United States History Chapter 14: Industrialization Study Guide Mr by 4CixdD5J

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									United States History Chapter 14: Industrialization Study Guide                        Mr. Ron McCants, Teacher
             Answers on page 5
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. Economies of scale resulted in
           a. a wider variety of products.                 c. higher costs and higher prices.
           b. lower costs and higher prices.               d. lower costs and lower prices.
____    2. Which of the following choices best describes the diagram?



             a. horizontal integration                       c. trust company
             b. vertical integration                         d. holding company
____    3.   Supporters of laissez-faire believed the government should interfere in the economy only to
             a. protect property rights and maintain peace.
             b. protect new domestic businesses from foreign competition.
             c. keep prices from rising too high.
             d. bring the country out of an economic crisis.
____    4.   In the Crédit Mobilier scandal, Union Pacific investors got rich by
             a. accepting bribes from business owners to route tracks through their towns.
             b. achieving a monopoly in hauling freight along their railroad’s tracks.
             c. paying inflated bills from a construction company they controlled.
             d. conspiring with other railroads to set high prices.
____    5.   It made sense for big corporations to continue operating during poor economic times because
             a. their operating costs were so small compared to their fixed costs.
             b. their fixed costs were so small compared to their operating costs.
             c. their stock provided a continuous source of income in bad times as well as good.
             d. they could always raise prices to bring in more money.
____    6.   Which of the following choices best describes the diagram?



             a. horizontal integration                       c. trust company
             b. vertical integration                         d. holding company


____    7. Which of the following describes how an important invention would eventually enable factories to produce
           higher quantities of goods by extending hours of production?
           a. Implementation of Bell’s telephone opened lines of communication between suppliers and
               the factories.
           b. The invention of the ice machine would enable workers to be more productive.
           c. Edison perfecting the lightbulb made it possible to consistently light spaces.
           d. Northrup increased production of woven material with an automated loom.

             The Struggle to Organize Workers
             Date                           Event                            Outcome
             1877                           Great Railroad Strike            After railroads announce wage
                                                                             cuts, the nationwide strike that
                                                                          follows involves 80,000 railroad
                                                                          workers. President Hayes orders
                                                                          army to Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
                                                                          and Chicago. Troops restore
                                                                          order, but more than 100 people
                                                                          are killed and millions of dollars
                                                                          of property is destroyed.
           1886                            Haymarket Riot                 Seven police officers and four
                                                                          workers were killed in Chicago’s
                                                                          Haymarket Square after a bomb
                                                                          went off following a clash
                                                                          between strikers and police.
           1894                            Pullman Strike                 Strike called by the American
                                                                          Railway Union after the Pullman
                                                                          Company cut wages. A formal
                                                                          court order ended the strike.

____    8. According to the chart, the government reacted to disgruntled, demanding railroad employees in 1877 by
           a. calling out troops to restore order in cities under siege.
           b. following the wishes of the 80, 000 railroad workers.
           c. issuing a formal court order.
           d. resolving to raise wages.


____    9. Using your knowledge of United States history, choose the region that saw the largest number of railroad
           track construction during this period.
           a. Northeast                                   c. West
           b. South                                       d. Southeast

           “Man must have an idol—The amassing of wealth is one of the worst species of idolatry. To continue much
           longer overwhelmed by business cares . . . must degrade me beyond hope of permanent recovery.” —Andrew
           Carnegie

____ 10. Based on the quote and your knowledge of history, which answer choice reflects Andrew Carnegie’s actions?
         a. Ignoring all reason, he worked while his company failed to make a profit.
         b. He retired early in his career, failing to reap benefits from his successful companies.
         c. He worked until forced to retire to ensure the largest amount of personal wealth possible.
         d. He retired and created a system to donate millions of dollars to charitable activities.


Completion
Complete each statement.

