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					  Islam: Shia-versus
Sunni/emergence of the
      Caliphates

      632-1500
Muslim Mosque in Mecca
Kaaba, sacred shrine to Allah in
            Mecca
D144Kaaba
                         Hajj

Muslims performing
the Hajj (a pilgrimage
to Mecca).
The simple white
garments symbolize
the equality of
believers.
Muslim Pilgrimage
Muslims in Mecca
Muslims at Prayer
Muslim obligations: Almsgiving
                      Jihad

   “Jihad” among extremists refers to “Holy
    Wars” against the infidels or of Territorial
    expansion.

   Among moderates, Jihad refers to
    “Defense” of one’s faith; and or an “inner
    struggle” to rid oneself of evil and submit to
    Allah.
         Emergence of Shia

 Claim that ‘Ali’s descendents were the true
  successors to Muhammad
 Shia community recognizes the Imans, the
  successors to ‘Ali’s Spiritual Authority
 Recognizes Koran only, not Koran but
  Sunna (traditional teachings) as
  authoritative.
                  Caliph

 Caliph or “Deputy” refers to the Islamic
  rulers after the death of Muhammad.
 Abu-Bakr is first Caliph (632-624)
 The first four caliphs expanded the
  kingdom still further.
 Caliphs have both religious & civil
  authority.
      Eras of Islamic Civilization

   570-632: Muhammad-Founder

   632-661: First four Caliphs: - Expansion in
    Mideast

   661-750: Ommayad Dynasty-(Centered in
    Damascus) Expansion in N.Africa & Spain
Eras of Islamic Civilization cont.

   750-1258: Abbasid Dynasty, Golden Age at
    Baghdad

   1000s-1400s: Seljuks &Mongols

   1453-WW I: Ottoman Empire; &
    Fragmentation
D162Muslim Exp.Map
         Branches of Islam

 Most  Muslims would agree on the
  basic principles of Islam
 Many varieties in beliefs and practices
  exist. The main groups are:
    Sunnis

    Shiites
                       Sunnis
   Comprises 85% of             Analogy and consensus
    Muslims                       are used to arrive at
   Considered to be              solutions
    mainstream
    everywhere except in         Sunnis often able to
    Iran                          adapt to different
   Sources of religious          cultures without losing
    and legal authority are       their own values or
    the Qur’an and the            beliefs
    hadith (traditions)
               Hadith


 Expand    the basic teachings
 Answer legal questions
 Clarify ritual duties
                     Shi’ites

        as a political dispute over the
 Started
 leadership of Islam
     Muhammad died without naming an heir; some
      believed his cousin Ali should be his successor
     661 CE, Ali was murdered; 680 CE, his son,
      Husayn, was killed in Iraq
     Ali and Husayn were the first martyrs of the
      Shi’ites (Shia Ali)
                        Imams
   Spiritual leaders of Islam are the imams
      Imams are without sin and can interpret scripture
       without error
       Innovation possible only through an imam’s
        approval
       Belief in the Mahdi (guided one) - messianic figure
        who will lead the world into a time of peace
   Sunni and Shi’a disagree over the scope and power
    of Imams: for Sunni, the Imam is a prayer leader;
    for the Shi’a, the Imam is temporal leader—the True
    Caliph.
       The Umayyad Caliphate

   Flourish from 661 to 750
   Centered in Damascus
   Nearly took Constantinople (674-77) but
    were deterred by Greek Fire
   Captured Spain but were defeated by
    Charles Martel at Tours in 732.
   Weakness of Umayyads—only Arabs could
    be Muslims—opposed by Abbasids who
    accepted Muslims of all ethnicities
        The Abbasid Caliphate
 Flourished from 750 to 1258
 Centered in Baghdad
 Great libraries, academies, and schools.
 Translated classical Greek scholarship into
  Arabic—preserving it for posterity
 Achievements in Medicine, astronomy, and
  Mathematics
 Muslim states in West break away from Abbasid
  control beginning in 756.
 Seljuk Turks convert to Islam and conquer
  Abbasids (1055) but allow Abbasids to continue to
  rule
 Genghis Khans Grandson topples Abbasids in
  1258
    Ottoman Empire (1300-1918)

