chap3 by lanyuehua

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 33

									Chapter 3


   Leading and trust
The Effect of Leadership

Leadership – process of influencing
 employees to work toward the achievement
 of objectives
  Leader’s style affects the leader’s behavior
Leadership and management are not the
 same
  Influencing employees is not the task of the
   manager alone
Leadership is one of the five management
 functions
Leadership Theories

  Leadership           Behavioral                   Contingency
     Trait             Leadership                    Leadership
    Theory              Theories                      Theories

                  Basic Leadership Styles      Contingency Leadership
                                                 Theory
                  Two-Dimensional
                   Leadership Styles            Leadership Continuum
                  Leadership Grid              Normative Leadership
                                                 Theory
                  Transformational
                   Leadership                   Situational Leadership
                                                Situational Supervision
Leadership Trait Theory

Assumes that there are distinctive physical
 and psychological characteristics
 accounting for leadership effectiveness

The Ghiselli Study is the most widely
 publicized trait theory study
 Identified six traits as being significant traits for
  effective leadership
The Ghiselli Study: Leadership Traits
(1 of 2)


Supervisory ability.
  Getting the job done through others
Need for occupational achievement.
  Seeking responsibility
Intelligence.
  The ability to use good judgment, reasoning,
   and thinking capacity
The Ghiselli Study: Leadership Traits
(2 of 2)


Decisiveness.
  The ability to sole problems and make decisions
   competently
Self-assurance.
  Viewing oneself as capable of coping with
   problems
Initiative.
  Self-starting in getting the job done with a
   minimum of supervision from one’s boss
Behavioral Leadership Theories
                             Principal Theories
Assume that there are
                           Basic Leadership
 distinctive styles that
                            Styles
 effective leaders use
 consistently,             Two-Dimensional
            or              Leadership Styles
That good leadership      The Leadership Grid
 is a rooted behavior      Transformational
                            Leadership
Basic Leadership Styles

Autocratic
 The leader makes the decisions and closely
  supervises employees
Democratic
 The leader allows participation in decisions and
  does not closely supervise employees
Laissez-Faire
 The leader takes a leave-the-employees-alone
  approach
Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
                                University of Michigan Studies
Ohio State University Studies
                                Job centered – same as
Initiating structure – the      initiating structure
 extent to which the leader
                                  Concern for production
 takes charge as the
 employee performs the task     Employee centered – same
                                 as consideration
Consideration – the extent
                                  Concern for people
 to which the leader
 communicates to develop
 trust, friendship, support,
 and respect
      Two-Dimensional Leadership Models


                              High
                                         High Consideration   High Structure
                                                and                and
                   Consideration




                                           Low Structure    High Consideration
    Ohio State                                                 3 2
    University                                                 4 1
                                         Low Consideration   High Structure
                                               and                and
                                           Low Structure   Low Consideration
                                   Low
                                                        Initiating Structure
Exhibit 8.1                              Low                                                High
              University of
               Michigan                  Job-Centered                          Employee-Centered
Transformational Leadership (1 of 2)

Focus is on top-level managers, primarily
 chief executive officers of large
 organizations

Transformational leadership is about:
 Change
 Innovation
 Entrepreneurship
Transformational Leadership (2 of 2)

Transformational leaders perform, or take
 the organization through, three acts, on an
 ongoing basis:
   Act 1. Recognizing the need for revitalization
   Act 2. Creating a new vision
   Act 3. Institutionalizing change
Charismatic   Transactional
Leadership     Leadership
Contingency Leadership Theories
                            Principal Theories
Assume that the
                          Contingency
 appropriate leadership
                           Leadership Theory
 style varies from
                          Leadership Continuum
 situation to situation
                          Normative Leadership
                           Theory
                          Situational Leadership
Contingency Leadership Theory
(1 of 2)


Developed by Fred Fiedler
Model is used to determine:
  if one’s leadership style is task or relationship
   oriented, and
  if the situation matches the leader’s style
If there is no match, Fiedler recommends
 change the situation, rather than leadership
 style
Contingency Leadership Theory
(2 of 2)

                             Situational Favorableness
     Leadership Style
                            The degree to which a
Determined by completing    situation enables the leader
 the Least Preferred         to exert influence over the
 Coworker (LPC) scales       followers
Determines if one’s        Key variables
 leadership style is:
                              1. Leader-member relations
   task oriented
                              2. Task structure
                 or
                              3. Position power
   relationship oriented
Normative Leadership Theory
                          Leadership Styles
Model developed by
 Vroom and Yetton      Decide
Enables the user to   Consult individually
 select one of five    Consult group
 leadership styles
 appropriate for the   Facilitate
 situation             Delegate
Situational Leadership
(1 of 2)


Emphasis is on followers and their level of
 maturity
Leader must properly judge or intuitively
 know followers’ maturity level and then use
 a leadership style that fits the level
Readiness – the followers’ skills and
 willingness to do a job
Situational Leadership
(2 of 2)

