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									          MISSION COMMAND




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                    Doctrine - Summary
             Fighting power – physical, moral and
              conceptual components
             Manoeuvrist Approach - with its
              implications for:
                Conduct of operations
                Command




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          Manoeuvrist Approach




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             Observation




    Action                 Orientation




              Decision
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                  Command Philosophy
             Timely decision-making
             Understanding higher commander’s intent




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                  Command Philosophy
             Timely decision-making
             Understanding higher commander’s intent
             Responsibility to fulfil that intention:
               Common doctrine
               Mutual trust
               Obedience
               Initiative



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          Command Philosophy
              (Tenets)


              Principles


               MISSION
              COMMAND


               Practice
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          Principles of Mission Command
             Unity of effort




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              Achieving Unity of Effort
             The Commander’s Intent
             Main and Supporting Efforts
             Mission Statements




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                       Orders Format
             Situation
                En Forces
                Fr Forces
                Atts and Dets
             Mission
             Execution
                Concept of Ops
                    Intent
                    Scheme of Manoeuvre
                    Main Effort
                Subordinates’ missions
                Co-ordinating instructions
             Service Support
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             Command & Signal                11
                       Orders Format
             Situation
                En Forces
                Fr Forces
                Atts and Dets
             Mission
             Execution
                Concept of Ops
                    Intent                      Intent
                    Scheme of Manoeuvre
                    Main Effort
                Subordinates’ missions
                Co-ordinating instructions
             Service Support
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             Command & Signal                             12
     “…One part of the order I did, however, draft
     myself - the intention. It is usually the shortest of
     all paragraphs, but it is always the most important,
     because it states - or it should - just what the
     commander intends to achieve.

          It is the one overriding expression of will by
     which every action by every commander and
     soldier in the army must be dominated.”
                                          Defeat Into Victory
                                    Field Marshal Slim 1944
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          Commander’s Intent - Overview
      A succinct summary of how he proposes to
      achieve his purpose - articulated through
      effects, so subordinates understand the links
      between Main and Supporting Efforts. Also a
      description of how he thinks achieving his task
      will meet his given purpose (his unique
      contribution to his superior’s intent)




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          Commander’s Intent - Overview
      A succinct summary of how he proposes to
      achieve his purpose - articulated through
      effects, so subordinates understand the links
      between Main and Supporting Efforts. Also a
      description of how he thinks achieving his task
      will meet his given purpose (his unique
      contribution to his superior’s intent)




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                       Orders Format
             Situation
                En Forces
                Fr Forces
                Atts and Dets
             Mission
             Execution
                Concept of Ops
                    Intent
                    Scheme of manoeuvre
                    Main Effort
                Subordinates’ missions
                Co-ordinating instructions
             Service Support
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             Command & Signal                16
                       Orders Format
             Situation
                En Forces
                Fr Forces
                Atts and Dets
             Mission
             Execution
                Concept of Ops
                    Intent
                    Scheme of manoeuvre
                    Main Effort                 Main Effort
                Subordinates’ missions
                Co-ordinating instructions
             Service Support
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             Command & Signal                            17
                      Main Effort


          The activity which the commander
          considers crucial to the success of his
          mission at that time.




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                       Orders Format
             Situation
                En Forces
                Fr Forces
                Atts and Dets
             Mission
             Execution
                Concept of Ops
                    Intent
                    Scheme of manoeuvre
                    Main Effort
                Subordinates’ missions
                Co-ordinating instructions
             Service Support
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             Command & Signal                19
                      Orders Format
             Situation
                En Forces
                Fr Forces
                Atts and Dets
             Mission
             Execution
                Concept of Ops
                    Intent
                    Scheme of
                       manoeuvre
                    Main Effort      Subordinates’ Missions
                Subordinates’ missions
                Co-ordinating instructions
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             Command & Signal
          Mission Statements
            Task(s) + Purpose




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                       Caesar



                       Maximus



          Archers &     Roman     Roman
           artillery   Infantry   Cavalry




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          Mission Statements
            Own Mission:
            Task(s) + Purpose




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                  Mission Statements
                    Own Mission:
                    Task(s) + Purpose




 Subordinate 1:         Subordinate 2:           Subordinate 3:
 Task +                 Task +                   Task +
 Purpose                Purpose                  Purpose




  The missions assigned to subordinates, together, fulfil the
  mission assigned to the commander.
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  There is a
  common thread to
  the subordinates’      Mission Statements
  purposes, so that
  when taken
  together they fulfil     Own Mission: Task
  the Commander’s
  mission                  + Purpose




  Subordinate 1:              Subordinate 2:   Subordinate 3:
  Task +                      Task +           Task +
  Purpose                     Purpose          Purpose




