CUSTOMER SERVICE by pengxuezhi

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 90

									Добро утро
   A GUIDE TO
PUBLIC RELATIONS
Patrice Koerper
   Background
       Undergraduate degree in Psychology
       Master’s Degree in Management, MSM
            Leadership and Organizational
             Effectiveness
       30+ years in Public Relations and
        Marketing
          My Dad and Uncle
          Business

          Government
Patrice Koerper (con’t)
   Government
       Tampa-Hillsborough County Public Library
        System
          Population: 1 million +
          Libraries:   27/49/2/1
          Circulation: 9 million (just under)
          Program:     184,000 Attendance
          Budget:      $53 Million
                1 % automation
               11% on books and materials
               17% operations
               31% reserves
               36% personnel
Patrice Koerper (con’t)

   United States Peace Corps
       Volunteer
       27 months in Macedonia
       September 2006
       3 months in Chaska
       Work at Opstina vo Bitola
       December 2008 (may extend)
Today’s PR Topics
   Brief History
   General Understanding
   Process
   Issues Management
   Tracking, evaluations and
    valuations
   Accreditation
My goals for today

   Awareness of field of PR as science.

   Awareness of PR process.

   Awareness of your role as PR
    practitioner.
Brief History

   “PR” - 1897 Yearbook of Railway
    Literature

   PR is a 20th century phenomenon

   Founders
Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 1877 – Nov. 1934)

   Princeton Graduate

   Reporter

   1904 – 3rd PR firm in America
       "Accuracy, Authenticity, and Interest“
Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 1877 – Nov. 1934)

   1906 – “Declaration of Principles“
       "Accuracy, Authenticity, and Interest“
       First Press Release
            Response to railway crisis


   1912 – First PR person hired in
    executive level position
Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 1877 – Nov. 1934)


   1912- Taught PR Class at NYU

   1914: Rockefeller: Standard Oil

   Crisis Communications
PR is a 20th century phenomenon

   Sigmund Freud
       "the father of psychoanalysis“




   Edward (Eddie) L. Bernays
       “the father of public relations”
Edward L. Bernays (Vienna, Nov. 1891 – Mar. 1995)

      propagandist and proud of it . . . , and
       that he just "hoped it was 'proper-
       ganda' and not 'improper-ganda.'“
           http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1999Q2/bernays.html


      “The Engineering of Consent"
        "If we understand the mechanisms
          and motives of the group mind, it is
          now possible to control and regiment
          the masses according to our will
          without their knowing it, 1947"
           http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1999Q2/bernays.html
Engineering of Consent

   Motivated by Freud’s ideas
       Humans are irrational beings
       Primarily motivated primarily by inner
        desires hidden in their unconscious.
   If one understood what those
    unconscious desires were
       one could use this to one's advantage
        to sell products and increase sales.
Bernay’s tactics
and their lessons

   1923, Ivory Soap
       Surveys, understanding audience


   1928, Warming up Calvin Coolidge
       3rd party endorsements
Bernays' tactics
and their lessons (con’t)

   1929: Torches of Freedom
       Messages and slogans
       Research


   1932, GM: Value and Sales Appeal
       Benefits real and perceived to buyers
       Related promotions contests, races
Basic public relations definition:
   A group of activities aimed at building
    awareness and a favorable image and
    influencing attitudes and behavior of a
    large targeted audience.
   Never involves paid media, but there are
    costs.
   Results in a credible third-party
    endorsement
Expanded public relations definition:
   The management of communication
    between an organization and its publics.

   A profession with a scholarly body of
    knowledge.

   A management function rather than a
    technical communication function alone.

   Strategic counseling rather than publicity
    alone.
Strategic public relations

 “Publicrelations is most
 effective when it has a role in
 strategic decision-making.”

     James E. Grunig and Wee Kim Wee
      Professor
         School of Communication and Information
              Nanyang Technological University
                 Singapore
How Public Relations Professionals
Enter Strategic Management

   Develop extensive knowledge of the
    organization for which they work.
   Develop knowledge of public
    relations theory as it relates to
    strategic management.
   Wait for a time when their expertise
    is needed, especially during a crisis
    or when facing an issue.
Keys to successful public relations:

   Honesty, Integrity, Credibility

   Vision, Imagination, Creativity

   Timeliness, Strategy, Planning

   Hook, Angle, Story
My personal PR mottos

   Lying is not an option.
       Honesty + Integrity = Credibility


   Notice what you notice.
       Human Nature


   You confuse them: you loose them.
       Crisp and quotable.
4 Step Process
   Research
     Fact-Finding and analysis


   Strategy
     Planning


   Communication
     Action


   Evaluation
      Review
Circular Process


     Research        Strategy




      Evaluation   Communication
Research – “Tomorrow’s Mind”
   Analysis or fact-finding
       Data collection and review
   Adopting a research attitude
       Asking questions
          How can things be done more effectively or
           efficiently?
          Who is our audience?

