table heading that is
repeated on subsequent pages if the table spans more than one page.
Convert:-It is used to convert any text to table or any table to text
Sort: - Arranges the information in selected rows or lists alphabetically, numerically,
or by date.
Formula:-Performs mathematical calculations on numbers.
Gridlines:-displays or hides dotted gridlines to help you see which cell you're
working in.



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Table Properties:-sets various options to the table such as the table size,
alignment, and text wrapping; the row height, row page breaking, and row header
options; the column width; and the cell size, alignment, and other cell options.

   (2) Window menu
New Window:-Opens a new window with the same contents as the active window
so you can view different parts of a file at the same time.
Arrange all:-Displays all open files in separate windows on the screen.
Split:-Splits the active window into panes, or removes the split from the active
window.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
   (3) Help menu
Office Assistant=F1:-The Office Assistant provides Help topics and tips to help you
accomplish your tasks.
Show the Office Assistant:-Displays or removes the Office Assistant from view.
What is this? =Shift+F1:-You can get any help through this option; you have to only
click on any command.
Office on the Web:-Connects to the Microsoft Office Web site where you can get
up-to-date information and help on Office programs.
Activate Product:-Launches the Activation Wizard, used to activate or update
information about your copy of Microsoft Office.
WordPerfect Help:-Helps you learn the Word equivalents for WordPerfect for DOS
commands and key combinations.
About Microsoft word:-Displays the version number of this
Microsoft program, copyright, legal, and licensing notices; the user and organization
name, the software serial number; and information about your computer and your
operating system.


Picture toolbar                                               Auto shapes toolbar




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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE

Ms-Excel
      This is an application of Ms-Office-Excel is a spread sheet program, used to
work with numbers, formulas, calculations, expressions, therefore used to support
business needs, accounting needs, banking needs, mathematical needs and so on.



            Elements of Ms-Excel


(1) Application window:-This represents excel it self
(2) Workbook:-This is an excel file that contains 256 worksheets.
(3) Worksheet:-This is a spread sheet with rows 65536 and columns 256.
(4) Cell:-Intersection of row and column is called cell.
(5)Active cell:-The selected cell is called an active cell.




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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
(6) Reference: - It is the name of the cell that refers to the value in the sheet.
(7)Formula bar:-This is rectangular bar that appears at the top of the sheet.Formula
bar is used to edit or insert values into the sheet.
(8) Name box:-This box appears at the left side of the formula bar that tells name
(reference) of the cell.
(9)Gridlines:-The lines across the sheet.
Formatting toolbar:- The formatting toolbar, located beneath the standard
toolbar, has buttons for various formatting operations like changing text size or style,
formatting numbers and placing borders around cells.




Standard toolbar: - The standard toolbar, located beneath the menu bar, has
buttons for commonly performed tasks like adding a column of numbers, printing,
sorting and other operations. The standard Excel XP toolbar appears in the figure
below.




                           Menus of Ms-Excel

   (1) File menu

New=Ctrl+N:-It is used to create a new, blank file.
Open=Ctrl+O:-It is used to open or finds a file.

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Close:-It is used to close the active file without exiting the program.
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Save=ctrl+S:-It saves the active file with its current file name, location, and file
format.
Save As:-It saves the active file with a different file name, location, or file format
Save As Web Page:-It Saves the file in HTML format (a Web page), so that it can
be viewed in a Web browser.
Save workspace: - Saves a list of the open workbooks, their sizes, and their
positions on the screen to a workspace file so that the screen will look the same the
next time you open the workspace file.
Search: - It finds files, Web pages, and Outlook items based on the search criteria
you enter.
Web Page Preview:-It allows you to preview the current file as a Web page in your
browser so that you can see how it will look before publishing it.
Page Setup:-It Sets margins, paper source, paper size, page orientation, and other
layout options for the active file.
Print area: - Defines selected range as the print area, which is the only portion of
the worksheet that will be printed or deletes the print area in the active sheet.
Print Preview: - It shows how a file will look when you print it.
Print:-It Prints the active file or selected items.
Properties:-It displays the property sheet for the active file


