Psychosocial Crisis: Autonomy
vs. Shame and Doubt
What’s going on at 2 and 3?
• Elaboration of locomotion
• Language development
• Fantasy play
• Self control
Parenting Styles & Characteristics-
What are some thoughts/beliefs you have about
1. Baumrind’s formulation of parenting
• Permissive, democratic-indulgent
• Permissive, rejecting-neglecting
2. PARTheory: Parental
• An intercultural approach-400 studies in 60 nations
• Acceptance and rejection are defined in culture-specific
• Perceived rejection is emphasized
• Four behavioral patterns
• Undifferentiated rejection
• Acceptance is linked with:
– Higher self-esteem
– Psychological independence
– Positive world view
• Rejection is associated with
– Hostility and aggression
– Dependence or defensive independence
– Emotional unresponsiveness
– Impaired self-esteem
– Impaired self-adequacy
– Emotional instability
– Negative worldview
1. Self control refers to the child’s ability to
control her impulses and attain his goals.
2. Emotion regulation helps facilitate these
3. Infants began to develop emotion regulation
skills through caregiving interactions.
• Comforting physical contact
• Soothing sounds
• Elimination of stimulus causing discomfort
Facilitating toddler self control
1. Teaching empathy/Increasing sensitivity to others
• Perspective taking
• Role modeling
2. Discipline should be
• Clearly linked to unwanted behavior
• Short duration
3. Use of language
• Talk about the emotions
• Modify them through distraction or explanation
• Give suggestions on how to manage them
• Model ways of responding to emotions
• Reinforce prosocial behavior
John Gottman on Speaker’s Forum
1. Emotion coaching
• What is it?
• Benefits in adult relationships?
• Benefits for child development?
2. Questions provoked?
3. Criticisms provoked?
Designing a high quality child care
1. Physical space-inside and outside
2. Daily schedule
3. Sample toys
4. Policies to support families
Incorporate inclusivity and cultural relevancy
into your plan.
• Read the “Lilly” scenario
• Do a go-round with each person contributing an
observation of the scenario
• Discuss adult responses that would promote
• Link adult responses to strategies from lecture
• Plan an activity you could have parents do to
develop skills to promote emotion regulation
The role and impact of childcare
Some information about childcare
• 70% of kids in the U.S. 0-5 are in care outside the
• There are national accreditation standards for
childcare settings that address curriculum,
relationships with family, physical space, etc.
• In WA, there are 2,107 childcare centers; 143 are
accredited; 6.3% of centers and .32% of homes
• Annual cost for infant: $12,000/8,424.00
• Annual cost for a 4 year old: $8,804/7,140
• Annual income of f/t childcare provider: $19,710
1. What makes child care high quality?
• Consistency and training of caregivers
• Clean, safe environment
• Small ratio
2. What needs can be met through high quality child
• Cognitive development, especially if not supported at home.
• Social competence, self-esteem, empathy.
• Long term benefits: hs completion, reduced criminal activity,
3. Accreditation standards: