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8th Grade 2nd Semester Test

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					                              8th Grade 2nd Semester Test
                                 Chapters 13, 16, 18-21

1. When a wave passes by, water particles move
       a. Toward shore in a straight line
       b. In a circular motion
       c. Slowly toward the bottom of the ocean
       d. In the opposite direction
2. The strength of a wave depends mainly on its
       a. Wavelength
       b. Frequency
       c. Wave height
       d. Trough
3. Tsunamis are most common in the
       a. Indian ocean
       b. Atlantic ocean
       c. Pacific ocean
       d. Arctic ocean
4. The total number of high tides that occur each day in most places is
       a. Four
       b. Two
       c. One
       d. Five
5. A spring tide occurs when
       a. The moon and sun are at right angles to each other
       b. It is spring in the Southern Hemisphere
       c. It is spring in the Northern Hemisphere
       d. The moon, sun, and Earth are in a straight line
6. Low tides occur about every
       a. 6 hrs and 15 min
       b. 12 hrs and 25 min
       c. 24 hrs
       d. 2 weeks
7. Two gases found in ocean water that are necessary for living things are
       a. Oxygen and carbon dioxide
       b. Oxygen and helium
       c. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen
       d. Hydrogen and helium
8. As you go deeper in the ocean, which of the following does NOT decrease
        a. Temperature
        b. Light
        c. The number of algae
        d. Pressure
9. Both surface currents and waves are caused mainly by
        a. Differences in the density of water
        b. The Coriolis effect
        c. Winds
        d. The moon’s gravity
10. In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents curve to the right because of
        a. Longshore drift
        b. The Coriolis effect
        c. The moon’s gravity
        d. Earthquakes on the ocean floor
11. The sky looks blue because of
        a. Ozone
        b. Infrared radiation
        c. Scattering
        d. The greenhouse effect
12. The direct transfer of electromagnetic waves is called
        a. Conduction
        b. Convection
        c. Heat
        d. Radiation
13. On the Fahrenheit Scale, the freezing point of water is
        a. 0 degree
        b. 100 degree
        c. 32 degree
        d. 30 degree
14. The upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air is called a
        a. Conduction path
        b. Convention current
        c. Sea breeze
        d. Global wind
15. Wind direction is often measured with a
        a. Wind vane
        b. Anemometer
        c. Psychrometer
        d. Thermometer
16. In the Northern Hemisphere, global winds that blow from the southwest to the
    northwest are called
        a. Polar easterlies
        b. Prevailing easterlies
        c. Trade winds
        d. Prevailing westerlies
17. You compare the readings of web-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers to measure
        a. Humidity
        b. Wind chill
        c. Temperature
        d. Relative humidity
18. Clouds form when humid air is cooled to
        a. 0 degree Celsius
        b. 30 degree Celsius
        c. The dew point
        d. The condensation point
19. Hailstones form only in the types of clouds called
        a. Nimbostratus
        b. Cumulonimbus
        c. Altocumulus
        d. Cirrocumulus
20. A form of precipitation in which rain freezes as it falls through the air is called
        a. Snow
        b. Sleet
        c. Freezing rain
        d. Hail
21. Circle the letter of the type of cloud in which thunderstorms form
        a. Cumulus
        b. Nimbus
        c. Nimbostratus
        d. Cumulonimbus
22. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about thunder (2 answers)
        a. It causes lighting to occur
        b. You hear it after you see the lightning that caused it
        c. It occurs because lightning hear the air
        d. It occurs because light travels faster than sound
23. Circle the letter of each sentence that is a way to stay safe in a thunderstorm (3
    answers)
        a. Avoid touching electrical appliances
        b. Get out of the water if you are swimming
        c. Don’t use the telephone
        d. Get out of your car and go under a tree
24. Tornadoes develop in the same type of clouds that bring thunderstorms
        a. True
        b. False
25. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about where and when tornadoes occur (2
    answers)
        a. Tornadoes are most likely in late summer and early fall
        b. Tornadoes occur often in the Great Plains
        c. Tornadoes occur more often in the US than in any other country
        d. Tornadoes occur in just a few part of the US
26. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about a hurricane (2 answers)
        a. It is a tropical storm
        b. It has winds of at least 320 km per hour
        c. It is typically about 60 km across
        d. It forms over water
27. Hurricanes do not last as long as other storms
        a. True
        b. False
28. If you hear a hurricane warning and are told to evacuate, you should leave the area
    immediately
        a. True
        b. False
29. How many tornadoes happen in the US every year
        a. 500
        b. 1000
        c. 10,000
        d. 20,000
30. What season brings the most tornadoes
        a. Winter
        b. Fall
        c. Summer/spring
31. How long does a tornado last