   (2) Edit menu

Undo=Ctrl+Z:-Reverses the last command or deletes the last entry you typed.
Repeat =Ctrl+y:-Repeats your last command or action, if possible.
Cut =Ctrl+x:-It Removes the selection from the active document and places it on the
Clipboard.
Copy=Ctrl+C:-It is used to Copy the selection to the Clipboard.
Office Clipboard:-It displays the contents of the Office Clipboard.
Paste=Ctrl+V:-It is used to insert the contents of the Clipboard at the insertion point,
and replaces any selection.
Paste Special:-Pastes, links, or embeds the Clipboard contents in the current file in
the format you specify.
Paste as Hyperlink:-Inserts the contents of the Clipboard as a hyperlink at the
insertion point, replacing any selection.
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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Fill (Down, right, up, left, series, justify):-Copies the contents and formats of the
topmost cells of a selected range into the cells below/right/up/series/justified.
Clear:-It   is   used   to   clear/remove   formats,     contents,
comments or all.
Delete:-Removes the selected object. In Outlook, removes
the selected item from the view and moves it to the Deleted
Items folder.
Delete Sheet:-Deletes the selected sheets from the
workbook. You cannot undo this command.
Move or Copy Sheet:-Moves or copies the selected sheets
to another workbook or to a different location within the same workbook.
Find=Ctrl+F: - Searches selected cells or sheets for the characters you specify, and
selects the first cell that contains those characters.
Replace=Ctrl+H:-Searches for and replaces the specified text and formatting.
Go To=Ctrl+G:-It is used to scroll through the worksheet and selects the cell, range,
or cells with special characteristics you specify.
   (3) View menu
Normal:-Switches to normal view, which is the default document view for most
word-processing tasks, such as typing, editing, and formatting.
Page Break Preview:-Switches the active worksheet to page break preview, which
is an editing view that displays your worksheet as it will print.
Task Pane:-Displays the task pane, an area where you can create new files, search
for information, view the contents of the clipboard, and perform other tasks.
Formula Bar:-Displays or hides the formula bar.
Status Bar:-Shows or hides the status bar.
Header and Footer:-Adds or changes the text that appears at the top and bottom of
every page or slide.
Comments:-It is used to turn display of comments on the worksheet on or off.
Custom Views:-Creates different views of a worksheet. A view provides an easy
way to see your data with different display options..
Full Screen:-Hides most screen elements so that you can view more of your
document.

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Zoom:-Controls how large or small the current file appears on the screen.
(4) Insert menu
Cells:-Inserts cells starting at the insertion point.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Rows:-Inserts the number of cells, rows, or columns you select
Columns:-Inserts the number of cells, rows, or columns you select.
Worksheet:-Inserts a new worksheet to the left of the selected sheet.
Chart:-Starts the Chart Wizard, which guides you through the steps for creating an
embedded chart on a worksheet or modifying an existing chart.
Symbol:-Inserts symbols and special characters from the fonts that are installed on
your computer.
Function:-Displays a list of functions and their formats and allows you to set values
for arguments.
Define:-Creates a name for a cell, range, or constant or computed value that you
can use to refer to the cell, range, or value.
Comment:-It is used to insert a comment at the insertion point.
Picture: - It is used to insert any picture (clipart, word art, auto shapes etc)
Diagram:-Creates an organization chart or a cycle, radial, pyramid, Venn, or target
diagram in your document.
Object:-It is used to insert an object such as a drawing, WordArt text effect, or an
equation at the insertion point.
Hyperlink=Ctrl+K:-It is used to insert a new hyperlink or edits the selected hyperlink.
(5) Format menu
Cells=Ctrl+I:-Applies formats to the selected cells.
Rows (Height, auto fit, hide, unhide):-
Height=Changes the height of the selected rows.
AutoFit=Adjusts the row height to the minimum necessary to display the height of
the tallest cell in the selection.
Hide=Hides the selected rows.
Unhide=Displays rows in the current selection that were previously hidden.
Columns (Width, auto fit selection, hide, unhide, standard width):-
Width=Changes the width of the selected columns.
AutoFit Selection=Adjusts the column width to the minimum necessary to display the
contents of the selected cells.
Hide=Hides the selected columns
Unhide=Displays columns in the current selection that were previously hidden.
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Standard Width=Changes the standard width of columns on a worksheet.
Sheet (Rename, hide, unhide, background, tab color):-
Rename=Renames the active sheet.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Hide=Hides the active sheet. The sheet remains open and accessible to other
sheets, but it is not visible.
Unhide=Displays the previous hidden sheet.
Background=Inserts a tiled graphic image in the worksheet background, based on
the bitmap you select.
Tab color=Changes the sheet tabs color.
AutoFormat:-Applies a built-in combination of formats, called an auto format, to a
cell range.
Conditional Formatting:-Applies formats to selected cells that meet specific criteria
based on values or formulas you specify.




Style:-Defines or applies to the selection a combination of formats, called a style.




