' I 51 THE APPLICATION OF THE LATEST AI & IT TOOLS TO PROMOTE THEMOSTEFFECTIVEUSEOF THE IEE WIRING REGULATIONS M.A.Laughton, R.N. Adams, A. Taylor, A. Hawken Q m Mary & Westfield College, AIlT Limited University of London. AI3SmAa instnrcturerathsthanproblemoriented. Inorderto promote the developmeat of the Single European Market Despite the success with the use of computers in the andtheharm~ofpractices,installers,~ power indushy, there remains a large class of problems equipment manufecture~ Trade Unions all have an and that eludes solution using conventional software. These interest in the intelligent, expertisGdriven inteqnetation problems are usually solved by experts, requirejudgment. of swh standards regardlem of C0"y of langoage (1). basedon experience gainedoveraperiodof timeand involve imprecise knowledge that cannot be formulated At present the application of the DEE W h g into an algorithm or a mathematical model. regulations, are suplxnted by a variety of further publications and specifictypes of software to help in The inteqnaation and application of the IEE wiring cable selection. circuit design, circuit analyses. In regulations is just such a problem concerning the addition useful wining courses and important application of a complex set of rules, proceduresand complementary services have been developed. (2) Such standards, which, by reason of their format, are not easy products and services have been primarily developed in t apply to specifc problems. As such they provide an o the 8', reflecting the increasing need to help 0s ideal example of an a m of work where expert systems support and train engineers to most effectively can assist in the engineeringdesign of electrical u- n and apply the regdatcq standards. installations. Nowadays with the availability of expert s s e s m k , ytm Past work in the development of a prototype expert which have the general ability to npresent the knowledge systems shell will be summarised including the main ofthe human expert and to simulate deductive and featuresof the system. An example consultationsession reasoning processes. there is a case far considering concentratingon the regulations collcemedwith isolation whether all such training and intepetive functions could and switching will be given. It is concluded that the not be assumed by such knowledgebased information initial results are sufficiently encouraging to justify technology. Present expert system tools, have the c o n s i d e " of a full implementation of the regulations ability to access,manage and communicate efficiently in this form. A suitable smcture of a proposed expert with the engineer and related databa~, graphics. system for practical indushial use will be presented. - windowq scientific and text software,thus they o f r new fe and powerful means for informationmanagement and its The paper concludeswith consideration of a number of interpretation. commercial options concerningrun-time licences. the use of compiled knowledge bases and text, Copyright and rm discuss the benefits the industry could dexive f o the =A -N application of such tools. m l y the first andindeedonlydirect application of BACKGROUND E expert systems to the J E Wiring Reguhtkm began in 1985 through Queen Mary College. University o f Under the Single European Act the installation of London (4-6). when the first generation of eqefi equipment and servicesin any EC country may be carried systems tools were coming onto the market. The IEE out by competent persons from another EC country. Wiring Regulation 15th E i i n 1981. were the subject dto Vbrk is governed usually by Regularionssuch as of investigation because the new IEC famat lent itself to BS7671:1992. the Electrical Wiring Standards in the a logical bnxkdown of the task into identifiablespecialist UK. T e style of such Standards arranged according to h areas. The areas of switching and isolationwere chosen the format of the International Electrotechnical for examination. Commission (IEC) has resulted in such publications being criticised for their impenetrability, being axiomatic I , 52 Theapproachusedwasto to the switch normally used for conmhg the circuit, - consider the "kno~ledge"contained in such ~ g d & m (ii) effective local means for the isolation of the circuit -constluctaprototypeknowledgebase frw the supply such means being a d d i t i d to the - conduct tests on the prototype switch normally used for controlling the circuit, . essoftheknowledge -reach views on theappropnaren (iii) a switch having a lock or removable handle, o a r b0serepresentation. disbibutionbwrdwhich can be locked,in either case complying with regulation 476-4. ?he expert system selected was a text animation tool ESP Advisor, because of the Comparative ease with - S Is an isolator being used in conjunction with a circuit which it could be used to display text selectively breaLer? R - N O accordingtotheconditionsdratcouldbeesmblished through consultation with an Enginea Consequently S - Is discharge lighting located externally ? R - NO the system functionedby selectively displaying text and questioning the Engineer. The objective was topresent S - Is discharge lighting located internally ? R -YES the user with the regulatiom relevant to his needs. In additionthe system had abrowse mode which on demand (iii For interior installations,the switch shall be in the would display the full reguhtbns with exphatory main entrance to the building or in anotherposition to be notes. An example of the inmactive text and agreed with the local fm authority. informationusedisshown atTABLE1. Theideawas to display the full text of the legIdaions as the primary NOTE: wherever practicable, all interior installationson outplt of the system, using the *as "expfxIs"in any one building should be conIroUed by a single choosing suitable questions to put to the usec in o&r to firemans switch. determine which particularregulationsare relevant to the situation. liedimensionsof the knowledge base were limited to the 88 regulationswhich c o v e d Isolation and E u ! L l i l i I b P Switching. The detail of the knowledge base consisted of 215 paragraphs with 104 parameten. This was the - System S Engineers Response R - limitationsofthe available hard- and expert systems took in 1985 which could not cope with al 550 l S - What type of electrical system is being used? regulationsin the 15th Edition of the IEEWiring Regulations. (1) - TN-C (nemal& protective funuions c o m b i i throughout the system) The factthat theprototype couldnotproducea ( )- TN-S (mad& protective conductorsseparate 2 "complete" system is of course. not an issue b c u e it eas throughout) was onlyexpectedtobea demons"and assessthe - (3) TN-C-s( n e d & ptective conductorspertially expert systems approach. In this context, the d u e of combined) the demonseator, which was the fmt of its kind in (4) - Tr(1pointofsourcedirectlyeanhed:independent relatingexpert systems techniques t the D E Wiring o E earthing) Regulatioas, demonsmated that the applicationof (5) - IT (no direct connection between live parts & expert systems techniques was justified. 4) Today PC's and indeed expert systems tools can be S - Enter the number of the relevant entry: R - 2 loOthxfaster, and readily portable. Whatcanbe S - Is high voltage discharge lighting in use? R - YES classif& as 2nd Generation expert systems tools are available which can: Reg. 476-6 applies (7) For elecaic discharge lighting installationsusing an - reactinrealrime open-circuit voltage exceeding low voltage. one or more - handlealargenumberofpammtenanddes of the following means shall be provided for the isolation - be open to the outside World o every self- f l"ire, or dteanatively of - befasttoimplement every circuit supplying luminairesat a voltage exceeding - beeasytosuppatt low voltagc - have security, nliibility and stability (i) m interlock on a selfantainedluminaire, so arranged with the above capabilities t e working requirements h that before access can be had to live parts the supply is can be sstisticd (5). autanaticaly~ted,suchmeansbeingadditional - The above model directlyrelatedtospecificsectionsof the IEE Regulations as shown 53 R - Domestic S -Whatsortofinstallationereyoudoing? Appliance? MainFe&? Circuit? R-ApplianCe n--- E*-- Regulations I Knowledge Base s -what best describesthe naRrre of the task? I Kitchen?Bah”?GeneralHousebold?~High Questions Power? 110 reply R-Kitchen The Future model will augment the model by firsty S -Will therebe hot surfaces suchasa“? consulting about the tasks that an Engineer is wig Yes? No? expected to carry out: R-Yes Engineer---w Elicitation __--_--__---- Regulation s -willthere be water? I KnowledgeBase I KnowledgeBase Yes? No? I I R-Yes Questions Dynamic Regularions Analyses - S Will there be devices requiring > 13Amp? Yes? No? The ‘Risk Elicitation Knowledge Base (TEKB) focuses R-Yes on the users t s s from the E n g i ” job specifiion. ak It asks i i i l questions about the job that the engineer nta - S What voltage me we dealing with? is doing, from these the s s e is able to make some ytm 240 Volt? High Voltage? Low Voltage? assumption about what is and is not going to be - R 240 Volt involved in the task. These assumptiom am rhen checked. For example, if an Omce block is being wired then regulations pertaining to agricultd installations can be ruled out. The knowledge base builds up a general picture or workingpmfde. it does not itself check S -Lighting l)pe Discharge? the regulations. nor does it need any a c t c me Yes? No? Unknown? representation of