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Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Toddlerhood

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Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Toddlerhood Powered By Docstoc
					Developmental Psychology

          Toddlerhood
 Psychosocial Crisis: Autonomy
     vs. Shame and Doubt
  What’s going on at 2 and 3?
Developmental Tasks
• Elaboration of locomotion
• Language development
• Fantasy play
• Self control
Parenting Styles & Characteristics-
 What are some thoughts/beliefs you have about
             effective parenting?
1. Baumrind’s formulation of parenting
   styles-Demandingness &
   Responsiveness
  •   Authoritative
  •   Authoritarian
  •   Permissive, democratic-indulgent
  •   Permissive, rejecting-neglecting
      2. PARTheory: Parental
    Acceptance-Rejection Theory-
             Roehner
• An intercultural approach-400 studies in 60 nations
• Acceptance and rejection are defined in culture-specific
  ways.
• Perceived rejection is emphasized
• Four behavioral patterns
   – Warmth/affection
   – Rejection
      •   Cold/unaffectionate
      •   Hostility/aggression
      •   Indifference/neglect
      •   Undifferentiated rejection
• Acceptance is linked with:
  – Higher self-esteem
  – Psychological independence
  – Trust
  – Positive world view
• Rejection is associated with
  – Hostility and aggression
  – Dependence or defensive independence
  – Emotional unresponsiveness
  – Impaired self-esteem
  – Impaired self-adequacy
  – Emotional instability
  – Negative worldview
                Self control
1. Self control refers to the child’s ability to
   control her impulses and attain his goals.
2. Emotion regulation helps facilitate these
   abilities.
3. Infants began to develop emotion regulation
   skills through caregiving interactions.
• Comforting physical contact
• Soothing sounds
• Elimination of stimulus causing discomfort
     Facilitating toddler self control
1.       Teaching empathy/Increasing sensitivity to others
     •     Perspective taking
     •     Role modeling
2.       Discipline should be
     •     Clearly linked to unwanted behavior
     •     Short duration
     •     Rational
     •     Consistent
3.       Use of language
     •     Talk about the emotions
     •     Modify them through distraction or explanation
     •     Give suggestions on how to manage them
     •     Model ways of responding to emotions
     •     Reinforce prosocial behavior
           Emotion-coaching
          John Gottman on Speaker’s Forum

http://www.kuow.org/program.php?id=15530
1. Emotion coaching
  •   What is it?
  •   Benefits in adult relationships?
  •   Benefits for child development?
2. Questions provoked?
3. Criticisms provoked?
Designing a high quality child care
             center
1. Physical space-inside and outside
2. Daily schedule
3. Sample toys
4. Policies to support families
Incorporate inclusivity and cultural relevancy
   into your plan.
            Problem solving
• Read the “Lilly” scenario
• Do a go-round with each person contributing an
  observation of the scenario
• Discuss adult responses that would promote
  emotion regulation
• Link adult responses to strategies from lecture
• Plan an activity you could have parents do to
  develop skills to promote emotion regulation
     The role and impact of childcare

Some information about childcare
•  70% of kids in the U.S. 0-5 are in care outside the
   home.
•  There are national accreditation standards for
   childcare settings that address curriculum,
   relationships with family, physical space, etc.
•  In WA, there are 2,107 childcare centers; 143 are
   accredited; 6.3% of centers and .32% of homes
•  Annual cost for infant: $12,000/8,424.00
•  Annual cost for a 4 year old: $8,804/7,140
•  Annual income of f/t childcare provider: $19,710
                 Pressing questions
1.       What makes child care high quality?
     •     Consistency and training of caregivers
     •     Clean, safe environment
     •     Small ratio
2.       What needs can be met through high quality child
         care?
     •     Cognitive development, especially if not supported at home.
     •     Social competence, self-esteem, empathy.
     •     Long term benefits: hs completion, reduced criminal activity,
           college entrance/completion
3.       Accreditation standards:
         http://www.naeyc.org/academy/standards/

				
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