(6)Tools menu
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Spelling=F7:-Checks spelling in the active document, file, workbook, or item.
Error Checking:-Checks the active worksheet for errors.
Speech:-Displays or removes the Speak on Enter, Stop Speaking, By Rows, By
Columns, and Speak on Enter buttons.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Share Workbook:-Switches to shared workbook mode, which allows you and other
users on your network to edit and save changes to the same workbook.
Track Changes:-Highlights changes to cell contents in a shared workbook,
including moved and pasted contents and inserted and deleted rows and columns.
Protect Sheet:-Prevents changes to cells on worksheets, items in a chart, and
graphic objects on a worksheet or chart sheet.
Goal Seek:-Adjusts the value in a specified cell until a formula that is dependent on
that cell reaches a target value.
Scenarios:-Creates and saves scenarios, which
are sets of data you can use to view the results of
what-if analyses.
Formula    auditing    (Trace       Precedents,   Trace
dependents, trace error, remove all arrows,
Evaluate formula, show watch window, formula
auditing mode):-
Trace precedents=Draws tracer arrows from the cells that supply values directly to
the formula in the active cell (precedents).
Trace Dependents=Draws a tracer arrow to the active cell from formulas that
depend on the value in the active cell.
Trace Error=If the active cell contains an error value such as #VALUE or #DIV/0,
draws tracer arrows to the active cell from the cells that cause the error value.
Remove All Arrows=Removes all tracer arrows from the worksheet.
Evaluate Formula=Evaluate the formula one step at a time.
Show Watch Window=Display or hide a watch window to keep track of the results
of cells in the spreadsheet when it recalculates.
Formula Auditing Mode=Toggle the display of the worksheet to show formulas in
your worksheet.
Tools on the Web:-Connects you to Microsoft Office Tools on the Web for
information about integrated eServices that are available.
Macro:-Records a new macro, or stops recording after you start recording a macro.

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Add-Ins:-Specifies which add-ins is automatically available when you start
Microsoft Office.
AutoCorrect Options:-Sets the options used to correct text automatically as you
type, or to store and reuse text and other items you use frequently.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Customize:-Customizes toolbar buttons, menu commands, and shortcut key
assignments.
Options:-Modifies settings for Microsoft Office programs such as screen
appearance, printing, editing, spelling, and other options.
(7) Data menu
Sort:-Arranges the information in selected rows or lists alphabetically, numerically,
or by date.
Filter (AutoFilter, show all, advanced filter):-
Auto filter =the quickest way to select only those items you want to display in a list.
Show All=Displays all of the rows in a filtered list.
Advanced Filter:-Filters data in a list so that only
the rows that meet a condition you specify by
using a criteria range are displayed.


Form:-Displays a data form in a dialog box. You
can use the data form to see, change, add, delete,
and find records in a list or database.
Subtotals:-Calculates subtotal and grand total
values for the labeled columns you select.
Validation:-Defines     what   data     is   valid   for
individual cells or cell ranges; restricts the data entry to a particular type, such as
whole numbers, decimal numbers, or text; and sets limits on the valid entries.




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Table:-Creates a data table based on input values and formulas you define.




Convert Text to                                    columns:-Converts         the
selected text to a table.




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   Consolidate:-Summarizes the data from one or more source areas and displays it
   in a table.




   VISION-IT
   COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE

   (8) Window menu

      New Window:-Opens a new window with the same contents as the active
      window so you can view different parts of a file at the same time.
Arrange:-Displays all open files in separate windows on the screen. The Arrange
command makes it easier to drag between files.
      Hide:-Hides the active workbook window. A hidden window remains open.
      Unhide:-Unhide the previous hidden workbook window
      Split:-Splits the active window into panes, or removes the split from the active
      window.
      Freeze Panes:-Freezes the top pane, the left pane, or both on the active
      worksheet. Use the Freeze Panes button to keep column or row titles in view
      while you're scrolling through a worksheet. Freezing titles on a worksheet does
      not affect printing.
      (9) Help menu
   Microsoft Excel help: - The Office Assistant provides Help topics and tips to help
   you accomplish your tasks.
   Show the Office Assistant:-Displays or removes the Office Assistant from view.

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What is this? =Shift+F1:-You can get any help through this option; you have to
only click on any command.
Office on the Web:-Connects to the Microsoft Office Web site where you can get
up-to-date information and help on Office programs.
Activate Product:-Launches the Activation Wizard, used to activate or update
information about your copy of Microsoft Office.


What is a reference?

      A reference identifies a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and tells
Microsoft Excel where to look for the values or data you want to use in a formula.


The A1 reference style:-

By default, Excel uses the A1 reference style, which refers to columns with letters (A
through IV, for a total of 256 columns) and refers to rows with numbers (1 through
65536). These letters and numbers are called row and column headings.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
               Range:- Series of cells is called range

               :   This symbol is called range operator

               Function: - functions are prewritten formulas that
               perform calculations automatically.

          To refer to                                             Use

          The cell in column A and row 10                         A10

          The range of cells in column A and rows 10 through A10:A20
          20

          The range of cells in row 15 and columns B through B15:E15
          E

          All cells in row 5                                      5:5

          All cells in rows 5 through 10                          5:10

          All cells in column H                                   H:H

          All cells in columns H through J                        H:J

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The difference between relative and absolute references

Relative reference: -          A relative cell reference in a formula, such as A1, is based
on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell the reference
refers to. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes, the reference is
changed. If you copy the formula across rows or down columns, the reference
automatically adjusts. By default, new formulas use relative references. For example,
if you copy a relative reference in cell B2 to cell B3, it automatically adjusts from =A1
to =A2.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE

Absolute reference: - An absolute cell reference in a formula, such as $A$1,
always refer to a cell in a specific location. If the position of the cell that contains the
formula changes, the absolute reference remains the same. If you copy the formula
across rows or down columns, the absolute reference does not adjust. By default,
new formulas use relative references, and you need to switch them to absolute
references. For example, if you copy an absolute reference in cell B2 to cell B3, it
stays the same in both cells =$A$1.


                          Excel basic calculations

     Symbols                        Formulas             Result

               +   Addition         =4+9+2+6                   21

          - Subtraction             = 80 - 30                  50

          *   Multiplication        = 4 *2 * 3                 24

          /   Division              = 18 / 2                      9

          ^   Exponent(Power)       = 10 ^ 2                  100



Note: - Every formula in Ms-Excel begins with an equal (=) sign.




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Functions of Ms-excel

(1)     Average (                     )   (21) Mod (                 )      (41) Sum ( )
(2)   Column                  (       )   (22) Mode (                )      (42) Sumif ( )
(3) Even ( )                              (23) Now ( )                      (43) Left ( )
(4)   Odd             (               )   (24) Today ( )                    (44) Right ( )
(5)   Date            (               )   (25) Weekday (             )      (45) Mid ( )
(6) Day ( )                               (26) Pi (   )                     (46) Len ( )
(7)   Month               (           )   (27) Trunc (     )                (47) Concatenate ( )
(8)   Year        (                   )   (28) Power (               )      (48) Rept ( )
(9) Hour ( )                              (29)   Sqrt      (         )      (49) Subtotal ( )
(10) Minute (                         )   (30) Min ( )                      (50) Roman ( )
(11 Second (              )               (31)    Max          (     )      (51) If ( )
(12) Count (                          )   (32)    Sin          (     )      (52) Hyperlink ( )
(13) CountA (                         )   (33) Cos ( )
                                                                            (53) Isnumber ( )
(14) Countblank (                 )       (34) Large ( )
                                                                            (54) Istext ( )
(15) Countif (                        )   (35) Small ( )
(16) And (        )                       (36) Proper ( )
                                                                            (55) Fact (      )
(17) Or (     )                           (37) Upper ( )
                                                                            (56)      Sign       (    )
(18) Not (        )                       (38) Lower ( )
(19) Isblank (                        )   (39) Exact ( )
(20) Sign (           )                   (40) Product ( )




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      Table (1)                   Quantity, total price calculation


                                                                                     Total
                         Sno       Item              Quantity           Price        Price
                         1         Keyboard          2                  300          600
                         2         Mouse             5                  200          1000
                         3         Scanner           6                  2000         12000
                         4         Printer           1                  2200         2200
                         5         speakers          2                  300          600


      Table (2)                        Salary calculation



      Sno    Name        Salary        Total salary 10%        HR 5%         Elec.Bill 2%      Remaining salary

      1      A           24000         26400                   1320          528               24552

      2      B           17600         19360                   968           387.2             18004.8

      3      C           35000         38500                   1925          770               35805




      Table (3)                   Age calculation

      Sno    Name    years        months       Weeks      days        hours           minutes     seconds

      1      A       10           120          520        3650        87600           5256000     315360000

      2      B       4            48           208        1460        35040           2102400     126144000

      3      C       15           180          780        5475        131400.00       7884000     473040000


      VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE


      Table (4)                    Grade calculation

Sno   Name   Maths   English      Computer      Biology   Science       Physics      Total   Percentage     Grade       Remarks

1     AA     90      98           87            88        80            83           526     87.66666667    A           Pass

2     BB     70      67           78            76        80            66           437     72.83333333    B           Pass

3     CC     50      50           45            64        34            44           287     47.83333333    FAIL        Fail

4     DD     66      56           47            87        46            64           366     61             C           Pass

5     EE     49      80           77            80        37            54           377     62.83333333    C           Pass




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VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Power point:-
 Microsoft PowerPoint is a powerful tool to create professional looking presentations
and slide shows. PowerPoint allows you to construct presentations from scratch or
by using easy to use wizard.




