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Student Handout for Space Exploration by HC120219063055


									           Student Handout for Space Exploration

I.     History of Rockets and Space Flight

     A. Rockets
           1. Ancient Chinese (300 B.C.) first known to
     experiment with rockets.
              a. Light bamboo tubes filled with charcoal, saltpeter,
                 and sulfur. When properly sealed, they made loud
                 noises, but when imperfectly sealed, they would
                 shoot off into the air – rocket.
              b. In 1230, Chinese first to use skyrockets
                 effectively in war – long sticks propelled through
                 the air by burning gunpowder.
           2. Knowledge of how to make rockets spread through
     Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the Americas.
           3. 1700s Sir William Congreve developed more
       powerful rockets for war.
           4. During the 1920s, Robert Goodard develops rockets
       powered by liquid fuel and developed concept of
       launching a rocket with 2 or more stages.
           5. During WW II, German scientists started Space Age
       with the A4 and V2 rockets. A4 traveled 193 km (120
       miles) – FIRST modern rocket (guided missile). After the
       war, rockets were also used to collect data from Earth’s
       upper atmosphere.

     B. Space Exploration
          1. RACE TO SPACE
               a. Oct 4, 1957 Russians launched Sputnik 1 into
                  orbit around the Earth (FIRST Earth-orbiting
                  satellite)- started the Space Race
                      (1) size of a beach ball, weighed 184
             (2)     circled the Earth once every 96
               (3) Scientists in from U.S. were
               (4) Military upset, Cold War with Soviet
                     Union – it was thought that the
                     country with the most powerful
                     weapons would have the strongest
                     military presence. Also thought that a
                     massive arsenal of nuclear weapons
                     served as a deterrent to actual war.
                     Nuclear weapons from space???
       b. Dec 6, 1957 Vanguard rocket - first U.S.
       attempt failed
       c. Jan 31, 1958 (4 months later) U.S. sends
       Explorer 1 into orbit – radio signals sent info
       about temperatures in space and cosmic rays
2. 1958 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space
Administration) created - solicited volunteers to be
blasted into space on top of blazing rockets,
requirements included:
       a. 1500 hours of flight time
       b. test pilot experience
       c. less than 40 years old
       d. 110 military men, no women
       e. First group selected called “Mercury Seven”
3. Vostok 1, on April 12, 1961 carried Yuri Gagrin into
space, orbited once and returned - 1st man in space,
then U.S. sent Alan Shephard into suborbital flight
putting U.S. back into the Space Race.
4. Houston, TX selected for the Manned Space Center
(MSC), contained command center, astronaut training
facilities, NASA’s medical, engineering, and science
departments. All missions directed here after lift-off
from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

5. 1961-1963 Project Mercury (6 flights): quest for the
moon, proved human beings could survive space flight
and be returned safely. 1962 John Glenn first American
to orbit Earth.
6. 1964-1966 Project Gemini (10 flights) capsules built
to hold 2 people and develop technology to go to the
moon. First space walks, maneuver capsules to dock
with other spacecraft, and missions more complicated.
       (1) 1964 – Ranger 7 (probe) sent to investigate
            moon’s surface sent 4,000 pictures/crash-
       (2) 1966 – Surveyor 1 probe landed/sent 10,000
            pictures back. Survivor 3 scooped samples
            of lunar soil and sent pictures of samples
            back. 5 more Lunar Orbiters continued
            investigation btwn 1966 and 1967.
7. Apollo missions began in 1967, had 3 astronauts.
Apollo 1 astronauts killed in fire during a practice run
of countdown. In Dec, 1968 Apollo 8 first humans
orbited the moon. Neil Armstrong became first human
to step on surface of moon, Buzz Aldrin was second –
collected samples, conducted experiments, and set up a
plaque. CONCLUDED Space Race!!! More Apollo
astronauts (10) walked on the moon and over 842
pounds of samples returned to Earth.
8. After Space Race over, U.S. and U.S.S.R. began to
put space Labs into space. U.S. put Skylab space station
into space in 1973. In 1975 Soyuz spacecraft and
Apollo docked in space.
9. Early 70s, U.S. wanted to begin having useable space
craft – shuttle. Would also be used as orbiting
laboratories for scientific research, launch satellites
from shuttle’s cargo bay, repair broken/damaged
10. Space shuttles

     a. Columbia launched April 12, 1981 (5
     b. Challenger (1983, Sally Ride first U.S. woman
         in space)
     c. 1984 Discovery had maiden voyage
     d. Atlantis in 1985
     e. Endeavor added in 1992 to replace Challenger
         (exploded after taking off in 1986).
11. Unmanned Space Probes – map/analyze planets
     a. Mariner missions (7) in 1960s & 1970s to
        Mars, all flybys except M9, 1st to orbit a planet.
     b. Viking ½ sent robot landers in 1976 – pictures
        & soil samples.
     c. Mariner 10 flyby of Venus in 1974 and used
        gravity to slingshot it twd Mercury.
     d. Pioneer 10/11 in 1972 first probes to visit outer
        planets, asteroid belt. Explored Jupiter’s great
        red spot/north & south poles
     e. Voyager ½ sent info/images of Saturn’s rings
        & moons, used gravity to slingshot to Uranus
        & Neptune. V2 discovered 6 new moons of
        Neptune. Still sending info back.
     f. Magellan sent to Venus in 1989, arr 1990,
        examined surface, atmosphere, chemical
        makeup. Also discovered that Saturn has
        thousands of rings.
     g. Cassini launched in 1997 to explore Saturn -
        expected to reach it by 2004 to map
        planet/rings. Will release probe Huygens to
        explore Titan (largest moon).
     h. Galileo sent to explore Jupiter from space
        shuttle Atlantis in 1989, caught comet
        Shoemaker-Levy 9 slamming into Jupiter.
     i. Hubble Space telescope launched in 1990.

j. Mars Observer in 1992 sent to Mars, but
   NASA lost contact with it in 1993.
k. Mars Pathfinder/Pathfinder Lander
   w/Sojourner rover. Rover on surface of Mars
l. Mars Global Surveyor arrived at Mars once
   signals stopped arriving from Pathfinder.
m. 1998-1999 Mars Climate Orbiter & Mars Polar
   Lander both failed – technical difficulties.
n. Mars Odyssey launched in 2001 – currently


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