Strategy & Tactics of Integrative Negotiation (IN) by 203x8y1


									Strategy & Tactics of
Integrative Negotiation (IN)

Integrate: To make whole or
complete by adding together parts
aka: win-win, mutual gains,
variable sum, side-by-side
negotiation; similar to “principled
Overview of Integrative
Negotiation: Four Key Processes

 Creating a free flow of information, r.t.
  concealment and selective presentation
 Trying to understand the other’s real needs,
  and objectives r.t. their stated position
 Emphasize common goals, objectives, and
  interests r.t. differences
 Search for solutions that meet needs of all
  sides r.t. only your own, or blocking solutions
  that meet their needs (spite)
Integrative Negotiation:
 Key Stages (Overview)
 Identify and define the problem -- “half
  the battle”?
 Understand the problem fully -- identify
  interests and needs. Discuss these
  instead of positions
 Generate alternative solutions
 Evaluate alternatives and select the best
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 1 Details
Defining the Problem
   Define the problem for mutual acceptance
   Keep it clean and simple; focus on what’s really
    important (not “bargaining chips”)
   State the problem as a mutual goal and identify
    obstacles to its attainment
   Depersonalize the problem -- “ownership” is an
    obstacle as it requires attacking the person to solve
    the problem
   Separate the problem definition from the search for
    solutions; get agreement on the problem first
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 2 Details
Understand the Problem Fully

 Various   types of interests
  •   Substantive
  •   Process
  •   Relationship
  •   Principles
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 2 Details

   Some observations on interests
     • May be more than one type at issue
     • Parties can differ on types at stake
     • Interests are often based in deeply-rooted
       human values or needs (“think Maslow”?)
     • Interests can change
     • Getting at interests: Listen to “inner voice”
       and bring real interests to surface;
       consider theirs in same way
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 3 Details
Generate Alternative Solutions
   Be creative -- there are various approaches
   Generating alternatives by redefining the problem(s)
    •   Expand the pie
    •   Logroll (trade issues)
    •   Nonspecific compensation (side payment?)
    •   Cut compliance costs for them
    •   Find a bridge solution that addresses underlying interests r.t.
        resolving conflicting positions
   Generating alternative solutions to the problem as
    • Brainstorming
    • Nominal groups
    • Surveys
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 3 Details
Summary on Generating Solutions

 No guarantee of finding a win-win
 solution. Communicate “firm
 flexibility.” How?
  • Use contentious tactics to establish firmness about basic interests
  • Signal flexibility and concern for their interests
  • Indicate willingness to change proposals if it helps bridge the gap in
  • Demonstrate problem-solving capacity
  • Maintain open communications
  • Reaffirm what’s important or fundamental
  • Reconsider aspects of your interests that are clearly unacceptable to
    them -- are they really essential?
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 4 Details
Evaluate and Select Solution

 Narrow   the range, eliminate
  unsupported solutions
 Assess quality and acceptability -- use
  objective standards
 Determine criteria first
 Justify personal preferences -- “Why?”
 Watch for intangibles’ influences
IN’s Key Stages: Stage 4 Details

 Use subgroups to evaluate options (6-8?)
 Take time to cool off, but make your
  dissatisfactions known and discuss
 Explore ways to “logroll” or combine options
    • (e.g., differences in desires, risk preferences,
      expectations, time preferences)
 Keep decisions tentative ‘til all aspects
 Minimize records and formality until final
  agreement, but then work out “single text”
Factors That Facilitate
Successful IN
   Common, shared, or joint goal(s)
   Faith in one’s own problem-solving ability; expertise
    and experience aid creativity
   Accepting validity of their position
   Motivation and commitment to work together (but
    this does not mean taking their goals as yours)
   Trust
   Clear and accurate communication
   Understanding of the dynamics of IN (training works;
    DB tactics can be counterproductive at times)
DB and IN: Can You “Mix & Match”?
    Actual Negotiations   DB Issues    IN Issues
    DB Tactics            lots         some
    IN Tactics            some         lots

    Actual negotiations: Parties use both tactic types for
     both issue types, but tend to use “like with like”
    Recall that most negotiations involve elements of both
     DB and IN; pure types are for textbooks!
    Experts advise use of some DB tactics in IN, and some
     IN tactics always (e.g., “Principled Negotiations”)
    Using DB tactics inappropriately in IN may cause
     suboptimal results -- win-win potential not fully realized

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