chap3 by lanyuehua


									Chapter 3

   Leading and trust
The Effect of Leadership

Leadership – process of influencing
 employees to work toward the achievement
 of objectives
  Leader’s style affects the leader’s behavior
Leadership and management are not the
  Influencing employees is not the task of the
   manager alone
Leadership is one of the five management
Leadership Theories

  Leadership           Behavioral                   Contingency
     Trait             Leadership                    Leadership
    Theory              Theories                      Theories

                  Basic Leadership Styles      Contingency Leadership
                  Two-Dimensional
                   Leadership Styles            Leadership Continuum
                  Leadership Grid              Normative Leadership
                  Transformational
                   Leadership                   Situational Leadership
                                                Situational Supervision
Leadership Trait Theory

Assumes that there are distinctive physical
 and psychological characteristics
 accounting for leadership effectiveness

The Ghiselli Study is the most widely
 publicized trait theory study
 Identified six traits as being significant traits for
  effective leadership
The Ghiselli Study: Leadership Traits
(1 of 2)

Supervisory ability.
  Getting the job done through others
Need for occupational achievement.
  Seeking responsibility
  The ability to use good judgment, reasoning,
   and thinking capacity
The Ghiselli Study: Leadership Traits
(2 of 2)

  The ability to sole problems and make decisions
  Viewing oneself as capable of coping with
  Self-starting in getting the job done with a
   minimum of supervision from one’s boss
Behavioral Leadership Theories
                             Principal Theories
Assume that there are
                           Basic Leadership
 distinctive styles that
 effective leaders use
 consistently,             Two-Dimensional
            or              Leadership Styles
That good leadership      The Leadership Grid
 is a rooted behavior      Transformational
Basic Leadership Styles

 The leader makes the decisions and closely
  supervises employees
 The leader allows participation in decisions and
  does not closely supervise employees
 The leader takes a leave-the-employees-alone
Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
                                University of Michigan Studies
Ohio State University Studies
                                Job centered – same as
Initiating structure – the      initiating structure
 extent to which the leader
                                  Concern for production
 takes charge as the
 employee performs the task     Employee centered – same
                                 as consideration
Consideration – the extent
                                  Concern for people
 to which the leader
 communicates to develop
 trust, friendship, support,
 and respect
      Two-Dimensional Leadership Models

                                         High Consideration   High Structure
                                                and                and

                                           Low Structure    High Consideration
    Ohio State                                                 3 2
    University                                                 4 1
                                         Low Consideration   High Structure
                                               and                and
                                           Low Structure   Low Consideration
                                                        Initiating Structure
Exhibit 8.1                              Low                                                High
              University of
               Michigan                  Job-Centered                          Employee-Centered
Transformational Leadership (1 of 2)

Focus is on top-level managers, primarily
 chief executive officers of large

Transformational leadership is about:
Transformational Leadership (2 of 2)

Transformational leaders perform, or take
 the organization through, three acts, on an
 ongoing basis:
   Act 1. Recognizing the need for revitalization
   Act 2. Creating a new vision
   Act 3. Institutionalizing change
Charismatic   Transactional
Leadership     Leadership
Contingency Leadership Theories
                            Principal Theories
Assume that the
 appropriate leadership
                           Leadership Theory
 style varies from
                          Leadership Continuum
 situation to situation
                          Normative Leadership
                          Situational Leadership
Contingency Leadership Theory
(1 of 2)

Developed by Fred Fiedler
Model is used to determine:
  if one’s leadership style is task or relationship
   oriented, and
  if the situation matches the leader’s style
If there is no match, Fiedler recommends
 change the situation, rather than leadership
Contingency Leadership Theory
(2 of 2)

                             Situational Favorableness
     Leadership Style
                            The degree to which a
Determined by completing    situation enables the leader
 the Least Preferred         to exert influence over the
 Coworker (LPC) scales       followers
Determines if one’s        Key variables
 leadership style is:
                              1. Leader-member relations
   task oriented
                              2. Task structure
                              3. Position power
   relationship oriented
Normative Leadership Theory
                          Leadership Styles
Model developed by
 Vroom and Yetton      Decide
Enables the user to   Consult individually
 select one of five    Consult group
 leadership styles
 appropriate for the   Facilitate
 situation             Delegate
Situational Leadership
(1 of 2)

Emphasis is on followers and their level of
Leader must properly judge or intuitively
 know followers’ maturity level and then use
 a leadership style that fits the level
Readiness – the followers’ skills and
 willingness to do a job
Situational Leadership
(2 of 2)