them. R-NO The resulting task pmfde is used as an input to the - s Appliance status Fiied? second stage of the knowledge base system. This is the Yes? No? Unknown? Regulation Analyses Knowledge Base. This knowledge R-Yes base contains an axiomatic representation o the semantic f contents of the regulations. and the knowledge of how t o - S Appliance directly m t e d ? use the minimum of information F r h r questions ute e? Y s No? Unknown? cova the regulations completely and discover which can R-NO be definitely ruled out and which ~maining regulations ShouldbepresentedtotheuSecTABLE2providesan S - Isolatorremotefrom equipment? example of the questioning. Yes? No?Unknown? R-Ye8 S - Circuit Brealrer required Yes? No? Unknown? R-Yes Display of paragraphnumbers of the Regulations r q eW for the Engineer to cany out his work: - System S Engineers Response - R P476-2, P476-3, P476-4. P476-7, P476-8. P476-11, P476-18. P476-19 S - In what environment is the work being carried out? Domestic? Canmercial?Mustrial?Agricultural? I , 54 Ihc a m is simply to use the knowledge of an i it Asanalternativemodcofapuation is interesting to e x p e x h d "competent person" to s e k t speculateon whethex users of such regulationswould those paragraphs.pagesandtablesofdata, whichare prefer to use an Expert System fur a c s viaa " i ces a appmphe. At this stage the method of providing bureaufacility. Such apractice in other areas such as the furtherdetailedinfo". neitherelectmnhllyonscreen Lexisdatabmeservicesin theunited States which is ~ViahWd~needScarefulconsideration. consulteddaily by the legal professkm in many countrks including the UK. This two stage approach. BS shown at Fig 1, below proVidesthebenef-@Of p n x q. m f questionsand m Copywriterequirementswouldimposeafurther answer session. with a coherent line of questioning. and a constraint on the security of information. Floppy - ~p~searchappmchtodelivercompletmess with dislrs would have to be software or be ptected with themini" effort. Thisisalitklikeusinganindex hardware dongles. B l n e a u ~ a r e v ~ a n d t look upevery ref- o and cross~€mceeveryteam involve security practises common to any computer that is encounlered to evaluate the applicability of each hstallationaccessible to the outside world. new item. It is a task that the computer can do very well,and v e y quickly, but which would take a person with a manual and an index,a very long time, and they would probably miss something. The use of Expert Systems will improve the utility and application of Regulationsand Standards in the practice 0fEngineeriOg. Immediateadvicebesedonknowledge of expexienced practitioneas will be available instantly to relatively i n e x p e r i d personnel. The potentialof such recently developed tools in the fE1d of Artificial Intelligencehas been demonstrated in other applications. Such are their obvious b f @that their use is Lx"itobel0giCalanddesirablede~in electronic publishingand their intaprCratcm of complex rulersandregulationswillbecommonpacticeinthe near fuape. 1. Simmonds R "Make ReguWons Statutory says ECA." EleceicalReview MadJa~~1y-4thFebrusry 1993 2. IEEGuideto SofhvarefortheIEE Wiring Regulations. June1992 3. Rikkonen. T A m l a T J "An Finally it is necessacy to consider a number of practical Intelligent RXt-Based Information M " t system computer related issuesifusersaretocoasult fur safety Regulations" Proc. " . 4 Conf., Regulations using expert system tools. Firstly such Melbourne. Jan 4-8.1993. pp 455-460 sse should be capable of use via the standardFC ytm 4. Laughton M.A. Adams R.N..Electricity Supply and type wmputas found in engineaing / contntctofi o f c s fie - Equipment Installation Regulatiolrp and SEandards and be able to be loaded using s l installing floppy ef KnowledgeBases. Intemal Repoa, Departmentof discs. Nofurther training ofthe mer either in terms of Electronic Engineering,Queen Mary College. use of eapert system or in the application of the University of London Jan 1988 Regulationsshould be required. 5. 'bylor A, HawkenA Laughton MA. The Use of Knowledge Based Systems in Delivering Real CD ROM based systems and multimedia applicationsin -Time Plant Protection and Safety. Proc. ESAP 4. g e d arebecomingmorepopularandthehadwareis Conf.. Melbourne, Jan 4-8.1993, pp 440-443 more widely available. whether oc not photo quality 6 Clifford J.S.. Adams, RH.. Laughton, M.A.." A pictures and animation is arequhmentfor this type of Prototype Wiring RegulationsKnowledge Base"Jntemal w& is a moot point; however hypertextbased browsing Report, Department of ElectronicEngineming, Queen facilities for the study o text and associated documents f Mary College, University of London 9/85.16pp. might well be attnrctive. E 7. J E Wiring Regulations, 15th Edition 1981.