       11. A nation's ______________________________ is the total value of all goods and services it produces during
           a year. [Do not abbreviate your answer.]
       12. ____________________ are people who risk their capital in organizing and running a business.
       13. The ____________________ motive, or hope to make money, attracted people of high ability and ambition
           into business.
       14. Scandals created the impression that railroad entrepreneurs were __________________________, or people
           who looted an industry and gave nothing back.
       15. The _________________________ Railroad was the only railroad that was not eventually forced into
           bankruptcy.
       16. ____________________ costs are costs a company has to pay, whether or not it is operating.
       17. The ____________________ process was a process for making high-quality steel efficiently and cheaply.
       18. A single company that achieves control of an entire market is a ____________________.
       19. A person who manages another person's property is called a ____________________.
       20. People who supported ____________________ believed that society did not need any government.


Matching

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. Andrew Carnegie                             f.    Alexander Graham Bell
             b. Karl Marx                                   g.    Jay Gould
             c. Cornelius Vanderbilt                        h.    Thomas Alva Edison
             d. Edwin Drake                                 i.    Eugene V. Debs
             e. Samuel Gompers                              j.    John D. Rockefeller
____   21.   practiced “insider trading”
____   22.   began the first direct rail service from New York City to Chicago
____   23.   Standard Oil
____   24.   founded a steel company in Pittsburgh
____   25.   American Federation of Labor


Short Answer


       26.
                          Explain why high tariffs were a factor of industrialization in the United States.




       27.
                          Explain why steel production was flattest between 1865 and 1775.




             “ . . . on this occasion it is murder of which I am accused. . . . And for what reasons am I accused of murder?
             The same that caused me to leave Germany—poverty—the misery of the working classes.” —from Address
             by George Engel, condemned participant in Haymarket riot

       28.
                          Identify the crime Engel was accused of and explain the circumstances of the
                          arrest.
      “Hesitant customers were attracted and reassured by Ward’s ironclad guarantee; all goods were sent ‘subject
      to examination,’ and any item found unsatisfactory would be returned to the company. . . . ” —from The
      Americans: The Democratic Experience

29.
                   As the nature of retail business changed in the late 1800s, why do you believe
                   customers were attracted to Ward’s type of retail business as it is described in
                   this excerpt.




      “And as their souls ascended
      To God who gave them breath
      They plead against the company
      Whose greed had caused their death.”
      —Miner’s song, 1869
30.
                   Read the description from Andrew Carnegie. Assuming that all of these steps
                   are performed by one company, what type of business combination is depicted
                   here?
United States History Chapter 14: Industrialization Study Guide                  Mr. Ron McCants, Teacher
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
     1. ANS: D                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 448
     2. ANS: B                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Challenging REF: 449
     3. ANS: A                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 438
     4. ANS: C                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 446
     5. ANS: A                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 448
     6. ANS: A                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Challenging REF: 449
     7. ANS: C                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 456
     8. ANS: A                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Easy             REF: 436
     9. ANS: C                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Challenging REF: 460
    10. ANS: D                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Challenging REF: 445
COMPLETION
    11. ANS: gross national product
    12. ANS: Entrepreneurs
    13. ANS: profit
    14. ANS: robber barons
    15. ANS: Great Northern
    16. ANS: Fixed
    17. ANS: Bessemer
    18. ANS: monopoly
    19. ANS: trustee
    20. ANS: anarchism
MATCHING
    21. ANS: G                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 450
    22. ANS: C                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Challenging REF: 456
    23. ANS: J                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 444
    24. ANS: A                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 437
    25. ANS: E                 PTS: 1                 DIF: Average          REF: 458
SHORT ANSWER
    26. ANS: High tariffs, or taxes, placed on imported goods helped American industrial manufacturing firms.
        These tariffs raised the price of foreign goods, helping American firms that now could offer similar goods at
        lower prices.
    27. ANS: Steel production was flat between 1865 and 1875 because the steel industry was a small, developing
        industry during these early years.
    28. ANS: Engel was accused of murder. He was one of eight anarchists arrested for a bomb thrown during the
        Haymarket Square protest in Chicago in 1886.
    29. ANS: All of the goods Ward sold included a guarantee. Customers could return any item that did not
        measure up to their expectations. As more companies competed in the mail order retail business, Ward strove
        to set his company apart by reassuring his customers of his company’s quality and reliability.
    30. ANS: vertical combination, or the purchase of companies at all levels of production

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