Collapse of European Imperialism

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					Collapse of European
     Imperialism
    Post World War II
                  India
   Gandhi
   Hindus (INC) vs.. Muslims (Muslim
    League)
   Partition-
    • Pakistan
    • India
Gandhi & forces that shaped Indian
          Independence
   Indian National Congress
   Amritsar Massacre
   Salt March
   Civil disobedience or non-violent
    non-cooperation
   Satyagraha = Truth Force
   Mahatma = “Great Soul”
   Assassinated by Hindu extremist
                       India
   Parliamentary Democracy
    • Modeled after British
    • Prime minister (Nehru &
      Indira Gandhi)
   Non-alignment
   Social Change
    • Constitution - 1950 banned
      discrimination against
      untouchables
    • Women’s Rights- suffrage,
      divorce and inherit property
    • Rural vs.. urban
          More religious conflict
   Sikhs demand self rule
    in the Punjab
   Kashmir – Muslim
    majority – Hindu
    government (India)
   Sri Lanka- Tamils
    (Hindu) vs. Sinhalese
    (Buddhist)
   Pakistan – recent
    assassination of
    Benazir Bhutto by
    Islamic extremists
    Obstacles to Progress in India
   Industrial Growth- lack oil and gas
   Social Inequality- caste system,
    less education for women and poor,
    ethnic and religious conflict
   Food production- $ farm
    equipment, population growth, floods
    and droughts (monsoons)
             Green Revolution
   Green Revolution, refers to dramatic
    increases in cereal-grain yields in many
    developing countries beginning in the late
    1960s,
   use of genetically improved plants
   disease-resistant wheats
   averting famine in India, Pakistan and
    other LDC’s
   criticism - the Green Revolution depends
    on fertilizers, irrigation, and other factors
    that poor farmers cannot afford and that
    may be ecologically harmful
Middle East Independence
     Turkey – Europe and Asia
   Fought for independence
    from Ottomans in 1919
   Secular Republic
   All citizens / men and
    women = under the law
   Modernized industry
   Western style laws
   Women's rights –
    education for all –
    abolishment of polygamy
                Turkey Today
   Seeks to
    be a part
    of the
    European
    Union
                     Iran
   During WWII Persia  Iran
   Post 1945 pro western rulers
   Shah’s
   Profit from oil wealth and Western
    businesses
   US supports shahs
   Shahs limited speech and oppress
    religious rulers called Ayatollahs
   Most in Iran severely Poor
      Iranian Revolution of 1979
   Ayatollah Khomeini calls for
    overthrow of the Shah
   Shah flees to US
   Iran calls US ‘great Satan”
   Hostage Crisis
   Strict Islamic rule follows
   Oil / Gas crisis of the 70’s
   Iran and other OPEC
    countries limit supply to the
    US
   Gas lines
              Afghanistan
   1979 – USSR invades to help a pro
    communist govt. retain power
   US supplies Mujihadeen (Taliban)
    fighters against the USSR backed
    govt.
   USSR withdraws in 1989
   Taliban creates a harsh Islamic state.
   Brutal suppression of dissidents
   Women can’t work or go to school
             Taliban Regime
   Taliban provides haven
    for terrorist training
    camps
   September 11th 2001 –
    Taliban linked to Osama
    bin Laden and AL Queda
   US invasion and “defeat”
    of Taliban
   Taliban has experienced
    recent resurgence
Iraq
           Saddam Hussein
   US supported him in Iran / Iraq war
   Claimed Kuwait should belong to Iraq
   Persian Gulf War – 1990 – 1991
   Iraq lost
   1990’s – United Nations inspectors to
    check for Nuclear Weapons or
    “weapons of mass destruction”
   Later admitted he wanted the
    allusion of having them but didn’t
Africa seeks independence
How do you think WW2
   affected African
    nationalism?
   African soldiers fought alongside
    European soldiers “defending
    freedom”
    • Unwilling to accept colonial domination
      any longer
   Europeans also began to question
    the cost and morality of maintaining
    colonies
African Nationalism Movements
   Some violent
   Some non-violent
   Pan-Africanism
   OAU (Organization of African Unity)
    1963
          Nationalist Leaders
   Ghana- Kwame Nkrumah- 1957
    • Non-violent struggle against the British
    • Strikes and boycotts
    • imprisonment
   Kenya- Jomo Kenyatta & Mau Mau-
    1963
    • British colony
    • British settlers
    • Violent conflict
    • Mau Mau- used guerilla tactics to push
      out British farmers
           Other nationalist
   Ahmed Ben Bella- Algeria
   Mobutu Sese Seko- Congo
         Problems remain….
   Ethnic differences
   Economic hardship
   Governments struggle between
    dictatorship and democracy
            WHY WHY WHY?
                 Nigeria
   What do you think is the main
    problem that Nigeria must overcome
    before it can establish a democratic
    government? Explain your response
    thoroughly.
              South Africa
   Who lives there? Why? Since when?
   How did apartheid impact the black
    South Africans? (Be specific!) White
    South Africans? (Be specific!)
           South Africa (country)
   Independence from GB in 1910
   White South Africans held all political
    power
   Apartheid- gov’t policy of separating races
    •   Specific housing zones
    •   Trains, beaches, schools, public facilities
    •   Interracial marriages were banned
    •   Blacks needed passes to travel
    •   Could not vote
    •   Lower paying jobs
     African National Congress
   Opposed apartheid
   Boycotts
   Non-violence
   Civil disobedience
   1969 gov’t outlawed the ANC
             Nelson Mandela




   ANC leaders
   1964- jailed by gov’t for life
   remained in jail for 27 years- became a
    symbol of the struggle for freedom
          Desmond Tutu
 Black Anglican bishop
 Civil rights leader

 Convinced foreign

nations and businesses
to limit trade with
South Africa (sanctions)

**Very strong effect
              F.W. de Klerk
   President of South
    Africa 1989
   Legalized the ANC
   Repealed
    segregation laws
   Release Mandela
    from jail 1990
                   1994
   First election in which all races could
    vote
   Mandela was elected president- ruled
    until 1999
Who deserves credit for causing the
  abolition of apartheid- Desmond
   Tutu, F.W. de Klerk or Nelson
           Mandela? Why?
    Obstacles to Progress In Africa
   Cash Crop economies
   Dependence on trade with former colonial
    leader
   Ethnic Tensions
     • Boundaries
     • Nigeria- (200 ethnic groups)
          Hausa and Falani (Muslim)
          Ibo (Christian)
          Yoruba
          1966 20,000 Ibo were massacred
                Rwanda
   1994
   Hutu (85%)
   Tutsi (14%)
   500,000 Tutsis killed in months
   GENOCIDE
   Darfur?

				
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