 The Ottoman Empire would rival that of
  China in size and economic power.
 But over time the Ottoman Empire would
  be weakened until the twentieth century.
 Yet under Suleiman the Magnificent
  (1520-1566) the Ottoman Empire expanded
  into North Africa and Syria.
    Growth of the Ottoman Empire

 For nearly 300 years the Ottomans expanded
  into the Balkans and to Persia.
 By 1683 the Turks controlled Hungary in
  Europe to the Persian Gulf.
 Initial Ottoman conquest and expansion was
  under their able leader Osman (1299-1326).
 Osman was a ghazi, or warrior, who was
  determined to spread the faith.
Why Did The Ottomans Succeed?

 Ottomans    tolerated other faiths—
  didn’t fight wars of religious
  exclusivism
 Many in Old Byzantine Empire were
  weary of corruption in Byzantine state
Key Events of the Ottoman State
   1389 – Defeat the Serbs at Battle of
    Kosovo.
   1396 – Crushed the Hungarians and
    foreign knights at Nicopolis.
   1402 – Tamerlane defeats the Ottomans
    near Ankara.
   1453 – Turks capture Constantinople by
    Mohammed II.
   1517 – Turks captured Cairo.
   1529 – First siege of Vienna.
   1683 – Second siege of Vienna.
162MMap
  Historic Contributions of the
      Islamic Civilizations
 Rhazes   (d. 925): Medical expert of
  the Abbasid Dynasty who studied
  optics; Caesarian operations and
  more.
 Most famous treatise On Small Pox
  and Measles
   Historic Contributions of the
       Islamic Civilizations

• Avicenna (d. 1037): A Muslim scholar
  of the Abbasid Dynasty who excelled
  in both Medicine and Philosophy
• His Canon of Medicine was translated
  into Latin in the 12th century and by
  the 16th century was in its 35th edition.
  Historic Contributions of the
      Islamic Civilizations

 Aveorres  (d. 1198): Philosopher of the
 Abbasid Dynasty who tried to
 harmonize Islamc faith with
 Aristotelian logic.
      Distillation of Alcohol

• Developed about 800
• Al-kuhl means “the essense”
                        Astrolabe
   Used for astronomy & for
    navigation.
   It is believed that the
    Muslim al-Fazari
    (d.777A.D.) was the first
    scientist in the MidEast to
    make an astrolabe,
    following the arrival of an
    Indian mission to
    Baghdad.
               Muslim Medicine

   Muslim physicians
    were active in the
    advancement of
    surgical techniques,
    and were among the
    first to use narcotic
    and sedative drugs in
    operations.
           Omar Khyyam

 Of the Abbasid Dynasty was the
  author of the Rubaiyat and the Book
  of 1001 Nights.
 “A Book of Verses underneath the
  Bough; A jug of wine, a loaf of
  bread—and thou beside me in the
  wilderness—Oh Wilderness were
  paradise enow!”
       Harun Al Rashid (800s)

 Anesteemed ruler of the Abbasid
 Dynasty who exchanged gifts, and
 established friendly relations with
 Charlemagne (ruler of the greatest
 Christian Kingdom in Europe at that
 time).
              Cordoba, Spain

   From 756 - 1031,
    Cordoba was a
    political and
    cultural center for
    the Muslims.
           Muslim Art & Architecture

   The Muslim religion
    prohibited the picturing of
    human and natural forms.
   Muslim art was thus
    channeled into artistic
    displays of great
    geometric complexity and
    abstract ornamentation.
Muslim Art & Architecture

              This Muslim
               mosque in Seville,
               was built in 1172.
              It was converted to
               a Chrisitan
               Cathedral in 1248.
Muslim architecture
F320Ottoman Map
    So If Islam was so cool, what
              happened?
   Present Mindedness—who knows if we
    won’t all be dead or Muslim?
   Problem of Closed Revelation
   Failure to form effective states
   Weak/decadent rulers
   Focus on moral reform and supernatural
    deliverance rather than structural/material
    reform—Wahabbism.

				
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