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T: pacify the German tribes
                                Caesar
P: bring peace to the
                                                   T: defeat militant
Empire’s northern borders
                                                   German tribes
                               Maximus             P: bring peace to the
                                                   northern borders
               Supporting           Supporting                Main
                 Effort
       Archers &                 Roman Effort                 Effort
                                                          Roman
        artillery               Infantry                  Cavalry
 T: force German          T: fix enemy forces in      T: kill German tribal
 forces out of the        the open                    leader and his
 woods                                                bodyguard
                          P: enable Cavalry, on
  P: enable infantry to   the main effort, to         P: cause the
  engage the enemy in
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                          attack the enemy from       culmination of the
                                                                    27
  the open                the rear                    militant tribes
              Achieving Unity of Effort
             The Commander’s Intent
             Main and Supporting Efforts
             Mission Statements




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          Maximus’ Orders to his Legions
                            (1)
         Mission: defeat militant German tribes in
          order to bring peace to the northern borders




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          Maximus’ Orders to his Legions
                               (1)
         Mission: defeat militant German tribes in order
          to bring peace to the northern borders
         Intent: We will force the enemy out of the
          forest so we can fix him in the open. Once he
          is fixed, we will surprise him by an attack in the
          rear, striking to destroy his leadership - the
          decisive element of the operation. Once his
          leadership is destroyed, I believe we will break
          the will of the German tribes, thus eventually
          bring peace to the Northern borders
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          Maximus’ Orders to his Legions
                              (2)
         Main Effort: killing of enemy leadership by the
          cavalry




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          Maximus’ Orders to his Legions
                          (2)
    Main Effort: killing of enemy leadership by the
     cavalry
    Scheme of Manoeuvre: Cavalry preparatory
     move to FUP in cover, signal once in position.
     Artillery and archers then force enemy out of the
     forest using fire. Infantry advance into open
     ground, to lure the enemy further into the open,
     and then fix him. Cavalry then strike from the
     forest into the enemy’s rear, gaining shock and
     surprise, to kill the enemy leadership. Once
     enemy is reduced to a disorganised rabble,
     massacre as many as possible. Enslave the rest.
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          Maximus’ Orders to his Legions
                                   (3)
                     Subordinate Missions
         Archers and Artillery
          T: force German forces out of the woods
           P: enable infantry to engage the enemy in the open
         Infantry
          T: fix enemy forces in the open
           P: enable Cavalry, on the main effort, to attack the
             enemy from the rear
         Cavalry
           T: kill German tribal leader and his bodyguard
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          P: cause the culmination of the militant tribes         33
          Principles of Mission Command
             Unity of effort
             Decentralisation (Freedom of Action)




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          “…In time [commanders at all levels]
            developed to a marked degree a flexibility of
            mind and a firmness of decision that
            enabled them to act swiftly to take
            advantage of sudden information or
            changing circumstances without reference
            to their superiors,

            [This] requires in the higher command a
            corresponding flexibility of mind, confidence
            in subordinates, and the power to make its
            intentions clear through the force.”

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                                      FM Slim           35
          Principles of Mission Command
             Unity of effort
             Decentralisation
             [ Mutual] Trust




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          “... He, the soldier, must have confidence
              in his leaders and know that whatever
              dangers and hardships he is called upon
              to suffer, his life will not be flung away.”
                                             FM Slim




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          Principles of Mission Command
             Unity of effort
             Decentralisation
             Trust
             Mutual understanding




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                                 DESTROY
                       BLOCK




          Language of Mission Command

                          DENY
                                      SEIZE


      PENETRATION
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          Principles of Mission Command
             Unity of effort
             Decentralisation
             Trust
             Mutual understanding
             Timely and effective decision-making




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 TIME
                                        THE DECISION
NOW                    Upwards             POINT




          Direction   Consultation Consideration Execution
     (Received and
        Given)          Sideways




                    Downwards
              Review                         The        Review
                                           Decision
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          “…One of the most difficult things we have to
            do in war is to recognize the moment for
            making a decision. Information comes in
            degrees. Shall we make a decision now or
            shall we wait a little longer?

            It is usually more difficult to determine the
            moment for making a decision than it is to
            formulate the decision itself.”

                                       Adolph Von Schell
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          Command Philosophy


               Principles


               MISSION
              COMMAND


               Practice
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              Mission Command in Practice
             Orders – intentions, missions and
              context
             What effect – and why
             Appropriate resources allocated
             Minimum control – maximum freedom
             Subordinates decide ‘how’ to achieve
              their mission


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             “… Never tell people how to do things,

                       tell them what to do

          and they will surprise you with their ingenuity”


                                                Patton

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                         Summary
             Freedoms and speed of action




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                         Summary
             Freedoms and speed of action
             Intents and Effects
             Resources
             Minimum control measures




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                           Summary
             Freedoms and speed of action
             Intents and Effects
             Resources
             Minimum necessary control measures
             Principles:
                 Unity of Effort
                 Decentralisation
                 Trust
                 Mutual Understanding
                 Timely and Effective Decision-making
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          QUESTIONS?




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