What is a Presentation?
 The collection of slides which is shown on a screen or monitor.

 What is a Slide?
    Each individual page with information or message on it.
What is a Template?
      Default settings and formats of slides.

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        VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE


                           Menus of Ms-PowerPoint
      (1) File menu
      New=Ctrl+N:-It is used to create a new, blank file.
      Open=Ctrl+O:-It is used to open or finds a file.
      Close:-It is used to close the active file without exiting the program.
      Save=ctrl+S:-It saves the active file with its current file name, location, and file
      format.
      Save As:-It saves the active file with a different file name, location, or file format
      Save As Web Page:-It Saves the file in HTML format (a Web page), so that it can
      be viewed in a Web browser.
      Search:-Finds files, Web pages, and Outlook items based on the search criteria you
      enter
      Pack and Go:-Starts the Pack and Go Wizard, which helps you pack up a
      presentation so that you can run it on another computer.
      Web Page Preview:-It allows you to preview the current file as a Web page in your
      browser so that you can see how it will look before publishing it.
      Page Setup:-It Sets margins, paper source, paper size, page orientation, and other
      layout options for the active file.
      Print Preview: - It shows how a file will look when you print it.
      Print:-It Prints the active file or selected items. To select print options, on the File
      menu, click Print.
      Properties:-Displays the property sheet for the active file.
      (2) Edit menu
     Undo=Ctrl+Z:-Reverses the last command or deletes the last entry you typed.
     Repeat =Ctrl+y:-Repeats your last command or action, if possible.
     Cut =Ctrl+x:-It Removes the selection from the active document and places it on the
     Clipboard.
     Copy=Ctrl+C:-It is used to Copy the selection to the Clipboard.
     Office Clipboard:-It displays the contents of the Office Clipboard.
     Paste=Ctrl+V:-It is used to insert the contents of the Clipboard at the insertion point,
and replaces any selection.


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 Paste Special:-Pastes, links, or embeds the Clipboard contents in the current file in
the format you specify.
    VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Paste as Hyperlink:-Inserts the contents of the Clipboard as a hyperlink at the insertion
point, replacing any selection
 Clear:-It is used to clear/remove formats, contents, comments or all.
   Select All=Ctrl+A:-Selects all text and graphics in the active window, or selects all
   text in the selected object.
   Duplicate=Ctrl+D:-Makes a quick copy of a selected object.
      Find=Ctrl+F:-It Searches for the specified text or formatting.
      Replace=Ctrl+H:-It is used to replace one character or text to an other.
   Go To=Ctrl+G: - It moves the insertion point to the item you want to go to.
   (3) View menu
      Normal:-Switches to normal view, which is the default document view for most
      word-processing tasks, such as typing, editing, and formatting.
      Slide Sorter:-Displays miniature versions of all slides in a presentation, complete
      with text and graphics
      Slide Show=F5:-Runs your slide show, beginning with the current slide if you're
      in slide view or the selected slide if you're in slide sorter view.
      Notes Page:-Displays the notes page for the selected slide, where you can
      create speaker notes for the slide.
      Master (Slide Master, Handout master, notes master):-
      Slide master: - Displays the slide master, where you can set the default layout
      and formatting for all the slides except title slides (which are controlled by the title
      master
      Handout Master:-Displays the handout master, on which you can add or change
      header and footer information that you want to appear on every handout.
      Notes Master:-Displays the notes master, on which you can modify the layout
      and formatting of your notes pages.
      Color/Grey scale:-Shows the presentation in color.
      Task Pane:-It displays the task pane, an area where you can create new files,
      search for information, view the contents of the clipboard, and perform other
      tasks.
      Toolbars:-Shows or hides toolbars.