Hersey and Blanchard developed four
 leadership styles:
   Telling. The leader defines the roles needed to do the job
    and tells followers what, where, how, and when to do the
    tasks
   Selling. The leader provides followers with supportive
    instructions, but is also supportive
   Participating. The leader and followers share in decisions
    about how best to complete a high-quality job
   Delegating. The leader provides little specific, close
    direction or personal support to followers
Situational Supervision (1 of 3)

Adapted from the Situational Leadership
 model of Hersey and Blanchard
Involves:
 Determining a preferred supervisory style
 Defining the situation
 Determining employee capability
The effective supervisor adapts his or her
 style to meet the capabilities of the
 individual or group
Situational Supervision (2 of 3)
                                    Employee Capability
  Supervisor-Employee
                                 Ability
        Interactions
                                   Do employees have the
Directive behavior                 education, experience, skills,
  The supervisor focuses on        etc., to do the task without
   directing and controlling        direction from the supervisor?
   behavior to ensure the task
                                 Motivation
   gets done
                                   Do the employees want to do
Supportive behavior                the task?
  The supervisor focuses on
   encouraging and motivating
   behavior
Situational Supervision (3 of 3)
                                         Supervisory Styles (S)
Employee Capability Levels (C)       Autocratic (S-A)
Low (C-1)                             High-directive / low-supportive
  Employees can’t do the task          behavior
   without detailed directions       Consultative (S-C)
Moderate (C-2)                        High-directive / high-supportive
  Employees have moderate              behavior
   ability and are motivated         Participative (S-P)
High (C-3)                            Low-directive / high-supportive
  Employees are high in ability        behavior
   but may lack self-confidence or
   motivation                        Laissez-Faire (S-L)
Outstanding (C-4)                     Low-directive / low-supportive
  Employees are very capable           behavior
   and highly motivated
Substitutes for Leadership (1 of 2)
                             II. Characteristics of Task
    I. Characteristics of
         Subordinates
                            Clarity and routine
Ability, knowledge,
 experience, training       Invariant methodology
Need for independence      Provision of own feedback
                             concerning accomplishment
Professional orientation
                            Intrinsic satisfaction
Indifference toward
 organizational rewards
Substitutes for Leadership (2 of 2)

       III. Characteristics of the Organization
Formalization (explicit plan, goals, and areas of
 responsibility)
Inflexibility (rigid, unbending rules and procedures)
Highly specified and active advisory and staff functions
Closely knit, cohesive work groups
Organizational rewards not within the leader’s control
Spatial distance between superior and subordinate
Diversity of Global Leadership (1 of 3)

Most leadership theories were developed
 in the United States
 Thus, they have an American bias
Key assumptions of American-based
 theories:
 Employee responsibility, rather than employee rights
 Self-gratification, rather than employee commitment to duty
  or altruistic motivation
 Democratic values rather than autocratic values
 Rationality, rather than spirituality, religion, or superstition
Diversity of Global Leadership (2 of 3)

In the 1970s, Japan’s productivity rate was
 increasing faster than that of the United States
  Seven major differences between the two countries were
   identified. The Japanese:
    have a longer length of employment
    use more collective decision making
    use more collective responsibility
    evaluate and promote employees more slowly
    use more implicit mechanisms of control
    have more unspecialized career paths
    have a more holistic concern for employees
Diversity of Global Leadership (3 of 3)

American-based theories may not be as
 effective in cultures based on different
 assumptions
 Autocratic leadership styles tend to be
  appropriate in high-context cultures
   e.g., Arab, Far Eastern, and Latin countries
 Participative leadership styles tend to be
  appropriate in low-context cultures
   e.g., U.S., Norway, Finland, and Sweden
Trust
                                Levels of Trust
Trust – is the positive
 expectation that
 another will not take     1. Deterrence-based trust
 advantage of you
Trust is not simply       2. Knowledge-based trust
 given
Trust is earned           3. Identification-based trust
Dimensions of Trust (1 of 4)


                   Consistency




      Competency    Integrity    Openness




                     Loyalty




                                            Exhibit 8.8
Dimensions of Trust (2 of 4)
                             Tips to Develop Your
   Tips to Develop Your           Competence
           Integrity
                          Be conscientious
Tell the truth
                          Know your strengths and
Keep your commitments
                           limitations
Be fair
                          Don’t brag
                          Admit your mistakes
Dimensions of Trust (3 of 4)
                            Tips to Develop Your Loyalty
   Tips to Develop Your
        Consistency         Invest heavily in loyalty
Keep your commitments      Maintain confidences
Practice what you preach   Don’t gossip negatively
Be impartial                about individuals
                            Be viewed as a collaborator,
                             not a competitor
Dimensions of Trust (4 of 4)

   Tips to Develop Your
          Openness
Self-disclose
Accept others’ self-
 disclosure
Accept diversity and
 conflict
Risk and Destroying Trust

Developing trust through self-disclosure
 does include the risk of:
 being hurt
 disappointed
 taken advantage of
The rewards of improved human relations
 and personal friendship are worth the risk

								
To top