          How can we reach new audiences?



       Inviting comments and feedback.
          Surveys, focus groups
Who is your target audience?

   Learn everything about them.
       What do they need?
       What are their problems?
       What do they want?


   Can you picture them?

   Can you describe them?
Researching stakeholders

   Geographics
       county lines, city limits, telephone area
        codes and zip codes


   Demographics
       gender, income, age, marital status and
        education are individual characteristics.
Researching stakeholders (con’t)
   Positions held by individuals are used to
    identify target publics.

   Reputation identifies people as
    knowledgeable or influential based on
    others' perceptions of them.

   Membership uses organizational rosters,
    lists or affiliation.
Researching stakeholders (con’t)
   Political or economic power-- Covert
    power-behind-the-scenes, describes people
    at the top of a power pyramid who operate
    across situations.
       They exert power over others on a wide range of
        issues, but often not in ways easily observed.

   Role in the decision process calls for
    observing the decision-making process to
    learn who plays what roles in influencing
    decisions in a particular situation.
       This approach helps identify the most active
        among the active publics, those who really make
        decisions, take action and communicate.
Understanding stakeholders

   James E. Grunig
       Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-
        Madison in 1968
       Professor Emeritus for the Department
        of Communication at the University of
        Maryland.
       Awarded many honors for his work in
        PR.
       http://www.comm.umd.edu/people/faculty/jgrunig.html
Grunig’s Stakeholder Categories
   Nonpublics have a low level of involvement with
    your program, and sometimes with other people

   Latent publics are unaware of their connections
    to others and your programs.

   Aware publics recognize they're somehow
    involved in or affected by an issue shared by
    others, but have not communicated about it to
    others.

   Active publics have begun to communicate and
    organize to do something about the situation.
Grunig’s Publics

                   Active
                   Aware
                   Latent Publics
                   Non-publics
4 Step Process
   Research
     Fact-Finding and analysis


   Strategy
     Planning


   Communication
     Action


   Evaluation
      Review
Developing a PR plan or campaign.

   What message do you want to
    send?
       What do you want people to know?
       What do you want people to do?
Public Relations Plans

   A blueprint for yearly activities.

   Establishes priorities so you spend
    money effectively.

   A working document that changes
    year to year.
Public Relations Campaign

   A specific project or topic plan

   Short or long term

   Establishes priorities so you spend
    money effectively.
         Model of Strategic PR Management
                                                       Management
                    No Consequences                     Decisions

                                                                             Consequences
                               Consequences

   Organizational
    Reputation
                                                        Communication
                                                     Programs to cultivate      Stakeholders
                               Relationship            relationships with
                                Outcomes                     publics         P1     P2      Pi

                                                                                  Publics
  Achievement of
Organizational Goals
                                           Crisis
                                        Management                             Behavior of
                                                                             Publics Creates

                                                            Issues
4 Step Process
   Research
     Fact-Finding and analysis


   Strategy
     Planning


   Communication
     Action


   Evaluation
      Review
Communicating effectively.

   What is the best way to send our
    message?
PR Basic Communication Tools
    Promotions, Publicity Campaigns
    Media Kits
         Press Releases, Media Alerts
         Feature Story, Photography, Pitch/Cover Letter
    Press Conferences
    Face to Faces
    Web Pages, Blogs
    Promotional Materials
    Events, Sponsorships, Philanthropic Endeavors
Communication

   Attracting attention to the
    communication

   Achieving acceptance of the
    message

   Having it interpreted as intended
7 C’s of Communication
1. Credibility

     Communication starts with a climate of
      belief.
         Built by performance on the part of the
          institution, reflecting an earnest desire to
          serve its publics.
         Clients must have confidence in the
          message sender and high regard for the
          source's competence on the subject.
7 C’s of Communication
2. Context

     A communications program must
      square with the realities of its
      environment.
     The context must provide for
      participation and playback.
     Effective communication requires a
      supportive social environment.
7 C’s of Communication

3. Content
     The message must have meaning for
      receivers, and it must be compatible with
      their value system.
     It must have relevance to the receivers'
      situation.
     In general, people select information
      that promises them the greatest
      rewards.
     The content determines the audience.
7 C’s of Communication
4. Clarity
     Keep it simple.
     Words must mean the same to the
      receivers as the sender.
     Complex issues must be compressed.
     The farther a message has to travel: the
      simpler it must be.
     An organization must speak with one
      voice.
7 C’s of Communication

5. Consistency and Continuity

     Communication is an unending process
      that requires repetition to achieve
      penetration.

     The story must be consistent.
7 C’s of Communication

6. Channels

     Established channels of communication
      should be used, channels that receivers
      use and respect.
     Selective channels are called for in
      reaching target publics.
     People associate different values with the
      many channels of communication.
7 C’s of Communication

7. Capability of the audience

     Communications are most effective when
      they require the least effort from
      receivers.

     This involves factors of availability,
      habits, reading ability and prior
      knowledge.
“Teachable moments”

   Audiences are most interested in
    problems of domestic violence at
    the height of media coverage of
    celebrities.

   People want to know about planting
    a garden when warm spring
    weather arrives.
Communication retention

   Getting the message stored for
    later use

   Active learning and practice

   Accepting change, even more
    difficult.
How does retention happen?


       And what is my role?
Adoption and Diffusion
   Diffusion refers to the process by which
    new ideas and practices are spread to
    members of a social system.
   The rate of diffusion is the speed that
    the new idea spreads from one consumer
    to the next.
   Adoption is similar to diffusion except
    that it deals with the psychological
    processes an individual goes through,
    rather than an aggregate market
    process.
Adoption/Diffusion Process

  1.   Knowledge. People learn about an innovation
       and gain some understanding of it.


  2. Persuasion. Potential adopters develop interest
     in the innovation. They seek more information
     and consider its general merits.

  3. Decision. Potential adopters decide to adopt or
     reject the innovation after weighing its merits
     for their own situation.
Adoption/Diffusion Process

  4. Implementation. Those willing to try the
     innovation apply it to their situation, usually on
     a small scale.

  5. Confirmation. Adoption is either reinforced or
     the decision to adopt is reversed, based on the
     evaluation.
The Everett Rogers
Diffusion of Innovations Theory

   Innovators – venturesome, educated,
    multiple info sources;
   Early adopters – social leaders, popular,
    educated;
   Early majority – deliberate, many
    informal social contacts;
   Late majority – skeptical, traditional,
    lower socio-economic status;
   Laggards – neighbors and friends are
    main info sources, fear of debt.
Roger’s

Bell Curve
As PR professionals . . .


         Why do we care?
Communication Methods - old

1.Mass media were most useful to
  make people aware of new ideas

2.Interpersonal communication
  channels are most important when
  evaluating a new practice or making
  a decision.
Communication Methods - new
   When people are just beginning to
    hear about a new practice, they
    don't actively seek much
    information about it.
   If mass media carry the message,
    they likely will hear about it that
    way.
   If friends know, they learn from
    them.
Communication Methods - new

   As a person learns more about an
    innovation and becomes seriously
    interested in adopting it,
    information-seeking increases
    across all channels.
       people talk to friends
       listen to media
       read all they can.
Communication methods - new(con’t)
   Mass media's highest use comes at this
    point, Scott P. Hays says, as does the
    highest level of interpersonal
    communication.
   Thus, the use of media and interpersonal
    sources is additive across the adoption
    process,
       rather than substitutive
       where one medium is best at one point in time,
        and other media preferred at other times.
Communication methods - new(con’t)

   In Silicon Valley, for example, most
    people first learned about
    computers from other people,
    rather than mass media.
   Hays says that may be because
    computers were such an important
    part of the business and lifestyle of
    the region.
Communication methods - new(con’t)
   Once people become interested, Hays
    says, they will search widely for relevant
    information.
       Information providers should be prepared to
        flood both mass media and interpersonal
        channels with information once an audience is
        interested.
   In the area of nutrition, Hays says there
    will be a high future need for information
    on nutrition once a person has been
    convinced to alter his or her diet to
    improve health.
“Teachable moments”

   Audiences are most interested in
    problems of domestic violence at
    the height of media coverage of
    celebrities.

   People want to know about planting
    a garden when warm spring
    weather arrives.
Understanding these steps


      Can help you plan your
   communications efficiently and
           effectively.
4 Step Process
   Research
     Fact-Finding and analysis


   Strategy
     Planning


   Communication
     Action


   Evaluation
      Review
    Media Audits

   Media Audits can help you discover
    why you aren’t getting the publicity
    you want.
   By telephone, email, postcards.
   Assemble a list of target media.
   Develop a few questions -- no more
    than five.
Media Audits, con’t

   Suggested media audit questions:
       Have you seen the kits we’ve been
        sending? Are they useful? How could
        they be more useful?
       Do you prefer to receive story ideas,
        releases or scripted features?
       Do you have any articles in the works
        about your area or product? Can we
        help you with them?
       Do you want to continue receiving our
        material?
Accountability
   Tracking Strategy
       Targeted – linked to promotion
       On-going
   Tracking Implementation
       In-house
          Assign personnel for tracking
          Invite all members of company to
           participate
          Make it fun!

       Vendors
    Accountability Tools
   Tracking Methods
       Clippings
       Web site hits
       TV/Radio mentions
       Blog mentions
       Program participants
       Forms submitted
       Taxes collected
       Visits
       Other
         
         
         
Accountability
   Valuation
       Track data, sales etc.