Hersey and Blanchard developed four
 leadership styles:
   Telling. The leader defines the roles needed to do the job
    and tells followers what, where, how, and when to do the
   Selling. The leader provides followers with supportive
    instructions, but is also supportive
   Participating. The leader and followers share in decisions
    about how best to complete a high-quality job
   Delegating. The leader provides little specific, close
    direction or personal support to followers
Situational Supervision (1 of 3)

Adapted from the Situational Leadership
 model of Hersey and Blanchard
 Determining a preferred supervisory style
 Defining the situation
 Determining employee capability
The effective supervisor adapts his or her
 style to meet the capabilities of the
 individual or group
Situational Supervision (2 of 3)
                                    Employee Capability
                                   Do employees have the
Directive behavior                 education, experience, skills,
  The supervisor focuses on        etc., to do the task without
   directing and controlling        direction from the supervisor?
   behavior to ensure the task
   gets done
                                   Do the employees want to do
Supportive behavior                the task?
  The supervisor focuses on
   encouraging and motivating
Situational Supervision (3 of 3)
                                         Supervisory Styles (S)
Employee Capability Levels (C)       Autocratic (S-A)
Low (C-1)                             High-directive / low-supportive
  Employees can’t do the task          behavior
   without detailed directions       Consultative (S-C)
Moderate (C-2)                        High-directive / high-supportive
  Employees have moderate              behavior
   ability and are motivated         Participative (S-P)
High (C-3)                            Low-directive / high-supportive
  Employees are high in ability        behavior
   but may lack self-confidence or
   motivation                        Laissez-Faire (S-L)
Outstanding (C-4)                     Low-directive / low-supportive
  Employees are very capable           behavior
   and highly motivated
Substitutes for Leadership (1 of 2)
                             II. Characteristics of Task
    I. Characteristics of
                            Clarity and routine
Ability, knowledge,
 experience, training       Invariant methodology
Need for independence      Provision of own feedback
                             concerning accomplishment
Professional orientation
                            Intrinsic satisfaction
Indifference toward
 organizational rewards
Substitutes for Leadership (2 of 2)

       III. Characteristics of the Organization
Formalization (explicit plan, goals, and areas of
Inflexibility (rigid, unbending rules and procedures)
Highly specified and active advisory and staff functions
Closely knit, cohesive work groups
Organizational rewards not within the leader’s control
Spatial distance between superior and subordinate
Diversity of Global Leadership (1 of 3)

Most leadership theories were developed
 in the United States
 Thus, they have an American bias
Key assumptions of American-based
 Employee responsibility, rather than employee rights
 Self-gratification, rather than employee commitment to duty
  or altruistic motivation
 Democratic values rather than autocratic values
 Rationality, rather than spirituality, religion, or superstition
Diversity of Global Leadership (2 of 3)

In the 1970s, Japan’s productivity rate was
 increasing faster than that of the United States
  Seven major differences between the two countries were
   identified. The Japanese:
    have a longer length of employment
    use more collective decision making
    use more collective responsibility
    evaluate and promote employees more slowly
    use more implicit mechanisms of control
    have more unspecialized career paths
    have a more holistic concern for employees
Diversity of Global Leadership (3 of 3)

American-based theories may not be as
 effective in cultures based on different
 Autocratic leadership styles tend to be
  appropriate in high-context cultures
   e.g., Arab, Far Eastern, and Latin countries
 Participative leadership styles tend to be
  appropriate in low-context cultures
   e.g., U.S., Norway, Finland, and Sweden
                                Levels of Trust
Trust – is the positive
 expectation that
 another will not take     1. Deterrence-based trust
 advantage of you
Trust is not simply       2. Knowledge-based trust
Trust is earned           3. Identification-based trust
Dimensions of Trust (1 of 4)


      Competency    Integrity    Openness


                                            Exhibit 8.8
Dimensions of Trust (2 of 4)
                             Tips to Develop Your
   Tips to Develop Your           Competence
                          Be conscientious
Tell the truth
                          Know your strengths and
Keep your commitments
Be fair
                          Don’t brag
                          Admit your mistakes
Dimensions of Trust (3 of 4)
                            Tips to Develop Your Loyalty
   Tips to Develop Your
        Consistency         Invest heavily in loyalty
Keep your commitments      Maintain confidences
Practice what you preach   Don’t gossip negatively
Be impartial                about individuals
                            Be viewed as a collaborator,
                             not a competitor
Dimensions of Trust (4 of 4)

   Tips to Develop Your
Accept others’ self-
Accept diversity and
Risk and Destroying Trust

Developing trust through self-disclosure
 does include the risk of:
 being hurt
 taken advantage of
The rewards of improved human relations
 and personal friendship are worth the risk

To top