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									                  Substation Power Quality Performance
                       Monitoring and the Internet
                      Marek Waclawiak Member, Mark McGranaghan,                       Member, Dan Sabin, Member

                                                                                We monitor SARF190 and SARF170 for each substation’s bus
   Abstract—Understanding     the performance      of the power              . . indices representing the number of voltage variation
system is becoming increasingly important.     This performance              incidents at the substation bus where voltage drops below
information must be available in a form that customers can use               90’?4.(SARFIgo) and 70’?40 (SARFITO) of nominal for more than
to evaluate the impacts on their processes and to evaluate the
                                                                             .008333 seconds that occurred over the assessment period (our
economics of power quality improvement        alternatives.    The
performance information should also be shared throughout the
                                                                             metrics represent monthly periods). The average SARFIgo and
utility so that problem areas can be identified and solutions                SARFITOfor the entire UI system are calculated from this data
implemented.        Technologies   to    continuously       monitor          to assess how average customer can perceive voltage quality
performance are available and the internet provides a convenient             supplied from UI’s distribution system. These indices are
method for sharing the information with all interested parties               related to 5 year UI averages for each month to track system
   United Illuminating has implemented a monitoring system                   performance changes and to recommend specific system
that tracks the performance at all distribution substations. The
                                                                              improvements if necessary.
information is available at all] times via the corporate intranet so
that disturbances and long term power quality issues can be                      In addition, to enable further analysis of possible system
conveniently evaluated and so that information to be shared with              improvements we provide monthly trends of SARFIgo and
customers can be provided easily by customer service personnel                SARFITO due to transmission vs. distribution systems events.
   This paper describes the lpower quality monitoring system and              This information is provided after determination was made
the information sharing technology.     Important benefits of the             where the voltage sag was initiated in the system. This metric
system that have been realized by United Illuminating are
                                                                              relates the monthly trends of the indices to the UI’S three years
described, includhsg power quality and reliability, prioritizing
                                                                              averages. Both SARFIgo a.~ SARF170 are represented on the
system improvements, and identifying problem conditions.
                                                                              monthly bases with the source of the events (transmission or
   Index Ternss-Power      quallity, reliability.                             distribution system),

              I. POWERQUALITYANDRELIABILITY                                              II. PRtORtTIZtNGSYSTEMIMPROVEMENTS
      ELIABILITY problems are defined by the customer as                        Utilities traditionally prioritize capital expenditures and
Ra ny conditions that cause customer equipment and                           system maintenance based on solving system problems and
processes to misoperate. The monitoring system permits                       handling system growth. These expenditures are also related
United Illuminating to characterize the system performance in                to maintaining an acceptable level of reliability.      A more
terms of its impact on customer equipment. Customers are                     customer-driven approach to prioritizing system expenditures
increasingly concerned about this as deregulation takes over                 is based on the costs of system disturbances to customers on
and there may be less incentive for the distribution company                 the system. Prioritizing expenditures based on end-user costs
to provide the levels of power quality that are required for                 has the objective of achieving the highest level of customer
proper operation of the facility,                                            satisfaction. In this period of deregulation, such an objective
   The UI Co. has a monitoring system that provides data to                  could be particularly important. Understanding the impacts of
quantify power quality performance             assessment that is            power quality variations on customers requires monitoring Of
statistically valid for UI’S distribution system.                            the power quality along with customer follow-ups to assess
   The SARFI number is used to monitor the performance of                    the impacts
entire UI distribution system.         It indicates how often an
average customer experiences RMS voltage variations of                                   III.             PROBLEMCONDITIONS
 specified magnitude and duration.                                               Monitoring    projects can identify problem conditions
                                                                              throughout the system before they cause widespread customer
    MarekWaclawiakis with Umled Illummating Company, New Haven, CT            complaints, equipment malfunctions, and even equipment
 06510, USA(emad: Marek.Waclawiak@uinet.tom)
                                                                              failures.   Examples include resonance conditions that can
    Mark F. McGranaghan IS with Electrotek Concepts, Knoxville, TN, 37931,
 USA(email: !m.whm[qclw[rm[ck Lwm).                                           cause localized      harmonic  distortion problems,  breaker
    Dan Sabink with ElectrotekConcepts, Inc, Knoxville, TN, 37923, USA        problems that can cause restrikes during capacitor switching,
 (email:~>.dllllLl                                                            arcing conditions due to bad connections and cable insulation