        a. 1 min
        b. 10 min
        c. 15 min
32. What makes the sound of thunder
        a. Lightning
        b. Clouds
        c. Precipitation
33. Where would you expect to find the most thunderstorms
        a. Equator
        b. Tropics
        c. South Dakota
34. What do you think Earth would be like if we didn’t have thunderstorms
        a. Wet
        b. Dry
        c. Moist
35. Hurricanes happen in the winter and spring
        a. True
        b. False
36. Hurricanes can flood rivers and roads
        a. True
        b. False
37. A mobile home is a safe place to be in a hurricane
        a. True
        b. False
38. In winter, the days are longer
        a. True
        b. False
39. Ice storms happen when rain freezes on the ground
        a. True
        b. False
40. Earth’s spinning on its axis is called its
        a. Revolution
        b. Orbit
        c. Rotation
        d. Cycle
41. Which of the following events occurs once every 24 hrs
        a. Earth revolves around the sun
        b. The moon rotates on its axis
        c. The moon revolves around Earth
        d. Earth rotates on its axis
42. When the south end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun
        a. It is summer in the Northern Hemisphere
        b. It is winter in the Northern Hemisphere
        c. The sun is low in the sky in the Southern Hemisphere
        d. The sun is farthest north of the equator
43. The force that propels a rocket forward is called
        a. Velocity
        b. Escape velocity
        c. An action
        d. Force
        e. Thrust
44. Spring tides occur
        a. When the sun and moon are at right angles to Earth
        b. When day and night are equal
        c. When the sun, moon, and Earth line up
        d. Only when the sun and moon are the same distance from Earth
45. The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion is
        a. Inertia
        b. Orbital motion
        c. Gravity
        d. Universal gravitation
46. The pull of gravity on the surface of the moon is
        a. Six times that of Earth
        b. One quarter that of Earth
        c. One 8th that of Earth
        d. One 6th that of Earth
47. Maria are
        a. Seas on the moon
        b. Regions with many craters
        c. Regions formed from huge lava flows
        d. Lunar highlands
48. The goal of the Apollo program was to
        a. Land astronauts on the moon
        b. Established a permanent colony on the moon
        c. Put the first American in space
        d. Prove that the moon is solid
49. The main advantage of a multistage rocket is the
        a. It requires less fuel to overcome gravity at the time of launch
        b. It can carry humans into space
        c. The total weight of the rocket is reduced as the rocket rises
        d. It can be reused after returning to Earth
50. The scientist who first used telescope to make discoveries that supported the
    heliocentric model was
        a. Galileo
        b. Ptolemy
        c. Copernicus
        d. Brahe
51. The flash of light produced when a meteoroid passes through Earth’s atmosphere is a(n)
        a. Meteorite
        b. Comet
        c. Asteroid
        d. Meteor
52. The four terrestrial planets all have
        a. Hot temperatures
        b. Rocky surfaces
        c. Deep atmospheres
        d. Large size
53. A stream of particles that extends outward from the sun’s corona is called
        a. A sunspot
        b. Chromosphere
        c. Prominence
        d. Solar wind
54. The planet Venus is similar to Earth in its
       a. Rotation
       b. Atmosphere
       c. Surface temperature
       d. Density and internal structure
55. Which of the following is not included in scientists “Goldilocks conditions” for
    supporting life
       a. Liquid water
       b. Appropriate temperature range
       c. Ice
       d. Favorable atmosphere
56. The ______ is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
       a. Oort cloud
       b. Asteroid belt
       c. Kuiper belt
       d. Photosphere
57. A(n)______ is a loose collection of ice, dust, and small rocky particles that typically has a
    long, narrow orbit
       a. Asteroid
       b. Planet
       c. Meteoroid
       d. Comet
58. _____ are loops of gas on the sun that link different parts of sunspot regions together
       a. Prominences
       b. Solar flares
       c. Solar winds
       d. Auroras
59. _____ has a thick atmosphere composed mainly of hydrogen and helium
       a. Venus
       b. Jupiter
       c. Pluto
       d. Mercury
60. The layer of the sun’s atmosphere that gives off visible light
       a. Chromospheres
       b. Photosphere
       c. Radiation
       d. Convection
61. The layer of the sun’s atmosphere that has a reddish glow
        a. Chromospheres
        b. Photosphere
        c. Radiation
        d. Convection
62. The layer of the sun’s atmosphere that looks like a halo during an eclipse
        a. Core
        b. Sunspot
        c. Corona
        d. Prominence
63. Areas of gas on the sun’s surface that are cooler than the gases around them
        a. Core
        b. Sunspot
        c. Corona
        d. Prominence
64. Reddish loops of gas that link parts of sunspot regions
        a. Core
        b. Sunspot
        c. Corona
        d. Prominence
65. Eruptions that occur when the loops in sunspot regions suddenly connect
        a. Solar flare
        b. Solar wind
        c. Sunspot
        d. Core
66. A stream of charged particles produced by the corona
        a. Solar flare
        b. Solar wind