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   Ruler:-Displays or hides the ruler, which you can use to position objects,
   change paragraph indents, page margins, and other spacing settings.
   Grid and guides:-Sets the snap-to-grid options that you can use to easily align
   drawing objects.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
   View direction (Left-to-Right, right to left):-
   Left-to-right=Moves the outline pane to the left side of the presentation window.
   Right-to-left= Moves the outline pane to the right side of the presentation
   window.
   Header and Footer:-Adds or changes the text that appears at the top and
   bottom of every page or slide.
   Markup: -Displays or hides comments and tracked changes such as insertions,
   deletions, and formatting changes.
   Zoom:-Controls how large or small the current file appears on the screen
(4) Insert menu
New Slide=Ctrl+M:-It is used to insert a new slide.
Duplicate Slide:-Inserts a copy of the current slide after the current slide.
Slide Number:-Adds the slide number to an individual slide
Date and Time: - Adds the date and time to an individual slide using the format you
choose.
Symbol:-Inserts symbols and special characters from the fonts that are installed on
your computer.
Comment:-Inserts a comment at the insertion point.
Slides from File:-Inserts slides from another presentation into the current
presentation.
Slides from Outline:-Creates slides for all first-level headings in an imported outline
and adds the body text as indent levels.
Picture: - It is used to insert any picture (clipart, word art, auto shapes etc)
Diagram:-Creates an organization chart or a cycle, radial, pyramid, Venn, or target
diagram in your document.
Text Box:-Draws a text box with horizontal text direction where you click or drag.
Text boxes help you arrange text and add text to graphics.
Movies and sounds:-Opens the Clip Gallery, where you can insert a video in your
slide to play during a slide show.
Chart:-Creates a chart by inserting a Microsoft Graph object.
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Table:-Inserts a new Microsoft Word table on the active slide.
Object:-Inserts an object such as a drawing, WordArt text effect, or an equation at
the insertion point.
Hyperlink=Ctrl+K: - It is used to insert a new hyperlink or edits the selected
hyperlink.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
(5) Format menu
Font:-Changes the font and character spacing formats of the selected text.
Bullets and Numbering:-Adds bullets or numbers to selected paragraphs and
modifies the bullets and numbering format.
Alignment:-Aligns the selected text, numbers, or inline objects to the left,right or
centered etc.
Paragraph direction (Left-to-Right, Right-to-left):-
Left-to-Right=Switches text direction to left to right.
Right-to-Left=switches text direction to right to left
Line Spacing:-Sets the amount of space between selected lines of text.
Line Break:-Displays breaking options like Kinsoku Control.
Change Case:-Changes the capitalization of selected text.
Replace Fonts:-Replaces an existing font in your presentation with another one.
Slide Design:-Displays the Slide Design task pane, where you can select design
templates, color schemes, and animation schemes.
Slide Layout:-Changes the layout of the selected slide or reapplies the current
master styles to the placeholders if you've modified their attributes.
Background:-Sets a background color, texture, pattern, or image.
Place holder:-Formats the line, color, fill and pattern, size, position, and other
properties of the selected object.
(6) Tools menu
Spelling and grammar=F7:-Checks spelling in the active document, file, workbook,
or item.
Language:-Designates the language of selected text in a file that contains more
than one language.
Online Collaboration:-Starts an impromptu online meeting by sending an invitation
to participants.
Meeting Minder:-Opens the Meeting Minder, where you can take meeting minutes
and record action items during a slide show.

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Tools on the Web:-Connects you to Microsoft Office Tools on the Web for
information about integrated eServices that are available.
Macro:-Opens the Macros dialog box, where you can run, edit, or delete a macro.
Add-Ins:-Specifies which add-ins are automatically available when you start
Microsoft Office.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
AutoCorrect Options:-Sets the options used to correct text automatically as you
type, or to store and reuse text and other items you use frequently.
Customize:-Customizes toolbar buttons, menu commands, and shortcut key
assignments.
Options:-Modifies settings for Microsoft Office programs such as screen
appearance, printing, editing, spelling, and other options.
(7) Slide show menu
Slide Show=F5:-Runs your slide show, beginning with the current slide if you're in
slide view or the selected slide if you're in slide sorter view.
Set up Show:-Sets options for running your slide show, including the type of
presentation you're making, which slides to include, whether to include sound and
animation effects, the annotation pen color, and how you want to advance the slides.
Rehearse Timing:-Runs your slide show in rehearsal mode, in which you can set or
change the timing of your electronic slide show.
Record Narration:-Adds voice narration to your slide show. A sound icon appears
in the lower-right corner of each slide that has narration. To record a narration, your
computer needs a sound card and a microphone.
Action Buttons:-Inserts a action buttons where you click or drag in the active
window, and then opens the Action Settings dialog box, where you can assign an
action to the button.
Animation schemes:-Adds or changes animation effects on the current slide.
Animation effects include sounds, text and object movements, and movies that occur
during a slide show.
Slide Transition:-Adds or changes the special effect that introduces a slide during a
slide show. For example, you can play a sound when the slide appears, or you can
make the slide fade from black.




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Hide Slide:-If you are in slide sorter view, hides the selected slide. If you are in
slide view, hides the current slide so that it is not automatically displayed during an
electronic slide show.
Custom Shows:-Creates a custom show a presentation within a presentation.
When you create a custom show, you group slides in an existing presentation so
that you can easily show that section of the presentation to a particular audience and
omit it for other audiences.



VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
(8) Window menu

New Window:-Opens a new window with the same contents as the active window
so you can view different parts of a file at the same time.
Arrange all:-Displays all open files in separate windows on the screen.
Cascade:-Rearranges all open windows, so that they overlap in a cascade. The title
bar and a portion of each window are visible.
Next Pane=F6:-Moves clockwise to the next pane in the presentation.
   (9) Help menu
   Office Assistant=F1:-The Office Assistant provides Help topics and tips to help
   you accomplish your tasks.
   Show the Office Assistant:-Displays or removes the Office Assistant from view.
   What is this? =Shift+F1:-You can get any help through this option; you have to
   only click on any command.
   Office on the Web:-Connects to the Microsoft Office Web site where you can
   get up-to-date information and help on Office programs.
   Activate Product:-Launches the Activation Wizard, used to activate or update
   information about your copy of Microsoft Office.
   WordPerfect Help:-Helps you learn the Word equivalents for WordPerfect for
   DOS commands and key combinations.
About Microsoft PowerPoint:-Displays the version number of this
Microsoft program, copyright, legal, and licensing notices; the user and organization
name, the software serial number; and information about your computer and your
operating system.




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What is Internet?
            Internet is abbreviation of international network. The old name of internet
was ARPANET(Advanced Research project Agency Network).Internet began in
1959,as an experimental four-computer network called Arpanet, which was designed
by the U.S Defense Department so that research scientist could communicate. In
approximately two years, Arpanet grew to about two dozen sites and by 1981,
consisted of more than two hundred sites. In 1990, ARPAnet was officially
disbanded and the network, which now consisted of hundreds of sites, came to be
known as Internet.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
 There are two standards of Internet
 (1) Telnet
 (2) FTP
 (1) Telnet:-
       Telnet is an internet standard that allows you to connect to an other computer
 (host) on the internet and to log on to that computer as if you were on a terminal in
 the next room.
 (2) FTP(File transfer protocol):-
           It is an internet standard for transferring files, many computers on the
 internet allow you to copy files from your computer this is called the downloading.
 You can also use FTP to copy files fro your computer to an other computer on the
 internet, this is called the uploading.
                              Features of Internet
 There are many features of internet such as Browsing, website, Shopping, Chat,
 E-mail, E-Commerce etc.
What is Modem?
The word modem is an acronym formed from the two basic functions of an analog
modem (MO+DEM): modulation and demodulation.
Modem, device that enables computers, and other equipment to communicate with
each other across telephone lines or over cable television network cables.
Modulation=       Digital signals convert into analog signals
Demodulation = Analog signals convert into digital signals.
What is URL (Uniform resource locator)?



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            A unique identifier representing the location of a specific web page on the
  internet. Every web page has its own URL. URLs are case-sensitive, which means
  that uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different letters, so a user has
  to enter a URL with all letters in the correct case.
    Two basic parts of URL
Protocol       Domain name        Domain code
  Http:/      www.mtv.com
  What is network?
  A group of computers and related devices are connected to each other is called
  network.
  VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
  There are three type of network
   (1) LAN(Local Area Network):-         One building to an other building
   (2) MAN(Metropolitan network):- One city to an other city
   (3) WAN (wide Area network):-        One country to an other country.
   What is networking?
           Concept of connected computers with sharing resources is called networking.
   What is HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol)?
        HTTP on the World Wide Web the file transfer protocol (method) that enables
   the user to send and retrieve files across the internet.
   What is WWW (World Wide Web)?
  A network within internet consisting of data organized as page images with
  hyperlinks to other data.
    The web also known as www was introduced in 1992 at the centre for European
  Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Prior to the web, the internet was all text-
  no graphics, animations, sounds or video. The web made it possible to include these
  elements.