    0-7803-7173-9/01/$10.00 © 2001 IEEE              0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE
problems, fault performance       problems resulting in an                          chief developer for PQView. This software database application is used by
                                                                                    electric utilities worldwide for managing and analyzing the gigabytes of
excessive     number    of voltage    sags and momentary
                                                                                    measurements recorded with a power quality monitoring system. He also
interruptions, and grounding problems resulting in stray                            developed customized database software for the DetroitEdisonCompanythat
voltages and neutral problems.      Many of the methods for                         adminktersvoltagesag and intermpdmrserwce contractswhh Ford Motor
                                                                                    Company, General Motors Corporation, and DaimlerChrysler,          He has a
proactive identification of problem conditions are not fully
                                                                                    Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Worcester
developed but once sufficient monitoring is in place, the                           Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts and a Master of Engineering degree in
correlation of system problems with specific wavefotm                               Electric Power Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New
characteristics  will lead to the necessary identification                          York. Dan is registered as a Professional Engineer in the State of Tennessee.
                                                                                    He is the chair of the IEEE P1409 Distribution Custom Power Task Force, the
algorithms.                                                                         vice chair of the IEEE Distribution Subcommittee, and is the secretary of the
                                                                                    IEEE P1 159.1 Task Force
                             IV. SUMMARY
   United Illuminating has implemented a monitoring system
that tracks the performance at all distribution substations. The
information is available at all times via the corporate intranet
so that disturbances and long term power quality issues can be
conveniently evaluated. This information can be shared with
customers and used to evaluate the impacts on their processes
and to evaluate the economics of power quality improvement
    Important benefits of the system that have been realized by
United Illuminating       are power quality and reliability,
prioritizing system improvements, and identi~ing problem
    Future directions for the monitoring system will be
 discussed in the panel session. These can include information
 services for customers, enhanced power quality services, and
 contracts related to the quality of power being delivered

                             V. BIOGRAPHIES
Marek Waclawiak                              E
                      (M, /988) IS a Princ}pal ngineer- PowerQualitywiththe
 United Illuminating Company in New Haven, CT. Marek serves as the
 technical leader on Power Quality issues and on Distributed Generation
 integration into Distribution System at UI Co, He has a MSEE degree from
 the Techmcal Umvers]ty of Lodz, Poland.           Marek is registered as a
 Professional Engineer m the state of Connecticut.

 Mark F. McGranaghan         (M, 1977) IS Vice President, Marketing for
 Electrotek Concepts. He is responsible for marketmg and customer support
 for power quahty monitoring systems, web-based momtoring services,
 engmeenng studies, and distributed generation projects.      He N also the
 Technical Director for the PQ Group, a research and information service
 consortmm that M jointly operated with E Source. He has worked in power
 systems analysls for 22 years, performing stud] es, teaching seminars, and
 developing products related to the analysis of power quality concerns. He
 worked closely with EPRI to help develop their power quality program,
 performed power quality case studies throughout the world, helped benchmark
 power quality in the US, and has helped over 25 utiht]es implement extensive
 power quality monitoring systems. Mark works on numerous standards related
 to power quality.    He has been Chamnan of IEEE 5 19A, developing an
 application guide for applying harrnomc hrnlts. He has also worked on a
 number of IEC standards.        He is currently active in defining indices for
 characterizing the reliability and power quality performance of power systems,
 increasingly important with deregulation of the industry. He has BSEE and
 MSEE degrees from the University of Toledo and an MBA degree from the
 University of Pittsburgh.

 Dan Sabin (M 1992) Dan’s primary responsibilities           involye developing
 power quaMy database software, conducting power quality research, and
 urowding consultation to electric utilities on power quality monitonng efforts.
 He was _the principal investigator for the EPRI Distribution System Power
 Quality Mortitonng Project during Its data collection and analysis stages. This
 two-year monitoring effort assessed the state of power quality on the
 dlstnbutlon feeders of 24 electric utillties across the US. Dan is currently the

    0-7803-7173-9/01/$10.00 © 2001 IEEE                                 1111
                                                         0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE

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