        c. Sunspot
        d. Core
67. The center of the sun
        a. Solar flare
        b. Solar wind
        c. Sunspot
        d. Core
68. The outermost layer of the sun’s interior
         a. Radiation zone
         b. Nuclear fusion
         c. Convection
         d. Photosphere
69. The joining of hydrogen atoms to form helium
         a. Nuclear fusion
         b. Radiation zone
         c. Convection
         d. Photosphere
70. The layer of the sun’s interior where energy is transferred mainly by electromagnetic
    radiation
         a. Solar wind
         b. Prominence
         c. Radiation zone
         d. Convection zone
71. When a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere, friction causes it to burn up and produce
    a streak of light called a(n)
         a. Meteor
         b. Meteorite
         c. Asteroid
         d. Meteoroid
72. A chunk of ice and dust whose orbit is usually a long, narrow ellipse is a(n)
         a. Meteor
         b. Meteorite
         c. Comet
         d. Asteroid
73. If a meteoroid hits Earth’s surface, it is called a(n)
         a. Meteor
         b. Meteorite
         c. Asteroid
         d. Meteoroid
74. A rocky object that revolves around the sun, but it too small to be considered a planet,
    is a(n)
         a. Meteor
         b. Meteorite
         c. Asteroid
         d. Meteoroid
75. A chunk of rock or dust in space that usually comes from a comet or an asteroid is called
    a(n)
        a. Meteor
        b. Meteorite
        c. Asteroid
        d. Meteoroid
76. The region of the solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is known as the
        a. Oort cloud
        b. Kuiper belt
        c. Coma
        d. Asteroid belt
77. Clouds of gas and dust on a comet form a fuzzy outer layer called a
        a. Oort cloud
        b. Kuiper belt
        c. Coma
        d. Asteroid belt
78. A spherical region of comets is the
        a. Oort cloud
        b. Kuiper belt
        c. Coma
        d. Asteroid belt
79. A doughnut-shaped region of comets that begins near Neptune’s orbit is the
        a. Oort cloud
        b. Kuiper belt
        c. Coma
        d. Asteroid belt
80. Which are the terrestrial planets or inner planets
        a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
        b. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
81. Which are the outer planets
        a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
        b. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
82. Which is considered a dwarf planet
        a. Mercury
        b. Jupiter
        c. Pluto
        d. Earth
83. Patterns of stars in the sky are called
       a. Galaxies
       b. Constellations
       c. Star systems
       d. Observatories
84. Which of the following is not part of the electromagnetic spectrum
       a. Radio waves
       b. Sound waves
       c. X-rays infrared radiation
85. A neutron star that appears to produce pulses of radio waves is called a
       a. Quasar
       b. Binary system
       c. Black hole
       d. Pulsar
86. The earliest stage of a star’s “life” is called a
       a. Protostar
       b. Giant star
       c. Quasar
       d. White dwarf
87. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram graphs stars
       a. Absolute brightness and temperature
       b. Apparent brightness and absolute brightness
       c. Distance and absolute brightness
       d. Diameter and apparent brightness
88. How long a star “lives” depends on
       a. Its color
       b. Its mass
       c. Whether it is single or binary
       d. Its temperature
89. Parallax can’t be used on a star if the star is too
       a. Close
       b. Bright
       c. Far away
       d. Large
90. A light-year is a unit of
        a. Time
        b. Distance
        c. Mass
        d. Absolute brightness
91. The distance between the crest of one wave of electromagnetic radiation and the crest
    of the next one it its
        a. Frequency
        b. Wavelength
        c. Color
        d. Spectrum
92. When a star runs out of fuel, it cannot become a
        a. Protostar
        b. Neutron star
        c. White dwarf
        d. Black hole
93. A star system in which one star blocks the light from another is called a(n)
        a. Protostar
        b. Eclipsing binary
        c. Nebula
        d. White dwarf
94. A device used to detect radio waves from objects in space is called a(n)
        a. Radio telescope
        b. Refracting telescope
        c. Reflecting telescope
        d. Observatory
95. A(n) _____ telescope focuses light through a transparent lens
        a. Radio telescope
        b. Refracting telescope
        c. Reflecting telescope
        d. Gamma rays
96. A(n) _____ telescope collects and focuses light by using a mirror
        a. Radio telescope
        b. Refracting telescope
        c. Reflecting telescope
        d. Wavelength
97. A large cloud of gas and dust in a galaxy is called a(n)
        a. Nebula
        b. Mass
        c. Frequency
        d. Black hole
98. A star is born when nuclear fusion begins inside a protostar
        a. True
        b. False
99. A quasar is a type of globular cluster
        a. True
        b. False
100.        A star system containing two stars is called a binary star
        a. True
        b. False
101.        A stars absolute brightness is its brightness as seen from Earth
        a. True
        b. False
102.        The coolest stars are blue white in color
        a. True
        b. False

				
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