AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION REDUCTION ACTIVITY

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					 APRA ROMANIA PROJECT
                             Financed by USAID


                                 Assistance project for MAFWE


AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION
  REDUCTION ACTIVITY

     Glen D. Anderson
      Project Manager


       Project implemented by:


                        International Resources Group
                                                                1
           Objectives of APRA
   Provide technical assistance in support of
    Romania’s implementation of the EU
    Nitrates Directive
   Assist Calarasi County in developing actions
    to reduce nitrates pollution mainly from
    agricultural sources in designated nitrate
    vulnerable zones (NVZ)

                                                   2
       Project Implementation
              Approach

   At the county level, demonstrate
    methodology for assessing nitrate
    pollution problems and preparing a
    nitrates local action programme
   Extend lessons learned at the county
    level     to    other    NVZ    through
    development of guidance and training

                                              3
         Summary of Implementation Costs
           for the EU Nitrates Directive

       For Scenario where numerous discrete
        NVZ are designated in Romania and
        modern technologies are applied
       Implementation costs include:
        Investment costs of 166,669,900 Є
        Annual operating costs of 15,331,600 Є
        Management costs of 14,100,000 Є
        Training costs of 830,000 Є

                                                  4
        Why Calarasi County
            Was Selected
   Location     of   the    World     Bank
    Agricultural Pollution Control Project
   Two NVZ designated in Calarasi
    County
   Nutrient loadings to Danube – a key
    challenge for addressing water quality in
    the Black Sea

                                                5
         Major Components of the
                 Project
   Characterization of soil and water quality; nitrate sources
    and impacts in Calarasi County; establish norms and
    methodologies in conducting Water and Soil Quality field
    testing; and set up a monitoring plan
   Review of the Romanian Code of Good Agricultural
    Practices (CGAP)
   Design a CGAP for small farms and set up a Training
    Programme of Assistance
   Development of the Action Programme for Calarasi
    County
   Roll-Out and dissemination of project results to the
    national level
                                                                  6
            Characterization Report

   The project team has compiled an inventory of nitrate pollution sources,
    conducted preliminary soil and water quality testing, and assembled
    additional environmental and socio-economic information for Calarasi
    County
   This data collection and analysis work served two purposes:
      Establish a Data Collection and Interpretation Model to be used

       in developing nitrate reduction action programmes in other
       Romanian counties
      Provide inputs for the Calarasi County Characterization Report

   The Characterization Report has been completed – a synthesis of the
    contents of this report will be incorporated into the description of the
    problem in the Calarasi Action Programme


                                                                               7
Vulnerable Zones for Nitrate Pollution
from Agricultural Sources in Romania

                         BLUE - Potentially
                         vulnerable zones due
                         to runoff into surface
                         water
                         PINK - Potentially
                         vulnerable zones
                         (medium risk) due to
                         percolation into
                         aquifers
                         RED - Vulnerable
                         zones (high risk) due
                         to percolation into
                         aquifers

                                                  8
Nitrate Vulnerable Zones in
      Calarasi County




      Impacted zone   Area    Vulnerability

        Locality      Km2       category

        Frumusani     64.54     B (pink)

         Sohatu       70.35     B (pink)
                                              9
10
11
         Code of Good Agricultural
            Practices (CGAP)
   Provides recommendations of agricultural practices
    and technologies to manage soil and water resources
    and reduce pollution due to nutrients and pesticides
   Romanian “Code” responds to requirement in EU
    Nitrates Directive and has been published with
    financial assistance from the World Bank
   APRA requested to review Romanian CGAP and
    provide assistance in revising the code and
    developing CGAP for small farms
   Proposals will be submitted for revising the CGAP
    will be presented to Ministry in October
                                                       12
Why a CGAP for small farmers

   Large number of small farms in Romania
   Most small farms undercapitalized
   Many of the recommended practices in current
    CGAP are focused on large farms that can
    exploit economies of scale
   Many of the nitrate-related illnesses are
    observed on small farms with inadequate
    separation of water supplies from household
    sanitation facilities and livestock operations

                                                     13
             Elaboration of a Local
              Action Programme
       Required for all the NVZs
       Local Action Programmes will be approved by a
        local    commission       with    implementation
        responsibilities shared by river basin authorities
        and county-level administration
       Local Action Programmes:
         Should be established for a period of up to 4 years
         Require mandatory adoption of CGAP measures
          related to animal wastes and fertilizer application rates
          and timing

                                                                      14
        Local Action Programme
          for Calarasi County
   APRA is assisting in the development of a Local
    Action Programme for Calarasi county:
       To address nitrate problems in the NVZs of the
        County
       Serve as a model for other Romanian counties
   Action Programme structure and outline have
    been prepared developed
   An interactive workshop will be organized in
    October to develop recommended actions

                                                         15
          Training Program
   Help establish a Training Center in
    Calarasi
   Develop a Training Program and
    conduct Training of Local Trainers to
    ensure continuous assistance and
    guidance in applying the CGAP and
    implementing    the   Local    Action
    Programme
                                            16
        Roll-out and Dissemination
             of Project Results
   Roll-out Guide - a report summarizing the various
    components of the project tasks, the lessons learned in
    conducting these tasks, and recommendations for
    replicating or extending the analyses at the national level,
    for other counties, or at the river basin or regional level
   Final Workshop - to disseminate the project results
    and recommend country-wide options for protection of
    waters against nitrate and phosphate pollution from
    agricultural sources


                                                                   17
         Some Preliminary Findings
   There are a substantial number of data gaps that limit the use
    of analytical models to predict changes in water quality as a
    result of mitigation efforts:
      Soil surveys have not been conducted since 1980s

      Inadequate ground and surface water quality data in areas
       of NVZs
   Romanian agricultural activity at significantly lower levels
    than in past:
      Livestock operations curtailed

      Former State Farms divided into smaller economic units

      Irrigation systems have not been maintained and would be
       too expensive for many farmers
   Action Programmes will need to account for likely renewed
    agricultural activity in the future
                                                                     18

				
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