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What is Website?
     A collection of related WebPages belonging to an individual organization is
called website.
What is web server?
   A computer that stores and distributes web pages upon request.
What is an E-mail (Electronic mail)?
      It is a method of transmitting data, text files, digital photos, or audio and video
files from one computer to another over the Internet. E-mail enables computer users
to send messages and data quickly through a local area network or beyond through
the Internet. E-mail came into widespread use in the 1990s and has become a major
development in business and personal communications.
 What are protocols?
          For data transmission to be successful, sending and receiving devices
must follow a set of communication rules for exchange of information. These rules
for exchanging computers are known as protocols
 What is Chat?
   Chat refers to facility that enables peoples to engage in interactive conversation
over the internet.


VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
 There are two common types of chat
 (1) IRC(Internet Relay chat)
 (2) Voice chat
   (1) IRC (Internet Relay chat):- IRC allows people to type messages to others
       and to get response in real time. Thus IRC works like a regular phone call,
       except, you are typing instead of talking.
   (2) Voice chat:-
Voice chat takes IRC a step further if you and the person it with whom you are
interacting have the proper software and hardware, you can actually speak to each
other via the internet as you do in regular phone call.




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Miscellaneous information
Address:-Exact location where information is stored.
ANSI:-American National Standard Institute
ASCII: - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
AVI:-Acronym for audio-video interleave.AVI is a file format supported by Microsoft’s
video for windows standard.
Backup File:-is a copy of file, to be available in the event of the original file being
corrupted.
BASIC:-stands for Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It is a
computer language.
Boot:-To start a computer.
Browser:-Software that is used to read web pages, e.g. internet explorer and
Netscape Navigator.
COBOL:-Common Business Oriented Language created by Grace Hopper.
Command:-an instruction that initiates a computer function, operation, or program.
Communication: - The process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with
others in a particular time and place.
Connectivity:-Allows computers to share information and to connect to the internet.
Daughter board:-the smaller circuit board attached to the mother board is called a
daughter board.
Device driver: - A software component that permits a computer system to
communicate with a device.
Device:-Any electronic component attached to or part of a computer; hardware.
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Encryption:-process of converting messages or data into a form that cannot be
read without decrypting or deciphering it. The root of the word encryption—crypt—
comes from the Greek word kryptos, meaning “hidden” or “secret.”
ENIAC :-( Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) the first large-scale,
general purpose, digital computer.
File:-It is an organized collection of related records.
FORTRAN:-Formula Translation created by john Backus. It is a programming
language.
GUI:-Graphical user interface
Hacking: - Is the unauthorized use of a computer or unauthorized access to
programs or data stored on it.

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Hard copy: - It is computer output printed on paper
Intel:-A leading manufacturer of microprocessors.
LCD:-LCD display is one that uses liquid crystals to reflect light (e.g. the numerical
display on some pocket calculators.
LOGO:-LOGO stands for Logic-Oriented Graphic-Oriented. It is a very simple
programming language.
Maximize:-Occupy the full screen.
Memory chips: - Store and transfer data electronically.
Menu:-List of commands.
Minimize:-Become an icon or button on the task bar.
Modifier keys: - Keyboard keys that are used in conjunction with other keys to
execute a command. Such as Shift, Ctrl and Alt modifier keys.
Motherboard: - Where other electronic component of computer can be found.
Multimedia:-Combining different media (text, graphics, animation, and video, sound)
into a single application or file.
Orientation:-How a page is laid, either tall (portrait) or wide (landscape)
Peripherals: -All Input and output devices are known as peripherals or I/O devices.
Piracy:-It is the illegal copying of software.
Pixels (Picture element):-Pixels are dots that make up the image on your screen.
Intranet: - An organization that has many computers usually owns and operates a
private network which connects all the computers within the organization.
Procedures:-specify rules or guidelines for computer operation.
Programs:-Programs tell computers how to do things step by step.
RAM:-Random Access Memory
VISION-IT COMPUTER & ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
Resolution: - The resolution of a screen is the number of pixels is has.
ROM:- Read Only Memory
Root Folder: - The top-level folder on the disk. This primary folder contains all other
folders and sub folders stored on the disk.
Security:-is the establishment and application of safeguards to protect data,
software and computer hardware from accidental or malicious modification,
destruction or disclosure.
Toggle:-Switch from one alternative option to an other.
UNIVAC: - (Universal Automatic Computer), the first electronic computer designed
and sold to solve commercial problems.

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Window: - An area on computer screen in which an application or document is
viewed and accessed.
Windows:-a family of operating system products developed and produced by
Microsoft corp.




                                             Prepared by: Sir Noman Hassan

				
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