       Determine the amount of air time or
        press coverage.

       Determine comparable cost in paid
        advertising: air time, column inches, etc.
            Multiply that amount by three (because of
             credibility) to reach the final value of your
             coverage.
Issues Management

   Do’s
       Be prepared.
         Maintain relationships with key media
          year round to increase your chances of
          receiving fair coverage during a crisis.
         Provide on-air and issues pre-training for
          all key personnel.
         Identify core players in advance.
               Add to team as necessary
Public Relations
Issues Management
   Do’s
       Gather all the facts.
            Include as many key players as possible.
       Appoint a single spokesperson.
       Create a core message
          Make sure everyone involved knows and
           understands it.
          Stick to your core message
Public Relations
Issues Management
   Do’s
       Report your own bad news.
            If the media have to dig it out, it looks
             worse.
       Tell the whole story at once
            Avoids dragging out the coverage.
       Take responsibly for what has occurred if
        applicable.
            Apologize when at fault.
Public Relations
Issues Management

   Do’s     (continued)

       Be accessible to the media
            May keep them from going to less
             informed sources.
       Suggest other credible sources for the
        reporter to contact.
            Provide numbers, emails, etc.
Public Relations
Issues Management
   Don’ts
       Avoid saying no comment.

       Don’t attempt to place blame.

       Don’t speculate or give a personal
        observation. Release only confirmed facts.
Public Relations
Issues Management

   Don’ts   (continued)



       Don’t make off-the-record comments --
        there is no such thing in a crisis.

       Don’t respond to questions about
        rumors -- tell reporters you don’t
        respond to speculation or rumors as a
        matter of policy.
Public Relations
Issues Management
   Don’ts   (continued)

       Don’t repeat negative or inflammatory
        words. They could be attributed to
        you.

       Don’t use jargon that’s understood only
        by people in the industry.

       Don’t cherry-pick reporters – return all
        phone calls.
Accreditation

   Public Relations Society of America
       http://www.prsa.org/


            http://www.prsa.org/PD/apr/index.html?
             WT.ac=PD_APRTopNav

            http://www.praccreditation.org/becomeAP
             R/Written_Sub.html
Accreditation Testing
   RESEARCHING, PLANNING,
    IMPLEMENTING & EVALUATING
    PROGRAMS (30%)

   ETHICS AND LAW (15%)

   COMMUNICATION MODELS AND
    THEORIES (15%)
Accreditation Testing (con’t)
   BUSINESS LITERACY (10%)

   MANAGEMENT SKILLS & ISSUES (10%)

   CRISIS COMMUNICATION
    MANAGEMENT (10%)
Accreditation Testing (con’t)
   MEDIA RELATIONS (5%)

   USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
    EFFICIENTLY (2%)

   HISTORY OF AND CURRENT ISSUES IN
    PUBLIC RELATIONS (2%)

   ADVANCED COMMUNICATION SKILLS
    (1%)
         Presentation was:

   Prepared by Patrice Koerper

       United States Peace Corps Volunteer
       Working in the Opstina Bitola
       For ZELS
       May 14, 2008



         psserene@yahoo.com
Resources
   The Museum of Public Relations
       http://www.prmuseum.com/bernays/bernays_19
        15.html
   Wisconsin Department of Tourism
       http://www.travelwisconsin.com/
   Patton Public Relations, PPt.
       Unviersity Heights, Ohio, USA
   Entrepreneur.com
       http://www.entrepreneur.com/marketing/publicr
        elations/index.html
Resources

   Institute for Public Relations
       http://www.instituteforpr.org/
   Public Relations Society of America
       http://www.prsa.org/
   International Public Relations
    Society
       http://www.ipra.org/
Resources

   The International Association of
    Business Communicators
       http://www.iabc.com/
   Council of Public Relations
       http://www.prfirms.org/
   Arthur W. Page Society
       http://www.awpagesociety.com/site/about/backg
        round/
Resources

   Grunig, J. E. (2001).
       The role of public relations in
        management and its contribution to
        organizational and societal
        effectiveness.
            Speech presented in Taipei, Taiwan.
         http://www.instituteforpr.com/pr_and_ management.phtml
Resources

• Effective Public Relations (9th
  Edition) - Scott M. Cutlip, Allen H.
  Center, and Glen M. Broom
  (Paperback - 2006)

   http://www.extension.umn.edu/proj
    ects/extcom/planning.html
Resources

   University of Memphis
       http://www.csub.edu/~dsimmons2/co
        m305/chapter%2005-Lattimore.ppt
       Public Relations: The Profession and
        the Practice
           Chapter 5: Research Strategies in Public
            Relations
Thank you!


             Благодарам

								
To top